Classic troublemaker

  The Nobel Prize winner Peter Handeck combines world reputation with thousands of slanders. He is hailed as a “living classic” and “the best German writer”, but also as a “right-wing writer” and even a “Nazi”. “. The German weekly magazine Der Spiegel questioned: “Is Handke a political reactionary or a great writer who provoked the collective will?” The New York Times questioned: “Is Handke a literary genius, a denier of the Holocaust, or Both?” The mixed and inconsistent controversy stems from Handke’s rebellious words and deeds. Since the 1960s, he has cursed audiences, German literary circles, Western media, critics, and Nobel Prize judges. , Returned the Bischner Prize for Literature, refused to receive the Heine Prize, accepted the International Ibsen Prize but refused to accept the prize, supported Serbia, denied the Serb “slaughter”, participated in the funeral of the “war criminal” Milosevic, criticized NATO’s hypocrisy and Bullying, who hasn’t changed his “angry youth” character after more than a few years ago, can be called a “classic troublemaker”.
  In 2019, the Handicapped Toad Palace, which had been “accompanying the run” for many years, won the Nobel Prize and got what he wanted. However, whether or not the penalties came one after another, and the controversy over whether literature should be measured by political and moral factors continued to ferment. Many heads of state, media magnates, well-known writers and scholars have condemned the award of the Nobel Prize to Handke as “an absurd and shameful decision.” Although the winners of the Nobel Prize in Literature over the years have not been immune to criticism, it is indeed rare to stir up an uproar like Handeck, triggering condemnation and even protests around the world.
  For Handke, outside pursuit or doubt is not enough. He has always regarded himself as a “rule violator”, and firmly believes that whether as a writer or as a person, he should break the cage of fixed rules, step outside the “boundary of law”, and explore “another kind” in thinking and reflection. Reality” to achieve the goal of “knowing yourself constantly”. He knows well: “If there is no self, there is no literature, and there is no poetry.” For this reason, he refused to reconcile with this hypocritical world in any way: “Why should I reconcile? I want to give the world what I have, I want to give, my way is to narrate, that is to write.” The unruly Handke adheres to the essence of literature with sharpness, compassion and meticulousness.
  In 1966, the young Handke made his first appearance in the literary world and participated in the gathering of the famous German literary group “Siqishe” at Princeton University in the United States. He frankly but not without provocatively accused Siegfried who was present at the time. Rentz, Günter Grass and other famous literary figures have conservative themes and stale language, and denounced German literature as “weak and incompetent”, “pale and weak” and “worthless”. If this speech is only an oral essay from Handke’s crusade against the German literary world, then his debut novel “Bumblebee” is like a “stinger” that stings into the “canonical” narrative of the German literary world. A work that makes readers at a loss what to do at the beginning”, it is anti-structure, anti-plot, anti-characterization form, constantly changing the narrative perspective, inspiring readers to think carefully about the content of the story, reconstructing self-perception and judgment. In the same year, “Swearing at the Audience” was an “anti-drama” without the storyline and times of traditional dramas, nor with dramatic characters, events, and dialogue. It was a “definite farewell” to the German literary tradition-intended to alienate and share traditions. The value resources of the world, breaking away from the moral core of national consciousness, fighting against the taboos of historical discourse, questioning the “meaning” imposed by the outside, digging new themes in the inner space and spiritual dimension, opening up new forms, opening up new depths, and shouldering The important task of pushing German fiction to the world again. Handke’s “great rebelliousness” and his creation provoked a great debate on “Where should German literature go” and heralded the end of the mission of the “Siqisheshe” spiritual community of the “post-war generation”. In 1967, the “Forty Seven Society”, which had lasted for twenty years, ceased all literary activities, and announced the opening of a new chapter in the German literary world.
  In the play “Caspar” in 1968, Handke continued to reflect and criticize the language that prescribes the order of individual existence, declaring: “Entering language means accepting a form of expression and The meaning system enters into an already existing order, accepts an alien ideology, a given value and moral system, and the process of learning language is actually a process of losing self and subjectivity. “Personal plain, Perceptual language is inevitably disciplined and transformed by the “common language”, identifying with the language controlled by political and cultural capital. In fact, Benedict Anderson has already regarded language as a sign of identity and an important way of nationalist cultural construction in “Imagined Community: The Origin and Spread of Nationalism”. It is pointed out that every nation-state hopes to unify language codes and codes as much as possible, so as to control people’s life, imagination and aesthetics, and finally realize a single “homogenization”. Therefore, in Handke’s view, German “exile literature”, “ruin literature”, and “reconstruction literature” are all gliding within the old language narrative system, and to a large extent are used to demonstrate the post-war Germany. “Political correctness”, or directly involved in the legitimacy construction of the “political practice” in the new Germany, provides a specimen of political fiction for contemporary literary circles. In the specific language operation, it is manifested in the striking similarity of moralistic vocabulary judgments, only a set of nominal humanitarian core vocabulary instead of authoritarian violence vocabulary, and the real “humanity”, “freedom”, “justice” and other discourse appeals are just one The empty shell is difficult to unfold in the text in the old literary narrative. Therefore, only by regaining the meaning of words in the real experience and using the intensity and explosiveness of another literary narrative to destroy the language and expressions left by Nazi Germany, the heat and temperature can provide people with the world and the The most intuitive and close expression of the social system and emotional system behind it; “Imagining a language means imagining a way of life.” As Wittgenstein said, Handke’s creation aims to escape the fate of being constantly “disciplined” and “standardized” between literature and reality. Comparing reality to “a ghost, which appears in front of people and is considered to be real, but in fact it is only created by language.” The biggest drawback of traditional fictional narration is “fictionalizing a world that seems to be real. Introduce readers into falsehoods”, “receive a hypocritical and disgusting moral indoctrination without thoughts and judgments”. The most fundamental task of literature is to “pierce this deception, and dispel the false and fictional stories of reality. The falsity of the novel is displayed in front of readers, prompting people to think.” For this reason, Handke hopes to “destroy all the fixed world images that seem to be taken for granted” through literary creation, re-establish the close connection between life, language, and writing, and reshape the call and expectation of a free inner life. . Throughout the mid and late 1960s, each of Handke’s works became a major event, and its influence showed an acceleration spiral upward trend, and quickly and effectively replaced the so-called “post-war literature” that was burdened by history.
  In the 1970s, Handker’s literary creations gradually abandoned radical linguistic criticism and formal experiments, seemingly showing a tendency to move closer to realism and return to traditional narratives. In fact, the vanguard in the bone refuses to pack deliberately. This kind of “retreat” is a gesture of lowering the body and actively approaching the opponent, a way of saying “short-handedly” with traditional literature, and a kind of “close-fitting” with traditional literature concepts. “Hand-to-hand combat” is clearly a retrograde on the traditional road. Whether it’s the “New Subjectivity” novels such as “Goalkeeper’s Anxiety Facing Penalties”, “Farewell”, “A Moment of Real Feelings” in the 1970s and 1980s, or “new subjectivity” novels that have revealed the human disaster since the 1990s. “The Dreamer Says Goodbye to the Ninth Kingdom”, “A Moment of Strangeness”, criticizing the power of Western media discourse, “A Winter Trip to the Danube, Sava, Morava, and Drina Rivers or Justice for Serbia”, and “Trial Discussion Autobiographical works such as “Mushroom Crazy”, Handke’s writing focus has always focused on the lack and search for living space. The simple storyline and the “reality reference” described by the external environment are used to highlight the presence of the subject. A “survival dilemma in a ruled, chaotic world and the network of relationships that entangle him”. His novels, especially the so-called novels since the late 1970s, have cancelled the narrative integrity, closedness, and purity of “genre”, breaking through the “external boundaries” of novels in the traditional sense.