Early screening of lung nodules, low-dose spiral CT is preferred

  There have been more and more lung cancer patients in recent years. Part of the early stage of lung cancer is nodules (nodules may also be benign lesions, and malignant nodules account for 30% to 40%). At this time, patients often do not have any discomfort. If the nodules can be found at this time, because the smaller the nodules, the more treatment methods, the better the treatment effect. Therefore, regular physical examinations are necessary. A considerable part of patients with early stage lung cancer are found during physical examinations.
  How to screen? You will find that if you search for “lung cancer screening”, there will be a variety of methods on the Internet, including routine physical examination items such as chest X-ray and serum tumor markers, as well as high-end PET-CT and genetic testing. On the project. But in fact, these screening methods are not as effective as low-dose spiral CT regardless of the price. You must have questions. What is the difference between low-dose CT and ordinary CT? Does the hospital produce a low dose just to make more money? Don’t worry, after listening to my introduction, you will understand the doctor’s good intentions.
  CT is electronic computer tomography, which uses precisely collimated X-ray beams, gamma rays, ultrasound, etc., together with a very sensitive detector to scan a certain part of the human body one by one, with fast scanning time, The clear image and other features can be used for inspection of a variety of diseases. The low-dose spiral CT is CT with a relatively low radiation dose.
  For lung cancer, CT screening is more sensitive, and the effect is far better than X-ray chest radiographs (chest nodules generally have to develop to 1.5 to 2 cm in size before they can be revealed in X-ray films, and some special nodules are in The image only appears as patchy or frosted glass shadow, which can not be found by X-ray inspection). However, the radiation of conventional CT is relatively large and expensive, so it is not suitable for screening large-scale populations. It was not until the 1990s that low-dose spiral CT (LDCT) came into being that really brought about a change. Compared with conventional CT, the radiation dose of low-dose CT is reduced by 75% to 90%, and the inspection cost is also lower. In our daily life, the human body receives radiation from the surrounding environment every day. The average natural radiation dose of the Chinese is 3 mSv/year, while the recognized effective dose of low-dose spiral CT is 1 mSv. The current high-end dual-source CT chest low-dose scan in hospitals can be as low as 0.1 mSv. An annual inspection will not cause any impact on the human body.
  Doctors recommend low-dose CT to screen for lung nodules. In addition to the low radiation dose, it also overcomes some of the weaknesses of chest X-rays, including the ability to find tiny lesions of a few millimeters, as well as very difficult tumors. More early resectable lung cancers can be found in high-risk groups, reducing the mortality of advanced lung cancer. Statistics in the United States show that early lung cancer accounts for 85% of cancers detected by low-dose CT, and many people have no symptoms at all. At the same time, the overall 10-year survival rate of screened lung cancer patients is as high as 80%; if surgery can be performed in time, the overall 10-year survival rate is as high as 92%. In 2011, the results of a randomized controlled study of the National Lung Cancer Screening Trial in the United States showed that compared with taking a chest X-ray, the use of low-dose CT to screen high-risk lung cancer patients can reduce lung cancer mortality by 20%.
  The “Expert Consensus on Low-Dose Spiral CT Lung Cancer Screening” recommends that the following high-risk groups should use low-dose CT for lung cancer screening: age 50 to 75 years old; at least one of the following risk factors: ①Smoking ≥20 packs/year, among them Including people who have ever smoked but quit smoking for less than 15 years; ②passive smokers; ③have occupational exposure history (asbestos, beryllium, uranium, radon, etc.); ④have a history of malignant tumors or a family history of lung cancer; ⑤have chronic obstructive History of lung disease or diffuse pulmonary fibrosis.
  It is worth mentioning that patients who screen for small lung nodules do not need to be nervous or anxious. Generally speaking, small lung nodules such as pulmonary fibrous foci and inflammatory nodules are benign nodules, while micro-invasive adenocarcinoma and invasive adenocarcinoma are considered malignant nodules. Clinically, the benign rate of small lung nodules is about 80%. For benign nodules, you can “press the soldiers”, follow up regularly, and leave a chest CT film every year. Through comparison, you can grasp the biological characteristics of each small nodule in time, and observe whether it is developing or static, and whether there is aggressive behavior, etc. Take measures in time. If diagnosed as malignant, minimally invasive thoracoscopic surgery can be performed.