The transformation and development of cities in the era of globalization

  Type of urban evolution
  from Shanghai high-speed rail ride north, along the rushing of continuous urban agglomerations. Suzhou has a population of 11 million. If added together with Shanghai, which has a population of 24 million, it is already more than any other city currently ranked in the world. Traveling through this huge urban sprawl area, you can feel that this is a cluster of neighboring or connected towns, fully integrated. Endless tall buildings, endless factories, or roads that have been opened to traffic and new areas to be developed, the countryside is quickly encroached on, and villages and farmland (greenhouses) are just embedded in them. Passing through Suzhou, Wuxi and Changzhou, after passing Zhenjiang, there are hills and fields, and Nanjing is a prosperous place. Once crossing the Yangtze River, in Anhui, there are large natural landscapes, boundless farmland, simple villages, and tower-shaped tombs on the farmers’ own land, and in the winter, the leaves fall out of the forest. There are only eye-catching bird nests near and far in the forest. Hefei is another climax. There are construction sites everywhere, and the surrounding counties are small in scale, and there are many tall buildings from a distance. Heading south from Shanghai, crossing the Qiantang River through Hangzhou to Shaoxing and Ningbo to the east, there are also huge and dense urban agglomerations along the way…
  Sir Peter Hall divides the world’s cities into three categories: one is Developed countries are “mature cities that deal with aging”. These cities are characterized by a stable or declining population, slow economic growth and transformation, and resources to deal with environmental issues; the first category is “to deal with informal over-limit development” “Cities” include many cities in sub-Saharan Africa and the Indian subcontinent, most of the Islamic Middle East cities, and certain impoverished cities in Latin America and the Caribbean. They are characterized by rapid population growth (including migration and natural growth). ), the economy is heavily dependent on informal industries, poverty is very common, basic problems such as the environment and public health are prominent, and management is difficult; there is another category of “cities coping with struggling growth”, mainly distributed in East Asia, Latin America, the Caribbean and the Middle East. Most cities in China belong to this type, which is characterized by the decline in the total population growth rate, and some cities are still facing the prospect of aging; but these cities are still experiencing rapid economic growth, and they are also facing the environmental and environmental problems brought about by economic growth. Other social issues. [1]

  If analyzed from the perspective of globalization history, development stage and evolution mechanism, cities in developed countries in Europe and the United States can be called advanced evolutionary cities. Of course there are also differences. Taking Britain and the United States as an example, British cities are characterized by civil society, pioneering industrialization, global allocation of resources, overseas colonization and immigration; what we see is the organic combination of history and modernity, compact streets, prosperous urban centers, and fields. Homesickness; the urban system (industry, population, transportation) is reasonably configured; London is a world city, and other small cities are network nodes. Tourist cities such as Windsor and Bath, educational cities such as Oxford and Cambridge, shopping such as Bicester, have a clear division of labor. Because of the first move, the British cities can be transformed, such as Manchester and Liverpool. Liverpool was the first port for the slave trade, and Manchester was the birthplace of the Industrial Revolution. These cities have gone from glory to decline, and now they have become very pleasant. If the cities have age, they should belong to the wise middle-aged and elderly stage, with profound experience, exquisiteness and vitality. Hundreds of years of buildings in these cities have been left behind. The streets were built before the automobile, with a relatively narrow scale, suitable for walking, shopping, and leisure travel. In many cities in developing countries, a large number of new cities are still young people in terms of age. They need to eat a lot of high-calorie food every day, eat more and excrete more to maintain growth; because the body grows fast and the clothes are not enough Larger, you need to continuously splice patches to expand the volume of the city. Those aging and smart cities do not need to be so anxious. All the things they retain are capital goods and valuable good things. It can survive gracefully in the process of globalization by adding a little energy. This type of city can be said to be a better interpretation of the whole process of urban development.
  Unlike British cities, urban development in the United States is mainly accelerated under the conditions of automobileization. It is characterized by a short history, standardized assembly line production, private cars, and urban sprawl. Under the global layout, it has formed a world city as the headquarters of multinational companies. After all, the United States is an immigrant country, and it does not rely on the colonies of the world to allocate resources like the United Kingdom. Many multinational companies set up factories all over the world and set up their headquarters in the United States. This has made major American cities grow into a headquarters economy, and their finance and trade serve this purpose. A major feature of American cities is that they allocate resources from a global perspective, while China may have its own industrial system in every province or even some local cities. Since every industry in the United States is configured from the perspective of globalization, it can make the market size of a product or service very large; if the market covers the entire United States, it is likely to have competition in the world Advantage. The globalization of the United States is the foundation that supports its industrial system and urban system.
  A large number of cities in other developing countries can be collectively called evolution-following and face various development difficulties. Urbanization in developing countries basically occurred before the completion of industrialization, and large cities concentrated large numbers of people. For example, Cairo, Egypt, has few traffic lights and serious traffic jams. There are only three rail transit lines in the entire city, and the total length of the subway is less than 80 kilometers. The Cairo government stipulates that as long as the house is not fully completed, it is not necessary to pay taxes, so buildings that have not been roofed for years can be seen everywhere in the city. Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia, built on a plateau at an altitude of 2,300 meters, lacks infrastructure. The airport terminal is simple like a giant workshop, and the undulating land is scattered with white leather houses inhabited by the poor. The city is like a large construction site, where construction is in full swing. Around the low shantytowns, new commercial centers are taking shape, and large tracts of new residential communities are being built. The light rail system was built by China Railway Engineering Corporation. Starting from the old city, it stretches east and south, supporting the framework of this huge future city. 30 kilometers southeast of Addis Ababa, it is the first industrial park “Eastern Industrial Park” established in Ethiopia. The road inside the park is wide, with office buildings, steel, medicine, textiles and clothing, and automobile manufacturing lined up on both sides. The factory buildings of such enterprises. Dubai, a highly-identified city, has an area of ​​only 4114 square kilometers, but it almost superimposes human imagination about modernization. Only 200 years ago, there began to be records of villages here; in more than half a century, the urban construction area of ​​Dubai has increased by 400 times; after another 20 years of development, the population has doubled from more than 200,000, but 80 % Is a foreigner. Dubai Airport is the busiest air transfer station in the Middle East, with a throughput of 83.65 million passengers in 2016. The city is full of buildings with “post-modern” aesthetic interest and exaggeration, such as the seven-star sailing hotel (with gilded door handles and toilet seats) and the 828-meter-high Burj Khalifa, the tallest building in the world. , From a high altitude overlooking the Palm Island like a palm tree… all of them are breathtaking. However, just an ebb of globalization has caused Dubai, where the real economy is scarce, to stagger, housing prices plummeted and investors withdrew.
  Among the evolving team, China’s urbanization appears to be quite characteristic: integration into the global division of labor, becoming a manufacturing factory, huge population flow, urban and rural dual household registration system design, land finance, local government competition, and major construction and development Districts, infrastructure, overcapacity and serious emissions. Among them, government promotion is the main feature of China’s urbanization model, which is of course related to the nature of land ownership. Although economically speaking, the efficiency of such a land system is relatively low, but in other respects this efficiency has been made up for. For example, after the global financial crisis, tens of millions of migrant workers were laid off and returned to their hometowns, but as long as there was a piece of land in the family to live and grow, it would not cause huge social unrest. Furthermore, with so much land controlled by the state, it is possible to freely engage in infrastructure construction, so that many places that were previously impossible to reach in the market have been touched, and the originally idle production factors can be traded and generate value. Such a market is slowly formed under government intervention or state governance, which is different from the genesis of the market described in textbooks. It implies a logic of Chinese historical tradition, that is, the governance of the country comes first. A country with a huge volume like China, with uneven regional development and frequent natural disasters, has had an inherent demand for the state to provide public goods since ancient times. The state’s provision of infrastructure is of great significance for eliminating market segmentation and forming a unified market. The “soft” public goods of the land public ownership system reduce transaction costs for public infrastructure and urban construction across the country.