Chinese and American scientists have recently announced the most accurate map of the Milky Way structure they have drawn so far, with a scale of 100,000 × 100,000 light years, including the distance and volition of nearly 200 massive stars on the silver disk, the position of the solar system and its orbit The speed of rotation of the center of the Milky Way. This structure chart of the Milky Way clearly outlines that the Milky Way is a barred spiral galaxy with four spiral arms, which basically solves the question of how many spiral arms the Milky Way has. This is a long-standing outstanding scientific problem in astronomy. The four main swing arms are the Immortal Arm, the Centaur-Bottom Arm, the Ruler Arm and the Shield-Centaur Arm. At the beginning of the 21st century, some astronomers from China, the United States, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, South Korea, Japan and other countries planned to establish a scientific plan to use a very long baseline interference array with the equivalent aperture size as the diameter of the earth. The geometric triangle parallax method directly measures the distance and self-propagation of the maser source in the massive stars on the silver disk. Combined with the maser source measured by other teams in the world, the distance and self-property of nearly 200 massive stars in the Milky Way are obtained.
Delay aging, let telomeres “reverse growth”
A research team in the United States has successfully discovered small molecules that can restore the length of telomeres in mice by screening more than 100,000 known chemicals, and has made breakthrough progress in anti-aging research. Telomeres are “little hats” at the ends of chromosomes, which can prevent the “wear” of the genetic DNA code, which is crucial in the process of biological health and aging. But each time the cells divide, they become shorter, until the cells no longer divide and die. In 2015, scientists discovered a gene that has a crucial role for telomerase—PARN, which can stabilize TERC, an important component of telomerase. If it is mutated, it will cause less production of telomerase, which leads to Telomeres shorten prematurely. Now, researchers have found a way to protect the healthy function of PARP, that is, to inhibit an enzyme called PAPD5. Animal experiments found that implanting human blood stem cells with mutations in the PRN gene into mice treated with the compound can restore the telomere length of the stem cells without any adverse effects on the animals. Researchers expect to use this compound to develop a new class of drugs that can delay aging.
Interstellar “immigration” in asteroids
French and Brazilian scientists used supercomputers to accurately simulate the orbit of the centaur asteroid between Jupiter and Neptune, and found that 19 asteroids orbited other stars before joining the solar system. This suggests that interstellar objects may be more common in the solar system than we think. So far, scientists have discovered and confirmed only two interstellar objects in the solar system: “1I/Aomo” who “appeared” in October 2017 and then left, and “2I/Borisov” who appeared “at the end of August 2019” “. In the long history of the solar coefficient of one billion years, “outsiders” often break into it. Some interstellar objects are only “passers” of the solar system, but some interstellar objects will settle down and orbit the sun. So, how did these 19 asteroids “migrate”? The researchers speculate that in the star cluster where the sun was born, the sun is very close to another star, generating a strong gravitational force between each other, causing the star systems to capture asteroids.