Freeze-dried food: lock in nutrition without losing flavor

Freeze-dried foods such as novel snacks have recently been sought after by many consumers. The dehydrated fruits and vegetables can still have high nutritional value. It seems that this snack has no disadvantages. It is really a must-have for the drama and a must-have for food. . Why can lyophilized food retain most nutrition after lyophilization? The reporter interviewed Zhang Qian, a nutritionist in the clinical nutrition department of the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University.

Zhang Qian introduced that freeze-dried food is actually processed by vacuum freeze-drying technology. The vacuum freeze-drying technology is a kind of dehydration technology, that is, freezing food containing a large amount of water in advance, freezing the water in the food into a solid, and then directly raising the water in the food to a gaseous state under a vacuum condition, which can maximize the retention The original ingredients, taste, color, smell, and shape of the food, the fast solubility and rehydration of the food are better. Freeze-dried food is completely dehydrated, so it can inhibit bacteria and prevent spoilage. In addition, it can reduce the weight of food and facilitate storage and transportation.

Regarding the nutritional loss that people are most concerned about, Zhang Qian said that there is almost no loss in the nutritional content of freeze-dried foods. Because foods such as fruits and vegetables are processed at low temperatures, high temperatures can prevent nutritional losses. There is no loss of protein in meat, vegetables, and fruits in freeze-dried foods, about 5% of water-soluble vitamins such as vitamin C and β-carotene are lost, and fat-soluble vitamins such as vitamin A and vitamin D are not lost. Vitamin C retains 93%. Freeze-dried food does not need to add preservatives when it is moisture-proof because it removes moisture, which is one of the reasons for its health.

If there are any disadvantages to freeze-dried food, it may be expensive. Compared with vacuum low-temperature frying and dehydration technology, freeze-drying technology can indeed reduce oil and salt content, but due to the impact of the manufacturing process, the price of freeze-dried food is relatively high. The reporter searched on the online sales platform and found that the sales price of a certain brand of freeze-dried food (60 grams) was 26 yuan.

Zhang Qian said that food calories will not be as low as zero, and we also need to learn to check the nutrition table when buying snacks. Some freeze-dried fruits are added with glucose or caster sugar for taste reasons, and freeze-dried foods with added sugars have higher calories. Because the food is dehydrated, it is easy to take too much and cause obesity.

Zhang Qian suggested that choosing snacks should be based on health as the first criterion, and choose snacks with less additives, such as nuts, yogurt, and freeze-dried fruits and vegetables without additional sugar.

Recently, the topic of “Dare to read the medical report after the 1990s” has caused heated discussion on a social platform. A survey of nearly 2,000 young people aged 18 to 35 years showed that more than 60% of the young people surveyed had experience of being afraid of reading medical reports. Some even “unwilling” or “no time” to go to the medical examination.

Today, the earliest batch of “90s” have reached the age of “Ben San” who is constantly working for their careers. The youngest “90s” have also turned 20 and entered university campuses. Not daring to read the medical report is actually a lack of self-confidence in one’s health status, and it also reflects the “guilty conscience” of one’s work status and lifestyle.

In this survey, 62.6% of the young people surveyed said that they are usually under pressure and are afraid of medical examination problems. 60.9% of the young people admitted that their lifestyles were unhealthy and thought that they “doing too much” usually caused damage to their bodies.

Face-to-face screening and disease control risks

“Fear” is often because you don’t know enough.

Wang Peng, director of the Physical Examination Center of the Third Hospital of Peking University, said that there are more and more testing indicators, such as metabolic indicators and tumor markers. However, in many cases, the abnormality of one indicator cannot explain the problem, and the physician needs to make a comprehensive analysis of multiple indicators to give a more scientific judgment or suggestion.

Taking glycated albumin as an example, it reflects the blood glucose level in the body about 3 weeks ago. Its abnormality indicates the risk of abnormal glucose metabolism in the subject. However, if you want to further evaluate the risk of diabetes, you must combine a series of indicators such as recent symptoms, previous medical history, family history, exercise diet, body mass index, waist-hip ratio, and fasting blood glucose results. Of course, it is necessary to further determine whether the examiner is pre-diabetes, and also to combine more professional tests such as oral glucose tolerance test.

Tang Jianchun, attending physician of the Health and Medical Examination Center of Beijing Shijitan Hospital affiliated to Capital Medical University, also said that some abnormal conditions in the medical report may be caused by poor lifestyle and dietary factors in the short term. Pulled back on track. “The strength of the advice given by the physician will vary based on the results of the examination.”

Therefore, when you open the medical report and see an indicator with up or down arrows or plus or minus signs behind it, don’t panic, listen to the doctor’s advice first, and follow the instructions for further examination to change the bad in time. lifestyle. Through health management, some indicators can be improved. You may find that it was just a physical examination that helped people raise health warnings. If you pay attention to it in time, you don’t have to scare yourself.

Of course, if there is something wrong with the body, “afraid” cannot solve the problem.

“Each person understands the symptoms of the disease differently, and their tolerance for pain and discomfort is also different. How can I tell if my body is really sick or unhappy, or in a sub-health state in between? Professional doctors pass Physical examination can give you an answer. “Tang Jianchun emphasized that regular physical examination can detect common and frequently-occurring diseases at an early stage, and can also timely detect risk factors caused by bad lifestyles such as diet, work and rest, so as to purposefully control and guide health management. .

Customized early detection and early diagnosis

How to choose a medical examination package?

According to the “Consultation of Experts on Basic Items of Health Examination” issued by the Chinese Medical Association Health Management Branch in 2014, the contents of the examination are roughly divided into two categories: basic items and personalized items, also known as “1 + X”. “1” is the cornerstone, which is required or routine medical examination. “X” is a personalized item, which requires the examiner to choose according to his age, gender, working environment, family history, etc., or he can consult the relevant medical professional doctors in regular medical institutions.

Basic physical examination items mainly include physical examinations such as height, weight, vision, laboratory tests such as blood routine, urine analysis, liver and kidney function, blood lipids, and auxiliary examinations such as electrocardiogram, chest radiograph, and abdominal ultrasound. Personalized programs mainly include early-stage screening for chronic diseases such as cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic kidney disease, and malignant tumors.

According to Tang Jianchun, adults under the age of 40 can choose the corresponding tumor marker screening, genetic factor-related disease screening, etc. based on their family history on the basis of their family history; according to whether they smoke, drink, etc. Habits can increase lung, liver and other organ inspection items accordingly; you can also calculate your body mass index (BMI value, which is the quotient of weight and height squared) to determine whether your body type is overweight or obese, and select screening items for diabetes and other related diseases. People over 40 years of age should start paying attention to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, tumors, etc. It is recommended to do carotid ultrasound, tumor marker examination, etc.

“The physical examination is only a preliminary screening. If problems are found, if necessary, you can go to the appropriate department for further diagnosis and treatment according to the recommendations given in the medical report.” Tang Jianchun said.

Among the many diseases, the most feared disease is the malignant tumor. Many people talk about cancer discoloration because malignant tumors are harmful and difficult to cure in advanced stages, and some cancers are usually advanced as soon as they are discovered. The reporter learned that many patients go to the hospital for examination only after they have adverse symptoms, and some cancers, such as gastric cancer, have few typical symptoms in the early stages. In this case, regular medical examinations are particularly important.

Previously, the reporter had encountered a patient with gastric cancer. “In March 2018, I found a polyp during a gastroscopy and was diagnosed with early gastric cancer. After the surgical resection, I was in better health and did not take medicine or chemotherapy.” The patient had no symptoms of stomach upset before the physical examination. .

Others always feel that they are young and strong and have not paid enough attention to some chronic diseases. Tang Jianchun cited examples she had encountered in her career. A young patient with a history of 10 years of diabetes, usually without medication control, and did not care about his diet. He developed diabetic foot in his 40s and eventually amputated. However, in clinical practice, there are also many old people with a rare age. Although diabetes has a longer history, and some even have disease for as long as two or three decades, through the usual drug control and dietary attention, there are almost no serious complications. Enjoy the joy of heaven.

“Early detection, early diagnosis, and early treatment will kill the disease or risk factors in the bud. This is the purpose of the physical examination and one of the world’s recognized economic and effective health management methods.” Tang Jianchun said.

Self-management habits are less anxious

“In the past, people might pay more attention to screening for medical examinations. What we are advocating is prevention before they happen, and we hope that young people will pay more attention to health management.” Wang Peng emphasized.

“Young people often consume too much energy and exercise less during normal times, so most of them appear metabolic problems, such as weight gain.” Wang Peng mentioned that these metabolic problems can be adjusted in time by adjusting fatigue, psychological anxiety, Nutritional levels are slowed or even eliminated.

In his opinion, in order to raise the scientific consciousness of the people, more and more accurate publicity and education are needed. For example, many office workers choose to run in order to maintain their body weight for weight reduction. They often choose to run due to factors such as venues and equipment. However, it is not known that if they do not pay much attention to exercise and change their exercise habits suddenly, they may cause health risks. People who do not have a running habit and start to practice long-distance running without preparation are likely to cause damage to the knee and ankle joints, and even damage the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular systems under inappropriate exercise intensity. “In fact, it is more scientific and effective to perform power cycling, swimming and other exercises that can coordinate the movement of the whole body’s large muscle groups under the guidance of proper posture.” Wang Peng said.

High work pressures and irregular schedules have also led many young people to stay up late, either actively or passively. Staying up late for a long time can cause metabolic disorders and increase the risk of diseases at various levels of the body. In Wang Peng’s view, the mental illness caused by the fatigue, procrastination, and psychological anxiety behind staying up late should also be taken seriously, and it should be decompressed in time through psychological resolution, environmental adjustment, sports, music, etc. to avoid further physical symptoms caused by psychological problems .

In a nutshell, psychological anxiety cannot be ignored like bad physical symptoms. It is good to have good, scientific habits, and laughter is king to life. It is best to build on the “four cornerstones of health” proposed in the Victoria Declaration: reasonable diet, moderate exercise, smoking cessation and alcohol restriction, and psychological balance.