Turpan is a treasure in northwestern China, located in eastern Xinjiang. It is a historical paradise of multi-ethnic, multicultural and multi-religious coexistence. It is known as “open-air museum”, “fire island” and “land of grapes” by the world. With many beautiful honours, it is an extraordinary place that gathers many miracles in one body, as well as places of historic interest and monuments such as Jiaohe Old Town, Gaochang Ancient City, Beze Creek Thousand Buddha Caves and Grape Ditch, Aiding Lake, Kanerjing, Sand Mountain Parks, sand deserts, nitrate springs and other magical attractions are well-known tourist cities around the world.
Turpan’s spring comes very early. While most parts of Xinjiang were still shrouded in cold winters, Turpan ushered in the breath of spring early.
Turpan’s summer is very hot and the winter is short and warm. The decent winter is only a month in January. In fact, the cold winter is about minus 15 degrees Celsius. Occasionally, some years have dropped to minus 17 degrees Celsius. Although Turpan is colder in winter, the sun still shines generously on the ground and does not feel cold. Because of this unique advantage, Turpan’s tourism is not interrupted in winter, and tourists are seen from time to time. Tourists from all over the country, as well as tourists from other parts of Xinjiang where winter is cold, come to Turpan to enjoy the bright sunshine in winter. In winter, greenhouse cultivation shows its talents, and the anti-seasonal vegetables and fruits produced by taking advantage of Turpan’s winter weather are fully listed, which not only enriches the market supply, but also amazes tourists.
In February, with the arrival of the Spring Festival, the weather became warmer, the minimum temperature rose to minus three to five degrees Celsius, the highest temperature reached about five degrees Celsius, the weather above zero began to become normal. After mid-February, no matter whether it is day or night, the cold is no longer the same as the weather. People enjoy the cool east wind, take off the winter clothes, and put on light clothes.
At this time, flocks of sparrows landed on the treetops, chirping in the bright sunshine, inviting the spring girl to come quickly. If we observe carefully, we will find that the buds of the elm and willow trees have become larger and ready to germinate. After entering March, the weather became warmer, the temperature rose to 15 degrees Celsius, the earth was awakened, trees germinated, unknown weeds by the water channel, and alfalfa in the field exposed tender green seedlings. One year’s plan lies in the spring, and the farmer’s eldest brother began to busy piling up the vines buried in the winter.
On March 21, the long day and night are the festivals of nature-Nowruz. On this day, only the apricot blossoms of Turpan bloomed, revealing white flowers; the willow tree sucked the spring water, and the treetops germinated, exposing the emerald green leaves. Those wicker sticks hang down like a girl’s long braids, swaying in the spring breeze, like celebrating the arrival of spring. Fresh wicker whistle and flute could not be better. Children like to cut the wicker into the tree and cut it into sections, grab the green skin and twist it gently to the end, bite the wooden core strip in the green skin with his mouth, grasp the wicker with both hands and push it out carefully, then push out the tubular wicker skin, After busy licking the sweet sap of the white core, cut the tubular wicker skin into smaller pieces, then peel off the thinner green skin at one end, and blow it in the mouth, it will emit a “pyridine” sound, this is the Spring whistle. To make a “flute”, you have to choose a thicker wicker. Nowruz Festival only arrives on time when the spring flowers bloom in Turpan, which is March 21 every year. Elsewhere, apricot tree blossoms and willow sprouting will be too late. Let’s say that Urumqi, which is 180 kilometers away from Turpan, was still in the ice and snow at this time, and there was no breath of spring at all.
Spring vegetables cultivated in greenhouses will be available in March. Turpan is the main base for the supply of vegetables and fruits to the capital city of Urumqi, and it is the vegetable garden of Urumqi. Turpan is rich in light and heat resources and is suitable for growing vegetables and fruits all year round. Fresh vegetables and fruits are continuously delivered to Urumqi market. At the end of March every year, leeks and fresh alfalfa cultivated in the field are launched. Although Turpan’s fresh vegetables and fruits are constantly available all year round, the Turpan people still rush to buy them as New Year’s gifts.
From April 20th, the jujube flowers bloom, and the country road is filled with intoxicating fragrance. Since ancient times, “jujube fragrance heart” is used to describe the girl who fell in love. The rich and unique fragrance of jujube flower stimulates the love of the young girl and stirs up the wonderful thoughts. Girls often pick jujube flowers and put them on the roots of their ears, and some are tied into wreaths and worn around their necks.
In May, the floral fragrance of the grapes overflowed. Although this faint floral fragrance is often overlooked by unintentional people, the gardener who can take good care of the grapes, the attentive people will still smell this pleasant floral fragrance. The sweet mulberry also matured in early May, first black mulberry, then white mulberry, purple mulberry. The honey-like mulberry matured one after another, and it looked mouth-watering. In mid-May, Huang Cancan’s apricots matured, arousing people’s appetite. Immediately afterwards, the Turpan people called Zileggwa (“Zilegg” refers to a kind of precocious little melon) hurried to the market in the morning.
Every April or May is the best season in Turpan. At this time, although a few fruits such as mulberry and apricot are on the market, it is cool and pleasant for Turpan in the summer with extreme heat. The maximum temperature is 30 degrees Celsius, the vines sprout and leaves, the flowers are competing to open, embellished by the bright green waves The colorful flowers caused the birds to sing high songs. The clear spring water was flowing in large and small channels, and everything was awake and full of vitality. The fields are green and the breezes are rippling, and the air is cool and fresh.
Turpan is one of the hottest regions in the world. The highest temperature in summer even reaches 50 degrees Celsius, and the surface temperature is as high as 70 or 80 degrees Celsius. It is known as Huozhou. The scene that Sun Wukong extinguished the flame of the flame mountain described by Mr. Wu Chengen in Journey to the West conforms to the reality of the hot weather like the flame of the flame mountain. From afar, the red ditch of Flame Mountain looks like a burning flame. Under the influence of the TV series “Journey to the West”, a large number of mainland tourists come to Turpan every year to visit the flame mountain attractions to enjoy the wonders of the roasting people. They witnessed the huge thermometer simulating Sun Wukong’s golden hoop pointing at 80 degrees Celsius and exclaimed. Boos. At this time, if the eggs are buried in the sand, it will not take long to bake them.
Some people questioned: “How do Turpans endure the heat of purgatory?” In fact, Turpans are not only able to cope with this heat, not only can they tolerate it, but also make full use of this heat, and draw nutrients and strength from it. The dry and hot weather is invaluable to Turpan and has no irreplaceable advantage.
Because Turpan is dry and hot, it has the famous special products-sweet grapes, honeydew melons, and only the magical sand therapy and nitrate springs that attract the world, to eliminate people’s incurable diseases and avoid suffering from diseases. . Nowadays, with the development of science and technology, Turpan’s solar thermal resources play a greater role, and the continuous installation of solar power panels has become a pioneer in solar power generation, providing a steady stream of energy.
Although Turpan is one of the world’s most famous hot areas, it is not among the “Four Stoves” in China, Changsha, Wuhan, Chongqing and Nanjing. why? This is because although Turpan is hot in summer, but because of the dry and dry rain, there is no hot weather in hot and humid areas, the breathing is smooth, and the sweat is hot, but it feels comfortable and beneficial to health. Although Turpan is known as a fire island, it is often assisted by small and large winds. When the wind blows, it takes away the full heat and brings down the temperature; there are small shades and trickles to form a cool paradise. Turpan is hot during the day, cool at night, and the ultraviolet rays are not strong, which makes the Turpan people have fair skin and not dark.
In the summer, people of different skin tones from all over the world come to the sand spa. At this time, the surface temperature of the sand reached 70 degrees Celsius. If you step on it with bare feet, the soles of your feet will be unbearable. How can you bury the sand so hot? But after you were buried in the sand, you gradually felt comfortable. Only the sand here has various trace elements for curing incurable diseases, absorbs your continuous sweat, and imports heat and trace elements from the sweat pores to eliminate cold and strong bones. After burying in the sand for three to four hours, I felt very relaxed and comfortable. According to professionals, the sand that absorbs the nutrients of the bright sunshine of Turpan has definite effects on many incurable diseases.
July and August are the intense summer months in Turpan, with temperatures above 45°C continuing. Around July 20th, the scorching heat reached its peak, and the heat waves were everywhere, the trees and flowers wilted, and people and animals were breathless. During the day, not only do people hide at home, but also rarely see birds and beasts. The streets and wilderness are very empty, as if all life activities are stagnant; at night, it is relatively cool, people go out, and birds and beasts also start activities.
The ancestors used their ingenuity and wisdom to build “kiln cave houses”, “semi-embedded cave houses”, and go to the Kanerjing open channel to spend the noon heat to cool off the heat. Turpan’s “cave houses” are not made of excavated mountains, but are built of soil without any wood. Although the walls of cave dwellings are similar to the existing houses with civil structure, they can be much thicker, and the roofs are also distinctive, with arched corridors made of soil blocks. This is the unique architectural form of Turpan. Its biggest feature is that it is warm in winter and cool in summer. The “semi-recessed cave house” goes a step further, the structure is like a cave house, the difference is that the foundation is excavated to half the height of the house and then built. Half of the houses are buried below the ground after completion, and the characteristics of warm winter and cool summer are even better. At noon, close the door and window, drop the curtains to avoid the light, keep the room cool, and take a good lunch break.
Turpan’s unique groundwater irrigation system, one of the three major projects in ancient China, is the diversion channel of Kanerjing in the village called the open channel. Most of the open channel is cave-like, and both sides of the open channel are often renovated into spacious open spaces. In summer, women come here to collect water and wash vegetables, and men and children come here to rest and cool down. The cool wind blowing from the mouth of the open channel and the moisture overflowing from the clear Kaner well water flowing in the open channel give a cool enjoyment. People lay down blankets or blankets on the open space by the open channel to sit down, chatting, chatting, or squinting for a while to rest and relax. As night falls, most Turpans sleep on the roof or in the courtyard, watching the blinking stars, enjoying the cool mountain breezes, sleeping in imagination, and unlimited comfort.
With the acceleration of the modernization process, people are using household appliances such as electric fans, coolers, air conditioners and refrigerators to prevent heatstroke. Although the intense heat brings inconvenience to people’s work and life, the hotter the weather, the more ripe and sweet the fruits of Turpan, and the more people come to the sand to bury the sand, driving the sales of fruits and cold drinks, and accelerating the virtuous cycle of logistics.
Turpan is a famous fruit town in my country. The weather is very hot, and the temperature difference between day and night is large, making the fruit high in sugar. No matter what kind of fruit you eat, it is sweet and crisp. Because it is irrigated with Kaner well water rich in trace elements or masculine snow water drawn from Tianshan all year round, it is nutritious and full of food. The biggest advantage of Turpan fruit production is early spring, long hot weather, early fruit launch and fast sales.
Turpan has fruit from May to November in early spring, but most people only know Turpan’s grapes and cantaloupe, and don’t know much about other fruits. In fact, Turpan has many kinds of fruits. Of course, sporadic fruits are not worth mentioning. If we talk about fruits with scale in order of maturity, we will get the following order:
Mulberry in Turpan began to mature in late April and was officially listed on May 1. The vast majority of mulberries in Turpan are planted in the fields, bathed in abundant sunlight, and absorb natural nutrients to mature naturally. Perhaps, among the mulberries planted in the field, the mulberries in Turpan are also the earliest mature in the world. Mulberry trees are very common in Turpan. There are plantings on both sides of the main roads and small roads in various townships and villages. Some villages even have two or three hundred years of history, and two or three people are surrounded by towering trees. Perhaps, the ancestors knew that mulberry does not choose the soil and climate conditions, it is easy to plant and live well, both fruits and leaves, eat fruits to solve nutrition, leaves to raise silkworms to solve clothing, the wood is hard and durable, suitable for making musical instruments and kitchen utensils, and many other advantages. So much so common. In the period when the old society endured hunger and starvation, especially in the early spring season when the green and yellow were unconnected, the mulberries ripened before the harvest of fruits and crops to solve the nutritional problems of people eating. It is worth mentioning that mulberry trees grown in Turpan are generally not planted in orchards for the benefit of the economy, but are planted on the side of roads and drains, and have always shared the characteristics of public welfare. No matter who planted the tree, everyone can climb the tree to eat. Perhaps, because of the characteristics of seeking welfare for the people, the people have formed the concepts of “growing mulberry trees is good and rewarding”, “mulberry is the food for orphans and widows”, and mulberry trees are widely cultivated. Mulberry is also a “take-all fruit”. In addition to being eaten by humans, it is food for birds and domestic animals after landing. In Turpan, the fruiting period of mulberry seeds is about 20 days, and they have three mature crops in succession, of which the second and third crops are the sweetest. There are many types of mulberry, including white mulberry, black mulberry, purple mulberry, etc. Eating mulberry is better than climbing the mulberry tree and picking and eating one by one. In order to take care of the elderly and children to eat mulberry, Turpan people also created a “Xiadi Xiapu” (Xiadi Xiapu refers to a cloth or blanket with wooden sticks fixed at both ends). When in use, a person uses a long wooden stick with a hook at the top to pull the mulberry tree tops one by one, and the two grasp the ends of the fixed wooden stick of “Xia Di Xia Pu” to pick up the fallen mulberry. Because Mulberry does not fall to the ground, keep it clean and tidy. The Turpans now lay down mulberries and put them in small baskets made of wicker, or as gifts for relatives and friends, or sold to consumers to make money. Mulberry is soft, juicy, sweet and refreshing. It has the functions of nourishing the brain and improving sleep.
In recent years, due to the characteristics of mulberry trees adapting to the Turpan climate and the sweet fruits attracting tourists, the “mulberry strategy” has been implemented. Mulberry trees are widely planted on both sides of highways and rural roads, and hundreds of mulberry roads and large-scale mulberry gardens have been created. . Held mulberry festival every year, using mulberries to develop mulberry pulp, mulberry beverage, mulberry leaves to make mulberry tea, etc., to convert the advantages of mulberries into economic advantages. Every May, Urumqi tourists come to Turpan to taste sweet mulberries, and it is fashionable to eat mulberries in Turpan.
Turpan’s apricots will mature from May 15th, but their momentum will begin from March 20th. Because the apricot tree bloomed earliest in Turpan, the flower buds bloomed on March 20. Turpan took advantage of this to set up the “Apricot Flower Festival” to build a large-scale apricot garden. Thousands of acres of apricot orchards were built in Gaochang District, Shanshan County and Toksun County, and auxiliary facilities such as flower viewing paths, flower viewing platforms and stages were built in the gardens to facilitate visitors to enjoy the flowers. Every year on March 20th, a large number of tourists from inside and outside the area come to participate in the Apricot Flower Festival. At that time, white, pink and red doped apricot flowers are full of branches, walking in the middle, as if entering the sea of flowers, making people imagine. In conjunction with the Xinghua Festival, traditional entertainment, sports, arts and trade fairs and other activities are also held. During the 2016 Xinghua Festival, Toksun County, with a population of 150,000, welcomed 200,000 tourists, and the county was full of traffic. There were even rare traffic jams and out of stock food and beverages. The apricot market in Turpan lasted until the beginning of June, and its varieties include big white apricot, small white apricot and apple apricot, especially Toksun’s Saimati apricot, Sulitan apricot and Shanshan’s Kumukanerzi apricot are more famous. .
June is the ripe season for Turpan watermelon. Turpan’s watermelons are crisp and sweet and juicy, and there are varieties of sand-melon, yellow-skin melon and black-skin melon. For Turpan, which is very hot in summer, watermelon is an excellent fruit. Watermelon not only quenches thirst, but also has a great effect on heatstroke prevention, which everyone likes. In the summer, Turpans are inseparable from watermelon. After eating, eat watermelon. When you come to the house, the first thing you do is to cut a plate of watermelon and serve it in front of the guests.
Turpan’s melons are not far behind, following the pace of watermelon ripening, and the watermelon went on the market. There are many kinds of melons in Turpan, such as: Zileggwa, Pi Yazi Puster, Ayes Khan Kukchi, Karakosi, Baodong, Mijigan and other varieties. Academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering, researcher of the Hami Melon Research Center of the Xinjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, melon breeding expert, the first batch of female scientists dedicated to the Chinese frontier horticulture career Wu Mingzhu (Uyghur named Ayimhan), has been stationed in Turpan since 1950 to study melon 30 In 2003, it continuously improved melon varieties and introduced new excellent varieties, which made an indelible contribution to improving the quality of Hami melons. The new varieties introduced by Academician Wu Mingzhu include Queen and West Region Honey. Turpan melon is also known as “Hami melon”. It is as sweet as honey and rich in nutrients, and is well-known. The cultivation of West Melon in Turpan, especially the cultivation of melon, has achieved large-scale and formal production and has its own trademark. They are mainly sold in the region and abroad, and even in foreign markets, generating a lot of income, which accounts for a large proportion of farmers’ economic income.
At the end of July, Turpan’s grapes matured. Grape is the undoubted symbol of Turpan, and it is a fist product. Turpan has a long history of grape production, with hundreds of varieties. The grape growing area in Turpan now exceeds more than half of the cultivated land area, and the farmers’ grape sales revenue dominates their total income. Turpan’s total grape production accounts for more than half of Xinjiang’s total grape production and more than 70 percent of the country’s total raisin production. The production and life of Turpan people are inseparable from grapes. It can be said that Turpan makes grapes, and grapes make Turpan. Turpan is one of the main grape-producing regions in China and the world. The grapes it produces are sweet and refreshing, crispy and juicy, and nutritious. A series of vineyards can be seen everywhere in Turpan, a bunch of crystal-clear grapes under a grape rack, and the large urban area is also surrounded by vineyards, just like green leaves with red flowers, which is very beautiful. The Grape Promenade on Qingnian Road running through the urban area is also the only urban grape street in the world. Turpan and the grapes have a long history and are truly a grape city.
After the grapes ripen at the end of July, they have been fruiting until the end of October, which is one of the fruits with the longest fruiting time. The grape varieties planted on a general scale include seedless white, mare’s milk, carapace, kashker, red grapes and soso grapes, among which the seedless white grapes are the largest. The non-nuclear white fresh food sales and the system dry sales are sold to the mainland market and even the foreign market. Turpan City Agricultural Technology Extension Center senior horticulturist, national labor model and national advanced science individual Hailiqihan Yusifu devoted to Turpan grape research for 40 years, in order to improve grape cultivation management, improve and optimize grape varieties, upgrade and optimize grape commercialization , Made an indelible contribution. Now the newly promoted grape varieties include Red Globe, White Chicken Heart and Rose Fragrance.
The grapes are a treasure all over the body. They are cool and comfortable under the grape shelf. Bunches of grapes hang on the vines, forming a unique landscape that attracts visitors to enjoy and taste. Turpan farmhouses have green vine racks, and daily life and entertainment activities are carried out under this green vine rack. Picking a bunch of grapes from the grape shelf can be used as a fruit after a meal, pruned branches can be used to feed livestock, dried branches can be used for firewood, grape leaves can be picked up to wrap food, different varieties of fresh grapes and raisins have diet for different diseases Function, even grape stems left after the processing of dried grapes can also make tea and drink. For a long time, Turpans have been accustomed to eating breakfast with fresh grapes or raisins. There is even a concept that “grapes are the fruit of heaven, and eating grapes for breakfast brings good luck.” The grapes dried by farmers drying them in the grape balconies are commonly known as “green pearls” and are exported to countries all over the world. Turpan’s various types of wines, canned grapes and beverages made from grapes are welcomed by consumers.
In August, the jujube matures. Elaeagnus angustifolia is a desert plant. It is generally planted on the roadside, ground, and wind zone, and is used as a protective forest without continuous development. The trunk of the jujube tree is black, the leaves are silver-white, and the fruit is yellow. The ancients praised: “iron tree silver leaf golden fruit”. This praise means that the jujube trees are solid in material, the leaves are used for drinking tea, have a blood purifying effect, and the fruits are nutritious. Sand jujube gum is the best hair care product for women’s nourishing hair. Turpan sand jujube can be seen everywhere, although the fruit is not eaten often, it can have the effect of nourishing the kidney and nourishing the yang.
In September, the red dates ripen and bear fruit until the end of October. In Turpan, the production of red dates is concentrated in Toxon County, with large-scale production and operation. The “Toxon red dates” brand is very famous. Toxon red dates are concentrated in Bostan Township and Yilahu Township, and their varieties are gray dates and big red dates.
At the beginning of October, the pomegranate matured, and the fruit was fruited until November. Turpan guava production is concentrated in Lukeqin Town, Shanshan County, and Erbao Township and Sanbao Township, Gaochang District. The whole pomegranate in Lukeqin Town is red, sweet and juicy; the pomegranates in Erbao Township and Sanbao Township are not completely red, with medium juice and sweet and sour fruit. The production of pomegranates of the “Mukam” brand in Lukeqin Town has formed a large scale, accounting for a certain proportion of local farmers’ income. Lukeqin is a historical town and the seat of the modern kings of Turpan. It has always attached importance to the construction of orchards and is the hometown of fruits. Mulberry, apricot, pear, grape, pomegranate, red date and fig are widely grown. Famous orchards include Rehati Bagh, Nazarbaq, Chahar Bagh, Anal Bagh and so on. West melon has large production scale and good quality.
In October, walnuts mature and bear fruit until the end of October. The production of walnuts in Turpan is mainly distributed in the remote mountainous areas such as the Kekeya area in Shanshan County, Qiquanhu Town in Gaochang District and the Grape Valley, and some places with cool climates. Farmers make good use of walnut gardens and set up farmhouses to increase family income. Turpan walnut is small in size, has a thin, sweet skin, and has no astringency.
In short, Turpan is famous for its intense summer heat. The abundant sunshine gives Turpan all kinds of miracles. The Turpan people draw nutrients and strength from the generous and selfless radiance of the sun, and experience the honesty, diligence, kindness, happiness and vitality of Turpan people. The warm sunshine is the source of all miracles in Turpan’s fertile soil and the foundation of all advantages.