The earliest masks that played a sanitary role, according to records, may be traced back to the Yuan Dynasty in my country.
In 1275 AD, Marco Polo, a famous Italian traveler, came to China and saw that the people serving the emperor in the Yuan Dynasty palace were covered with a layer of silk cloth. At that time, the Yuan dynasty believed that the exhaled breath might contaminate the food and cause the emperor to become ill, so it was covered with silk cloth. It must be said that such a sense of prevention can be said to be very advanced.
However, trainees in this mask industry can only be used in the palace. After all, the cost is too expensive. According to the record in Marco Polo, the silk cloth is made of silk and gold silk, and ordinary people still don’t use it. Up.
17th century: beak mask
If silk cloth is the origin of facial protection in the east, the beak mask should be the beginning of the mask used for hygiene protection in the west.
In the 17th century, when the Black Death struck Europe again, a group of plague doctors wearing beak masks appeared. The standard configuration of the plague doctors is a black coat, a beak mask, a hat and a long walking stick. To be honest, this dress looks less like a doctor, but more like an incarnation of death.
Of course, wearing a plague doctor like this naturally has a meaning behind it. The Black Death is highly contagious. At that time, doctors believed that the virus was spread through malodorous air, so blocking odor is the key to blocking the virus. The beak mask was born, which was filled with a variety of spices such as ambergris, melissa, spearmint, camphor, clove, rose petals and Su Hexiang, which is absolutely aromatic.
But in fact, the protective effect of this mask is very limited. After all, the virus is not really spread by the smell, and at the time, in order to facilitate ventilation, a few holes were poked in the beak.
Whether it is a Yuan Dynasty gauze or a bird’s beak mask, although they were masks made by ancient people with a sense of protection, they did not really play a role in blocking bacteria.
1897: Gauze disinfection mask
If you want to block bacteria, you must first find bacteria. The inventor of the pasteurization method, French microbiologist Louis Pasteur passed the famous gooseneck experiment in 1861, proving the existence of biological bacteria in the air. But at that time, although the medical community began to sterilize all surgical supplies, it did not protect the mouth and nose. Doctors say a few words during the operation, it may cause infection of the patient.
It wasn’t until 1897 that a German surgeon, Jan Mikulitz Radci, finally discovered the fact that droplets could also spread bacteria, and began to promote a gauze disinfectant mask that could cover the mouth and nose. This mask is also known as Mikuriz’s mask, and is the first documented medical mask in modern times.
The first paragraph is not necessarily the best, the biggest problem is: panic.
In 1899, a British surgeon started DIY, installing fine iron wire in the gauze, leaving a gap between the gauze and the nose and mouth, overcoming the weakness of poor breathing.
Subsequently, a French surgeon Paul Berti discovered that only a mask with at least six layers of gauze can effectively prevent the spread of oral droplets. He first sewed a 6-layer gauze mask on the surgical gown. When he wanted to use it, he turned it up to cover his mouth and nose, and put it on the collar if he didn’t want to use it. Sewing on the collar seems convenient, but in fact it still has a lot of defects, and you still need to press it with your hand while wearing the mask. Later, on this basis, he came up with the idea of stitching two straps to his ears. Basically, the prototype of the modern mask was born.
The mask has been invented after several wave conversions, but it is also limited to medical personnel. But to really make masks popular, it still needs some big events.
For example, the popularity of Chinese masks began with the Northeast Plague in 1910. In the face of the death of tens of thousands of people due to the plague, Wu Liande, deputy supervisor of the Tianjin Military Medical College, developed a Wu mask after implementing a series of measures.
Compared with foreign medical masks at that time, this kind of mask was simpler to make and the materials were easy to obtain. It was mainly a piece of absorbent cotton sandwiched between two layers of medical gauze. Wu Liande used manpower and material resources to mass-produce such masks for the public, which was quickly accepted by the public.
The popularity of masks worldwide is due to the Spanish flu that swept the world in 1918. After three rounds of transmission, a total of 1 billion people have been infected worldwide. In order to fight against the epidemic, people were obliged to wear masks, and masks began to be popularized.
At the same time, in the 1950s, the smog incident in London was considered to be the most serious pollution incident in British history. The smog caused 4,000 deaths and more than 100,000 people were affected by respiratory diseases.
The mask came forward again and was extended to the field of dust and haze.
In this way, the modern face mask experienced several outbreaks of historical events, and was continuously born with innovation and innovation. To this day, people wear masks to decorate when there is nothing to do, and when there is something to do, the mask is even a layer of reassuring Vajra masks.
Even after the outbreak, netizens have put on masks on their social media avatars to provide peace of mind.
So far, the evolution of masks has not stopped. As for the future masks, you can look forward to it.
Since the outbreak of the new coronary pneumonia outbreak, a drug originally developed by Gilead in the United States, originally used to fight Ebola virus, “redxive” has suddenly received attention-because it was found to have a certain effect on new coronary pneumonia, the drug was once It is regarded as a “magic medicine” for the treatment of new coronary pneumonia. On June 29th local time, Gilead announced the pricing of Red West, and many Americans exclaimed: Can’t afford it!
According to a report by the Washington Post on June 30, according to Gilead’s pricing, each American patient with private insurance would pay $520 for a dose of redcive, which means they completed a 5-day, A total of 6 doses of treatment costs 3120 USD. Patients with government medical insurance need to pay $2340 for a course of treatment, of which the unit price of each dose is $390.
Gilead CEO Daniel Oday said in an open letter that, considering that Redcive can shorten the hospitalization period of patients, the per capita savings in medical expenses are $12,000, and the current pricing is “well below” the actual value of the drug.
A doctor interviewed by the Associated Press said that for a drug that does not reduce mortality, such as ridxivir, the price is indeed high. The doctor also pointed out that Gilead used a lot of US taxpayer money in the research and development process, so the government should take over the production of the drug and distribute the drug to patients for free. An attorney of the US consumer rights group “Public Citizen” said that Gilead has used at least $70 million in public financial funds in the development of redcive.
Current clinical trials from China and the United States have found that Ridesivir has a relatively limited effect on new coronary pneumonia, which can shorten the hospital stay of patients by about 30%, but has no significant effect on reducing mortality. Despite this, the drug is still officially recognized and approved by the United States because of its effectiveness.
On the Twitter of overseas social platforms, a large number of American netizens and some American politicians also expressed strong dissatisfaction with the price of Redcive. Federal Senator Bernie Sanders said that a $15 billion company that priced a drug that was developed a year ago more than $3,000, this “greedy” behavior must be stopped. This post and posts on similar topics received a lot of retweets and likes. These dissatisfaction made Gilead on the Twitter hot topic list.
However, some Americans who support Gilead believe that the efficacy of ridxivir can shorten the length of hospitalization of patients is worth this price, and if the drug is free, the pharmaceutical company will no longer have the incentive to develop drugs in the future.