To what extent is human ignorance of basic factual knowledge? One in five-that is, one in five people will believe any stupid news.
The US “Huffington Post” once conducted a public opinion survey, and proposed some very outrageous ideas to the public for them to make judgments. The results show that 20% of each article believes blindly. The sun revolves around the earth—well, one in five people believes; aliens will come to the earth to kidnap children—well, one in five people will also believe.
The extremely lack of factual knowledge is the main reason for these people being deceived. Little is known and it is not terrible, the wrong information received is not terrible, ignorance is not terrible, what is really terrible is that these people simply do not realize their ignorance.
There is also a phenomenon called “Echo Room Effect”. After the rise of the media, the information we received was customized according to our preferences and interests, which led us to continue to receive voices with similar opinions. In such a single, relatively closed source of information, we can only take the received information as the whole truth and share it, and then confirm these similar views with each other. This phenomenon is called the echo chamber effect.
”I want a cat, I want a cat now. If I can’t have long hair or anything interesting, I can always have a cat.”
From Chicago’s Oak Park to Pamplona’s In the city hall, from Saint-Michel Avenue in Paris to the fishing village of Cosimaar in Havana, Hemingway took the “snowball” and its descendants around the world. “Snowball” is his favorite six-toed cat. The status of the cat in the life of this tough guy writer can be seen in the last words of “Good night, my kitten” left before he killed himself. With the acceleration key pressed down in the process of urbanization, pet cats in the city also began their own development process.
So, what exactly does a cat have to go through before it can enter thousands of households?
French historian Eric Balate is an expert in zoology. He outlined several very different stages in the history of the development of pet cats in the city.
In ancient Egypt, paddy fields and wheat were everywhere along the Nile, and these plants attracted many rodents. At this time, the cat was born as the “Egyptian Guardian” and became one of the few animals in the Nile civilization that could share the gods with the pharaoh. Cats protect granaries, making wild cats popular in Africa. Since there was no domestic cat at that time, the wild cat became a “net red” in ancient Egypt.
The Greek historian Diodorus Sequulus once described the noble situation of cats in ancient Egypt: cats live in temples, and people feed them with milk, bread, and Nile fish. The status of cats has gradually increased, and even the social status of those who care for cats has improved.
The Egyptians believed that if the snake ruled the world, the earth would be ruled by night, and the day and the sun would never appear. This also makes “the natural enemy of the snake”-the cat-a symbol of deification. Some people even say that the cats who entered the Egyptian dwellings are actually messengers sent by the sun god. They are to save the conquered snake. The world is in harmony with mankind.
This is the cat, or more specifically, the first peak of the status of pet cats in cities around the world with a prototype. After the cat was regarded as the god of the sun and the goddess of Basteto, the ancient Egyptian civilization began to decline, and the Egyptians also began to light the butcher knife on the cat-they killed the cat to make a mummy, and worshiped the gods as offerings.
In fact, cats have entered many families around 1000 BC, and have always held a special status in the family.
”There is a painting in Egypt. The cat in the painting sits on the leg of a person. This is the first time that a cat appears in the painting as an artistic image.” Balate said.
Pet cats were banned for sale since then, but bold sailors brought the cats to the ship for smuggling. So in the port cities of Mediterranean countries, many ships going to Europe and India have pet cats with wagging tails.
Entering the ancient Roman era, talking about cats seems to have become a taboo, which is also a difficult stage that cats have experienced in the history of urban development. In Rome, people’s favorite pets are birds, which makes the arrival of cats a threat. “Even in the 17th century, criticism of cats in Mediterranean countries persisted because cats shook the status of birds as pets in people’s hearts.” The
Romans believed that cats were ridiculous, so in the third and fourth centuries, cats became banned. The pronoun of the language, the condemnation of cats in Rome and Greece, and the demonization of cats by religion have continued for centuries.
The cat regained its important position in urban life in the early 14th century. In Europe at that time, cats would be buried in the cemetery after their deaths, and conditionally erected tombstones for cats, which also showed the rise of the status of cats in the Renaissance.
In the true sense, cats became “pets of urban people” in the 18th century. The nobles who keep pet cats project their emotions and yearnings for city life onto cats. “Especially the French nobility, they feel that they are delicate and elegant, so they dress the cat like this, wear necklaces and spray perfume on the cat, so that the cat is full of fragrance.” Balate said.
By the early 19th century, in the works of Impressionist painters Monet and Renoir, cats had become members of the human family. Compared to the dog’s loyalty and integrity, cats are loved by writers and artists because of their cold personality, which also gives those cat-themed works a little bourgeois style.
”Artists in the Romantic period also like cats. Because they have long thought they were abandoned and marginalized by the city, most of them live in isolation and are not loved by the public, so cats have become a sustenance for them to express their emotions.” Balate said.
From the 1960s to the 1980s, cat breeding became a trend in the middle class of large cities in developed countries. Cats became independent and yearning animals. In 1983, Belgian cartoonist Philip Gluck’s representative painting “Mr. Cat” was published. The image of a fat cat with a big round nose and pointed ears quickly became popular. Gluck also laughed at himself through the mouth of a fat cat. ‘S creative process: “If one day the person who drew this cartoon died, I had to commit suicide.-Mr. Cat.”
”Humans are not animals with deep affections. Their tears and sympathetic gestures in interpersonal communication are just taxes that must be paid by human beings. This kind of confusing performance is actually a very painful art. Those who are good at performing are all regarded as’more conscientious in this field of art’ and are very well eaten in society.” This passage comes from Natsume Soseki’s novel “I am a Cat”. Balate admits that he likes to observe and reflect on human behavior from the perspective of cats.
”I’m actually against the name “pet cat”, because who is never a pet. Humans and animals should be on an equal footing.”