China’s largest container terminal: Shanghai Yangshan Deepwater Port

  At the southeastern end of Pudong New Area, which is more than 70 kilometers away from downtown Shanghai, is the famous Lingang New Area of ​​Shanghai Free Trade Zone. Standing here, the Luchao Port can be seen from afar, and it is easy to be attracted by a “long sea dragon” winding for 32.5 kilometers, which is the “Donghai Bridge”. The bridge starts from Shanghai Luchao Port, spans the northern waters of Hangzhou Bay in the south, and goes directly to Xiaoyangshan Island in Shengsi County, Zhejiang Province. It is the first cross-sea bridge independently designed and constructed by my country.
  Wind, waves, currents, tides, fog, and rain are the “regular visitors” in the East China Sea. Under severe weather conditions, 8,712 piles must be laid, and 670 single-span 60-70 meters, each weighing 1,800-2,000 tons. Box girder, the difficulty can be imagined. Not only that, when constructing this sea-crossing bridge in the open sea, my country does not even have ready-made bridge construction specifications and standards to refer to, and everything needs to be explored from scratch.
  However, under this circumstance, the Donghai Bridge was officially opened to traffic in just three and a half years from the official start of construction on June 26, 2002. The speed of construction is astounding. This not only fills a gap in my country’s architectural history, but also demonstrates the super strength of my country’s bridge engineering industry. The bridge is 31.5 meters wide, with a double deck of up and down, 6 lanes in both directions, and a design speed of 80 kilometers per hour. The whole line of the bridge is designed according to expressway standards, with a design reference period of 100 years, and can withstand a typhoon of magnitude 12 and an earthquake of magnitude 7. The bridge is also equipped with 4 navigation holes, the largest of which is the main navigation hole with a net height of 40 meters from the sea surface, equivalent to a 10-story building, which can meet the navigation requirements of 10,000-ton freighters. The winding and majestic Donghai Bridge is not only a contemporary engineering wonder, but also has important practical value.
  This bridge not only connects Shanghai and Zhejiang, but also closely links Yangshan Deepwater Port with Shanghai. Yangshan Deepwater Port is the largest container port in China and an important part of Shanghai Port. Its main part is located on Xiaoyangshan, which is an artificial sea port formed by reclamation of Xiaoyangshan Island. The Yangshan Bonded Port Area, located in Yangshan Port, is the first bonded port area in the Mainland. Among them, the Xiaoyangshan port area is 2.14 square kilometers, mainly composed of Yangshan Container Terminal, Yangshan Natural Gas Terminal and Yangshan Shengang Oil Depot.
  From June 2002, the construction of the first phase of the Yangshan Deepwater Port Area started, and in December 2005, the first phase was put into operation and the port opened. By 2008, a total of 16 large container deepwater berths had been completed in the third phase. In view of the rapid business development since the opening of the Yangshan Deepwater Port, the Shanghai International Shipping Center needs a new container terminal to carry out a more arduous mission, and thus the fourth phase of the Yangshan Deepwater Port Automated Terminal Project was constructed. The fourth phase of Yangshan Port is built on the reclamation of Kezhushan Island and Big and Little Turtle Island, with a total land area of ​​2.23 million square meters, a wharf coastline of 2,350 meters, 7 deep-water container berths and 61 automated container areas. . The entire project started construction in December 2014 and was completed and put into production in December 2018.
  According to statistics, the water depth of the waterway of Yangshan Deepwater Port Area reaches minus 16 meters, which can meet the full load entry and exit of super-large container ships above 10,000 TEU (international standard unit) in all weather. Equipped with 75 container bridge cranes, 90 container rail cranes and container automatic guided vehicles, it is mainly engaged in the loading and unloading of large ocean trunk line ships. Today, the container throughput of Yangshan Port area has accounted for more than 40% of Shanghai’s total port, and it has become a well-deserved important engine to promote Shanghai’s progress from a large shipping port to a strong shipping port.
  Those numbers aren’t the most dramatic, though. When the “Yangshan Port Phase 4 Automated Terminal” was opened, the world’s largest single automated intelligent terminal was presented to the world, and it was also the terminal with the highest degree of comprehensive automation in the world. Behind the breathtaking “full automation” is a “super brain” independently developed by SIPG – the fully automated terminal intelligent production management and control system (ITOS) – controlling the operation of the terminal.
  According to relevant statistics, since the fourth phase of the Yangshan automated terminal was put into production, the per capita labor productivity has increased to 213% of that of the traditional terminal. As a result, the throughput of the Yangshan Phase IV terminal has also risen: it reached 2.01 million TEU in 2018, 3.27 million TEU in 2019, and exceeded 4.2 million TEU in 2020, becoming one of the most advanced automated container terminals in the world.