How to prevent and treat high-risk groups during influenza season

  Influenza (influenza for short) is a viral acute respiratory infection caused by influenza viruses (type A, B, and C). It is mainly spread through the respiratory tract through droplets or aerosols, but also through direct or indirect contact with mucous membranes in the mouth, nasal cavity, and eyes. Contact with patients’ respiratory secretions, body fluids and items contaminated by the virus can also be transmitted. Influenza A has a rapid onset, rapid spread, and a wide range, with an infection rate of 50%. It often causes outbreaks or epidemics in densely populated areas (schools, nurseries, etc.). Influenza B and C have low virulence and limited spread.
  The incubation period of influenza is generally 1 to 7 days, and most patients will have corresponding symptoms 2 to 4 days after infection. Among them, influenza is mainly divided into simple influenza, pneumonia influenza, poisoning influenza, and gastrointestinal influenza. The specific symptoms are as follows:
  simple influenza is mostly sudden onset, with chills and high fever, and the body temperature can reach 39-40 ℃ , Accompanied by headaches, body aches, extreme fatigue, loss of appetite and other systemic symptoms, as well as dry cough, nasal congestion, runny nose, facial flushing, etc. If the patient has no other complications, the body temperature will gradually subside 3 to 4 days after the onset, and the systemic symptoms will improve, but it will take about 1 week for the cough and physical strength to recover. Mild influenza is similar to the common cold, with mild symptoms and can be recovered in about 3 days.
  Pneumonia type influenza is essentially complicated by influenza virus pneumonia, which is more common in the elderly, children and people with existing heart and lung diseases. The main clinical manifestations of such patients are persistent high fever, severe cough, hemoptysis or purulent sputum, shortness of breath, cyanosis, and wet rales in the lungs. The chest radiograph showed scattered flocculent shadows in both lungs, sputum culture showed no growth of pathogenic bacteria, and influenza virus could be isolated. Severe patients may die from respiratory and circulatory failure.
  Toxic influenza is clinically manifested as severe symptoms such as high fever, shock, respiratory failure, and central nervous system damage. Such patients have a higher mortality rate.
  In addition to fever, patients with gastrointestinal influenza may also experience symptoms such as vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. Most of them are children and can recover in about 3 days.
  The spread of influenza is very strong, and high-risk groups (children, pregnant women, and the elderly) must strengthen prevention and control. The main preventive measures are as follows:
  First of all, parents should pay attention to the infectious disease air defense warning information of the local disease prevention and control center and the notice of the school, and take the children for influenza vaccination in time. Secondly, in the high flu season, you should try not to take your children to some public places with poor air circulation and dense population. For children who have already suffered from influenza, they should be able to recuperate at home, maintain adequate sleep, drink plenty of water, and eat a light, digestible, nutritious semi-liquid or liquid diet, so as to better promote the recovery of the disease. In addition, it should be ensured that the children’s bedroom has enough sunlight, and the windows should be opened for ventilation for 10 minutes every one or two hours, and the household items should be disinfected regularly.
  Pregnant and lying-in women must first maintain good hygiene habits, drink plenty of water, eat some easier to digest and nutritious food, and ensure enough sleep. Secondly, during the prevention and treatment of influenza, pregnant women must wash their hands frequently, pay attention to the cleanliness and ventilation of the room, try not to go to crowded places, and cover their mouth and nose with toilet paper when sneezing. Patients who have developed respiratory infections should go to the hospital for treatment in time. In addition, pregnant and lying-in women should also be vaccinated against influenza during the high influenza season, which can reduce the incidence of influenza. Pregnant women who already have influenza should use antiviral drugs preventively if they come into contact with a suspected or confirmed influenza A infection.
  The elderly are more susceptible to respiratory diseases, so they are usually severely ill after being infected with the flu, the disease progresses quickly, and the chance of developing pneumonia is higher than that of young adults. During the flu season, the elderly should avoid going to public places, take a break, drink plenty of water, and wear a mask when going out. In the flu season, you should pay attention to exercise more and get some sun exposure, so as to effectively improve your own resistance. Don’t put your hopes on “health products”. It should be noted that in the process of preventing influenza, the elderly are also recommended to inject vaccines, because this is the most effective way of prevention. Elderly people who are already suffering from influenza must go to the hospital for treatment in time to prevent further aggravation of the disease and cause a series of other complications.