”Death or disability” is the deepest impression left by a stroke, and it is even worse if it recurs. Recently, a joint study by the University of Oxford and the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences found that within 5 years of the first stroke of Chinese patients, the risk of recurrence is as high as 41%.
The study followed up 500,000 Chinese adults for 9 years and found that among the patients who had a stroke for the first time and were alive at 28 days, an average of 40% relapsed within 5 years, with a mortality rate of 17%. Among them, the recurrence rates of patients with ischemic stroke, cerebral hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and unclassified stroke were 41%, 44%, 22%, and 40%, respectively. Guo Yanjun, chief physician of the Department of Neurology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, said that stroke is an acute-onset chronic disease that is caused by the accumulation of risk factors such as arteriosclerosis, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, smoking, heavy drinking, and atrial fibrillation. Sudden cerebrovascular obstruction or rupture. The clinical symptoms in the acute phase can be eliminated through treatment, but the pathological basis itself has not disappeared, and the damage to the cerebral blood vessels is irreversible. Therefore, after a stroke is cured, it may relapse at any time. Multiple relapses are also common, resulting in higher damage, disability and mortality.
Currently, most studies believe that 6 months after the first stroke is the stage with the highest risk of recurrence. Usually 90 days after the first stroke, the cerebrovascular disease enters a stable phase, and the chance of another stroke will gradually decrease. However, from a clinical point of view, some patients whose living habits have not been actively improved, discontinuing medication without authorization, and elderly stroke patients due to factors such as aging, will have a higher risk of recurrence in the next 5 years or even longer. Therefore, the key to preventing stroke recurrence is to be vigilant at all times. There are four specific points to be done: control risk factors, improve unhealthy lifestyles, adhere to drug treatment and regular review, avoid recurrence predisposing factors, and be alert to early symptoms of recurrence.
Studies have shown that women are more likely to have twins in their 30s
According to a recent report by the Physicists Organization Network, a new international collaborative study conducted by researchers from Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States shows that as a result of an evolutionary response to the decline in embryo vitality, women are more likely to become pregnant in their 30s. Egg twins.
Women are more likely to be pregnant with twins in the middle of their reproductive life, but the reason behind it has always been an unsolved mystery. Now, in the journal Nature, Ecology and Evolution, researchers have explained the evolutionary history behind this phenomenon.
Joseph Tomkins, an associate professor in the School of Biological Sciences at the University of Western Australia, said: “Dual ovulation-that is, the frequency of releasing two eggs in a menstrual cycle continues to evolve to maintain female fertility. Our latest research shows that as a pair of The evolutionary response related to the decline in embryo vitality, as women age, the possibility of releasing two eggs also increases.”
In the past few decades, due to the improvement of assisted pregnancy technology, the improvement of nutrition and the delay of childbearing age, many countries , The frequency of fraternal twins has increased. To explain how the birth rate of twins rises and falls with the age of the mother, Tomkins and his colleague Robert Black collaborated with researchers from Diebold University in the United States and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine in the United Kingdom to use mathematical methods for modeling. They found that most women may release two eggs at the end of their reproductive life, but only a small percentage of them conceive and give birth to twins.
Tomkins said: “This study we conducted proves that in ancestral groups, evolution tends to choose two eggs to be released, but only one child is born. This shows that fraternal twins are a by-product of fertility selection, not an increase. A way to give birth to the population.” The
researchers said that as more women postpone the age of childbearing, the proportion of fraternal twins is also increasing. This study provides important insights into how evolution has affected modern life.