When it comes to diabetes, many people think of insulin as soon as they have it. When their blood sugar is high, insulin will drop. So, have you ever thought about how our body responds to low blood sugar?
Normal people’s blood sugar is basically stable, because we have both glycemic hormone and hypoglycemic hormone in the body, both of which work to regulate, so that blood sugar fluctuates only in a small range to achieve dynamic equilibrium. What lowers blood sugar is insulin, and the opposite is glucagon. Glucagon, also known as glucagon, is secreted by pancreatic α field cells. Its main role is to specifically bind to receptors on the cell membrane of liver target cells to promote the activation of adenylate cyclase to produce cyclic adenosine phosphate. As a second messenger, it activates phosphorylase, promotes glycogen decomposition and gluconeogenesis to maintain blood sugar stability, especially fasting blood sugar stability. We ate dinner the night before and had been fasting for more than 10 hours the next morning. The blood sugar level was still not low, which is due to the glucagon.
Before I learn more about glucagon, I will explain two concepts-
Glycogen breakdown: Glycogen is divided into two parts, one is liver glycogen, and the other is muscle glycogen. Glycogen synthesis is mainly based on insulin. Some of the carbohydrates we eat maintain plasma plasma glucose concentration, and more carbohydrates are converted into glycogen and stored. The first is in the liver, the second is the muscles, and more is stored in the form of fat. So if you consume too much carbohydrates, the body’s fat will also increase, even if you eat very lightly, there is no oil and water, eat more carbohydrates, you can also get fat.
Glycoxanogenesis: In popular terms, non-sugars are converted into glucose in the body, such as fatty acids, fatty acid metabolites, and amino acids, protein metabolites. Why are there gluconeogenesis? It is because once the human body does not obtain food, glycogen breakdown cannot maintain blood sugar, and it is necessary to rely on other substances to convert to glucose to ensure the glucose requirements of important organs.
Glucagon is a catabolism-promoting hormone, which has a strong role in promoting glycogen breakdown and gluconeogenesis, which can significantly increase blood sugar. Glucagon can also activate lipase, promote lipolysis, and at the same time strengthen the oxidation of fatty acids and increase the production of ketone bodies. Some people may have this kind of experience. They go for an examination on an empty stomach in the morning and wait until noon. They find that there is a small amount of ketones in the urine, but urine sugar is normal. This is precisely because the body is hungry for a long time, it begins to mobilize fat to maintain blood sugar stability. Don’t mistakenly think that the blood sugar is high and the ketone body produced by insulin deficiency.
Glucagon secretion can be suppressed by glucose, because high blood sugar stimulates insulin secretion to maintain blood sugar stability. Many amino acids in the body can also stimulate the secretion of glucagon, such as arginine and alanine. Because glucagon is relatively affected by amino acids, this has also become the theoretical basis for weight loss through high-protein, low-carb, and low-fat diets.
Glucagon’s drug names are generally glucagon, glucagon, and glucagon, which are mainly used for hypoglycemia (usually glucose is still preferred when hypoglycemia), and recently also used for cardiogenic shock. Its usage is intramuscular, subcutaneous and intravenous. When using glucagon, pay attention to the following precautions: if only hypoglycemia is suspected in critical cases and it is not yet certain, it cannot be used instead of intravenous glucose injection; after using glucagon, once the hypoglycemic coma patient recovers, glucose should be given (If possible, it is best to take it by mouth) to prevent falling into a coma again; when using glucagon, you need to be alert to high blood glucose and sometimes hypokalemia.