Spring is on the way

Don’t you know how beautiful spring is? Spring is ready for the world of thousands, the hope of thousands of souls, or the last hope of piercing through the dark eyes. It is the sun, the flowers, the tender grass, the green trees, the birdsong, and it is the most beautiful bloom in the world.

Regarding spring, people have written many poems, painted many pictures, composed many songs; in 2020, the story of this spring was written by us together.

The face of life is always too fickle, the first second is still smiling slightly, and the second one will frown, even glaring.

Isn’t this the Spring Festival of the Gengzi Year? Before the closure of Wuhan on January 23, people were still happy to buy New Year’s goods and arrange journeys. Everything was filled with a peaceful and joyful atmosphere. After 23, everything was adjusted to a “silent state”. Busy people were trapped at home instantly. Feeling at a loss, life is a little less passionate and less joyful.

My city didn’t stop, it was just that he was slow. “I don’t know who you are, but I know who you are for.”

Everyone is trying to make the city run normally through their own efforts. I hope that when the cherry blossoms in Wuhan in April are full, there will be more people enjoying flowers than flowers. Take off protective clothing, take off masks, go to where you want to enjoy spring Beautiful.

Although the ruthless “new crown” disease can trap people’s feet, it can’t trap people looking for a beautiful heart. As long as we have tenderness in our hearts, the world is always spring! As long as there is sunshine in our hearts, flowers are everywhere in the world!

When spring comes, the snow and ice will eventually melt and the epidemic will be bound! In this windy and sunny day, I took my family’s hand to the countryside, listened to the sound of melting snow, watched the freshness of a wicker sprout, smelled the fragrance of a delicate flower, and wiped it The warm sun in the afternoon, appreciate the splendor of spring. Spring is on the way …

With the spread of the new crown pneumonia epidemic around the world, some countries in the United States and Europe are out of stock. These foods have a long shelf life, and some can even be kept for decades. In human history, people have worked hard to extend the shelf life of food, such as smoking, sun exposure, salting and so on. In modern times, in order to cope with war, humans have invented some foods with a longer shelf life and better taste.

French pastry chef wins prize for invention of canned food

In the late 19th and early 19th centuries, due to the needs of the war, the French army paid a large sum of money for practical food preservation methods. An unknown cook invented the pot-harvesting method and won a bounty. He was called a “father of cans” by historians.

Since 1792, the newly established French Republic has waged a series of wars with the Anti-French Alliance, and the French army has gradually grown into an army capable of competing with the professional armies of European countries. However, because the front was too long, a large amount of food had been rotten and spoiled when it arrived at the front line. Some soldiers became sick because of eating spoiled food. French general Napoleon Bonapart lamented: “The army marches on its stomach.” In order to solve the problem of grain storage during the battle, in 1795, the French military offered a reward of 12,000 francs for a new method of long-term storage of food. If anyone can invent new technologies and new equipment to prevent food spoilage, they can get this huge sum of money. Section, any time. Thanks to the rewards, many people have invested in research, including a 45-year-old man named Nicholas Appel, a confectioner and chef who is engaged in the candied food business in Paris. In order to catch up with other competitors, he pulled his wife to continue research and experiments. He tried storing soups, vegetables, juices, dairy products, jellies, jams, and syrups. Eventually, he found a good way to put food in a wide-mouth glass bottle, stopper the bottle with a cork, and put Heat in boiling water. After the food in the bottle is heated for 30 to 60 minutes to boil, remove the bottle and plug the cork while it is hot, and seal it with wax. In 1809, Apel showed his invention to the Napoleonic Empire government. At that time, France was involved in many wars, and the army urgently needed new methods of food preservation. It was verified that this tank storage technology could indeed preserve food for a long time. Does not rot. In January 1810, Emperor Napoleon awarded Apel a prize of 12,000 francs, hoping that he could provide canned food to the French army. Later, Appel published the book “Techniques for Preserving Animals and Vegetables”, which introduced the basic methods of canned foods-degassing, sealing and sterilization. This was the first book on modern food preservation methods.

Later, Apel opened the world’s first canning factory “Apel House” in Marcy, near Paris. This factory’s heat sterilization technology was decades before Louis Pasteur demonstrated that heat can kill bacteria. . In his factory, thick-walled, wide-mouthed glass bottles hold a variety of foods, including beef, poultry, eggs, milk, and cooked dishes. He even kept a whole sheep. He left an air chamber on the top of the bottle, then firmly inserted the cork into the mouth of the bottle with vise, then wrapped the bottle with canvas for protection, and dipped it in boiling water for a while to cook. However, Apel’s early method of preserving food by boiling would lose some of the flavor of the preserved food.

Apel’s tank storage method was simple and feasible, so it quickly spread. In 1810, the British inventor and businessman Peter Durand invented the tinplate with reference to Apel’s technology. In 1812, British engineers Brian Donkin and John Hall purchased two patents and then began producing tin can food. Ten years later, Apel’s canning method was passed to the United States.

However, the early tin can food had a major drawback. Before the can opener was invented, the cans were difficult to open. The soldiers had to use a bayonet or stone to open the cans. In addition, early tin cans were sealed by tin alloy welding, which could lead to lead poisoning. In the 1840s, members of the Arctic expedition led by Sir John Franklin developed severe lead poisoning, which was thought to be caused by eating canned food. These problems were not solved until the beginning of the 20th century. Today’s aluminum foil packaging cans were born in the 20th century in the United States. With the continuous improvement of canned food, Western society has gradually popularized this special food.

In 1841, the “father of canned food” died in France. To commemorate him, the canning method is called “Apelization”. Since 1942, the Chicago Chapter of the American Academy of Food Science and Technology has awarded the Nicholas Appel Prize every year in recognition of those who have contributed to food technology. ▲

(Ge Yuanfen)

Luncheon meat became a common memory of the US military during World War II

In the 1920s and 1930s, the Great Depression in the United States, the lives of ordinary people were greatly affected, and purchasing power continued to decline. Therefore, businessmen sought to make cheaper products. In 1932, Jay Hormel, the son of the founder of Hormel Corporation in Austin, Minnesota, invented a canned food made of pork, potato starch, sugar, and salt. Its biggest feature is that it can It is much longer than fresh meat, and more importantly, it is much cheaper than ordinary meat products. People use the abbreviation “SPAM” for “pork shoulder and ham”, and it is called “spar” in Chinese.

At first, this kind of food did not sell well. What really made Spam’s luncheon meat so popular was World War II. In 1941, the United States officially declared war on fascism. Millions of U.S. troops traveled to the hot Pacific islands, the deserts of North Africa, and the snow-capped Arctic Theater. The complicated climate environment caused headaches for the logistics support department responsible for troop meals. To add?

At that time, the most solid sight of American soldiers on the table was rock-like bacon. During the Pacific War of 1941, many American sailors were still eating beef jerky during the Civil War of 1864, and some beef jerky was harder than wood, and the soldiers couldn’t even talk. At this time, easy-to-storage canned spam luncheon meat began to show its important role. Spam not only has a meaty texture and low price, but also can supplement the soldiers with necessary protein, which is simply tailored for American soldiers. From 1941 to 1945, the U.S. military spent $ 373 million to purchase large quantities of Spam luncheon meat. It became an important strategic material for the US military. The luncheon meat stew cooked in a tin can became a common memory of the US military during World War II (Figure 1).

But as the days of war get worse

Over time, American soldiers gradually became fed up with such “terrible things.” In order to ensure the output and reduce the cost, Hormel has improved the formula and increased the proportion of starch added. Although this can save costs and man-hours while ensuring that the supply of heat is almost unchanged, Spam has almost no meat. The taste has become something to fill the stomach. Coupled with eating every day, even the best things will get tired. The soldiers all complained: “The chefs will fry luncheon meat for breakfast, grill luncheon meat for dinner, and put it in corn cakes for dinner. The lunchtime meat pie will be served the next morning, and I know where they get so much lunch Meat must be ordered in barrels! ”

Nevertheless, they still have to eat, because the military can’t find any food that can replace Spam. Later, American soldiers gave this canned food that seems to never eat all kinds of sensational nicknames, such as “suspected meat” and “launch meat”. The most widely circulated is “spiritual meat”. In their eyes, the Spam Luncheon is like an enemy’s bullet and a raging disease. It is a pure “object to be destroyed.”

But when Spam’s luncheon meat was demonized by countless American soldiers, their anti-fascist allies were grateful for this “delicious treasure.” Spam was distributed to Canadian, British, Australian, and Soviet forces, and it was as popular as American weapons and jeep vehicles shipped under the lease bill. Europeans also valued Spam as a treasure. Former British Prime Minister Thatcher recalled: “I remember it was Boxing Day in 1943 (the first day after Christmas, the habit of the British to give gifts to postmen, milkmen, etc.) on this day, a friend came to visit … We opened a can of Spam canned luncheon meat. We also had some lettuce and potatoes. Friends were happy to say: How plentiful lunch meat and salad! ”

US aid to the Soviet Spam was also quite popular. The Red Army soldiers burned the luncheon meat into a paste and directly applied it to black Leba mixed with wood shavings and bran skin, and sometimes sprinkled with salt and crushed shallots for better taste. Former Soviet leader Khrushchev also reluctantly admitted after a famous “kitchen debate” with Nixon: “After the Germans occupied the Soviet big granary Ukraine, without Spam, we really had nothing to take at the time. To feed the Red Army. ”

At the end of World War II, Eisenhower, the European Union’s highest commander, accidentally met the president of Hormel. He said humorously, “In the past 4 years, millions of soldiers and I have been eating your company’s luncheon meat. I must admit, I have some unkind comments about it-under the pressure of war, you know, but anyway, I have to thank you for producing Spam. ”▲

(Chen Jianguo)

Compressed biscuits and “Eternal Empire”

Compressed biscuits are made of flour, water, and salt. This food is cheap and can be stored for a long time. People usually eat it during long sea voyages, land migrations and military battles. In fact, compressed biscuits come from the English sailor slang “food”. In modern times, compressed biscuits were the basic ration of the British Navy.

Before the advent of personal ready-to-eat rations in the U.S. military today, even before World War I corned beef and apricot jam, soldiers and sailors had basically only one food in their daily rations-compressed biscuits. Bakery flour rations or hard breads have been available since ancient times for soldiers and sailors. During the Crusades of the Middle Ages, the British distributed to the army hard-bread made of wheat, soybean flour, and rye.

However, the first large-scale production and distribution of compressed biscuits was the British Navy. The British Navy began making compressed biscuits as early as the 1760s. The Navy issued a pound of biscuits and a gallon of beer to the sailors every day. In 1667, Samuel Pepys, the founder of the modern British navy, for the first time formalized the various rations of the navy, and compressed biscuits became the daily basic ration of sailors. The reason why compressed biscuits were chosen was not because they were delicious, but because the food was easy to carry and not easy to spoil. These hard-boiled biscuits could help the British navy fighting around greatly improve the survival rate in the vast sea. The compressed biscuits eaten by British sailors are made of salt, water and flour and are rich in protein, vitamins and calories, which can provide the Navy with moderate nutrition for weeks or even months. At the end of the 17th century, the British Navy further improved the process of making compressed biscuits. In order to make compressed biscuits have a longer shelf life, they were baked up to four times. During the reign of Queen Victoria in the 19th century, the British Navy used machines to produce compressed biscuits in batches, with numbers printed on the biscuits. At each meal time, the sailor will first take out the compressed biscuits, and then soak or cook them in coffee, beer, salt water. This is because compressed biscuits are not edible without getting wet. It is said that compressed biscuits produced by the British Navy can even block A musket ball. Sometimes, sailors also try to crush compressed biscuits and cook them into porridge to drink. It can be said that from the 17th century to the 19th century, the British Navy lived on compressed biscuits. Even after the advent of canned food in the 19th century, compressed biscuits were still the main ration of sailors. Therefore compressed biscuits are also called “sea biscuits”, “ship biscuits” or “molar crushers”.

British naval officers brought compressed biscuits into battle, creating an “empire that never sets the sun”. Historians believe that a key factor in the modern British navy’s success at sea is that they have reliable high-quality compressed biscuits, and sailors do not have to worry about being hungry when they go out to sea for a long time. In many naval battles, the British Navy sailors who were given compressed biscuits had a strong morale and defeated one enemy after another.

It is worth mentioning that in recent times, compressed biscuits have also become popular elsewhere. In 1801, Josiah Bent sold compressed biscuits made of flour and water in Milton, Massachusetts, USA. These biscuits did not spoil during the long sea voyage from Boston Harbor. Later in the California gold rush, miners also generally used compressed biscuits as their main food. During the American Civil War from 1861 to 1865, frontline officers and soldiers fought compressed biscuits. Some compressed biscuits were even made during the US-Mexico War more than a decade ago. This shows the shelf life of compressed biscuits. Some experts also say that compressed biscuits can be stored indefinitely if kept dry.