In the preceding chapters have been presented the most important mental
faculties which are common to the race. There are none of the powers and
attributes of the mind as yet set forth which do not belong to every
mind which is regarded as rational and complete.

But, though all the race have these in common, yet we can not but
observe an almost endless variety of human character, resulting from the
diverse _proportions_ and _combinations_ of these several faculties.

These constitutional differences may be noticed, first, in regard to the
intellectual powers. Some minds are naturally predisposed to exercise
the reasoning powers. Others, with precisely the same kind of culture,
have little relish for this, and little power of appreciating an

In other cases, the imagination seems to be the predominating faculty.
In other minds there seems to be an equal balance of faculties, so that
no particular power predominates.

Next we see the same variety in reference to the susceptibilities. In
some minds, the desire for love and admiration is the predominating
principle. In others, the love of power takes the lead. Some are
eminently sympathizing. Others have a strong love of rectitude, or
natural conscience. In some, the principle of justice predominates. In
others, benevolence is the leading impulse.

Finally, in regard to the power of volition, as has been before
indicated, there are some that possess a strong will that is decisive
and effective in regulating all specific volitions, while others possess
various and humbler measures of this power.

According to the science of Phrenology, some of these peculiarities of
mind are indicated by the size and shape of different portions of the
brain, and externally indicated on the skull.

That these differences are constitutional, and not the result of
education, is clear from the many facts showing that no degree of care
or training will serve to efface these distinctive traits of the mind.
To a certain degree they may be modified by education, and the equal
balance of the faculties be promoted, but never to such a degree as to
efface very marked peculiarities.

In addition to the endless diversities that result from these varied
proportions and combinations, there is a manifest variety in the grades
of mind. Some races are much lower in the scale of being every way than
others, while the same disparity exists in individuals of the same race.

The wisdom and benevolence of this arrangement is very manifest when
viewed in reference to the interests of a commonwealth. Where some must
lead and others follow, it is well that some have the love of power
strong, and others have it less. Where some must be rulers, to inflict
penalties as well as to apportion rewards, it is well that there be some
who have the sense of justice a leading principle. And so in the
developments of intellect. Some men are to follow callings where the
reasoning powers are most needed. Others are to adopt pursuits in which
taste and imagination are chiefly required; and thus the varied
proportions of these faculties become serviceable.

And if it be true that the exercise of the social and moral faculties
secures the highest degrees of enjoyment, those disparities in mental
powers which give exercise to the virtues of compassion, self-denial,
fortitude, and benevolence in serving the weak, and the corresponding
exercises of gratitude, reverence, humility, and devotion in those who
are thus benefited, then we can see the wisdom and benevolence of this
gradation of mental capacity.

Moreover, in a commonwealth perfectly organized, where the happiness of
the whole becomes that of each part, whatever tends to the highest
general good tends to the best interest of each individual member. This
being so, the lowest and humblest in the scale of being, in his
appropriate place, is happier than he could be by any other arrangement,
and happier than he could be if all were equally endowed.