Rome without popes. – Cola di Rienzo.

There is no iniquity of that Pope Clement V who explained firmness against Henry VII, perhaps out of weakness towards the king of France, and who excommunicated the Venetians because they had bought Ferrara, a direct domain of the Holy See. [521]that you do not write; with simonies, or rather by exorbitantly aggravating the churches, he accumulated treasures, which he then profounded from his relatives, was in an unusual splendor to his predecessors, and which he thought perhaps necessary to raise the papacy, wandering out of his theater of grandeur. As soon as he died (1314), the people plundered the palace, and by falling of a candle that set the flame on the coffin, no one bothered to put it out, and as soon as a rag remained to cover the half-dead corpse.

A long and stormy conclave followed, as one might expect from that exile and from the modifications of the consistory, where the eight Italian cardinals wanted a pope to return to Rome, Guaschi and French the opposite. A band of undisciplined Gascon mercenaries threatened and plundered our merchants in Carpentrasso, beaten and burned the houses of the Italian prelates, raped the conclave, so that the cardinals fled through a breach, and dispersed. Giacomo d’Euse, son of a cobbler of Cahors, small and deformed in body, but of acute sense, studious, persevering, he was in Naples to seek his fortune, where he entered the master of the king’s sons, and had the glory of training Robert, who was held the wisest king of his day, and Louis bishop of Toulouse, who was later canonized. With great education in the two rights Giacomo combined a great deal of dexterity in business, and employed by the popes and kings of France, he became bishop of Fréjus, then bass drummer in Naples and bishop of Avignon. The presence of the pontifical court gave him scope to show his talents; he was of great aid in the council of Vienna to Clement V, who adorned him with the purple; then already old, with the favor of King Robert and by means of donations and promises, he obtained the tiara (1316), with the name of Giovanni XXII. Although accustomed to Italy, and although they called his broad divisions, he settled in Avignon, a city belonging to his protector; so it was of great aid in the council of Vienna to Clement V, who adorned it with the purple; then already old, with the favor of King Robert and by means of donations and promises, he obtained the tiara (1316), with the name of Giovanni XXII. Although accustomed to Italy, and although they called his broad divisions, he settled in Avignon, a city belonging to his protector; so it was of great aid in the council of Vienna to Clement V, who adorned it with the purple; then already old, with the favor of King Robert and by means of donations and promises, he obtained the tiara (1316), with the name of Giovanni XXII. Although accustomed to Italy, and although they called his broad divisions, he settled in Avignon, a city belonging to his protector; so [522]it seemed a dire necessity to remove the Holy See from Rome, prey to violent factions [369] . We have already seen how Giovanni was drawn into those disputes, and had agitated dissensions with Lodovico Bavaro with weapons and violent diatribes.

Among which, how do you know how true the accusations of simony, impudence and greed are true? He was denounced as a heretic; and Germany and Italy demanded a council that he would pronounce, and which they hoped would depose that pope, and return the see to Rome. However, serious historians say that John lived very retired, out of any pomp or amusement; scholar and intelligent of sacred and profane sciences, hot in spreading the missions to the extremity of Asia; if he did not institute, he gave orders to the tribunal of the Sacra Rota and to the Roman chancellery, whence a vice-chancellor, who is the highest dignity of the court, sends apostolic letters.

Giovan Villani, contemporary and merchant, who attaches the authority of the treasurers employed to make the inventory, [523]he says he left twenty-five million sequins [370] , a sum so disproportionate to the numerary then in progress, that he wanted to take it into account for popular rumors; yet we may believe he had stored up a treasure such as no other potentate could have, and which Villani says intended “to provide the holy passage overseas.”

But from what sources did the Roman Court draw its wealth?

The first was the offerings that the faithful brought on the altar of the confession of St. Peter, to the sacred palace, to the pope himself, in money, sacred furnishings, linen, wax: Victor II gave the offerings of a Thursday and Saturday to Cardinal Umberto saint, which was enough to build a church. Varj kingdoms had placed themselves under the protection of the Holy See, to which they paid Aragon two hundred and fifty gold offerings, Portugal two marks, one hundred Poland, one thousand of silver England, in addition to the money of St. two hundred and ninety marks, and perhaps as many that of Sweden, Norway and Denmark. His fiefs were Naples, Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica: and the former paid eight thousand ounces; three thousand Sicily, five sequins an ounce; two thousand Aragon, to which the other two islands were fief. The Apostolic Chamber also drew gain from the fief of some cities for a fixed period. Many possessions held in the Papal States: but we only know that the Duchy of Spoleto made them one thousand and eighty pounds, one thousand and thirty eight [524]money, ten bezants, and some values ​​in kind; the countryside of Narni and Aurelia forty-nine pounds, five hundred and forty-eight soldi, net of perception costs; the Sabina about fifty-four pounds, ten soldi; the Venesino countryside ten thousand florins. The Liber censuum , compiled in 1192 by Cardinal Cencio apostolic treasurer, enumerates an infinity of possessions and income all over the world: but the uncertainty of the value of the coins, and the fact that they are a large part in nature, prevent us from collecting a calculation, not even approximate; except that we are founded to believe it exceeded the income of any other state.

Yet the Roman court was in great distress; and the gluttony or even the infidelity of the collectors, the difficulty and delay of the transmissions, the subterfuges for not paying, very little reached the papal cash register. Innocent II had to commit the cities of Orvieto, Gubbio and Casale for two hundred pounds in Pavia; Adriano IV Città di Castello for the following silver marks; in 1265 Clement IV wrote that, for the expedition of Charles of Anjou, he had pledged all the wealth of the churches of Rome except St. Peter and St. John Lateran, and that he was obliged to possibilus invince .

It was therefore necessary to resort to expedients, unknown to other finances. Innocent IV imposed taxes on dispensations and exemptions; but after the headquarters were moved beyond the mountains, greater expenses occurred: the assets of Italy were almost lost; the censuses were struggling with the kings, for fear that France would take advantage of them: hence Clement V began to reserve all the benefits of England for three years, and he gave many churches in commendation, so much so that by dying he was able to leave a treasure of one million seventy-four thousand eight hundred sequins. John XXII walked more frankly on this path, and did not invent, but arranged the vintages, [525]that is, the reserve of the fruits of a year of every vacant benefit in all of Christendom pro Ecclesiæ romanæ necessitatibus ; and he increased this income by always promoting from a lesser benefit; so that each appointment brought a long series of vacations.

Add expectations; letters at first monitor and then tutors , finally executory , which were given to a clergyman to obtain a benefit when it would become vacant: they were sold by fifty sequins, and became one of the fattest receipts of the Chamber, until the Council of Trent abolished them. Furthermore, the pope could impose a tithe on all ecclesiastical goods; as, for example, in 1336 he made on those of France to support the war in Lombardy.

But the funds did not always reach their destination; once they were plundered in Lucca; another Paganino count of Panico Bolognese made an agreement with several nobles, and while the Gascon Raimondo d’Aspello, marquis of Ancona and nephew of the pope, crossed the Modena area with seventy or ninety thousand florins with great difficulty collected, and although they had already sold him the safe conduct, they attacked him and killed him with forty men of the escort, and divided the horses and the spoils: the pope could only put Modena on an interdict. Coming another legate from Avignon with wages for the soldiers, conveyed by fifty knights, the Pavesi caught him in ambush, and took at least half of the treasure.

Giacomo Fournier of Saverdun, when he was acclaimed pope with the name of Benedict XII (1334), said to the cardinals: – You elected the most donkey among you ». Having given himself to heal so many wounds, he abolished expectations: and not having wasted in wars, the treasury did not suffer from the lack of this fat income; on the other hand he made up for it by selling the title of vicar in Italy, for which he collected ten thousand florins annually from Luchino Visconti, three thousand [526]by the Scaligeri for Verona and as many for Vicenza, ten thousand by the Gonzaga of Mantua and by the Carrara of Padua, as many for Ferrara by Obizzo d’Este.

In the first consistory he declared that neither the Roman nor any other church had to uphold his rights with arms, he sent back to their parishes all the curates who were in court, he revoked the commandments, he himself wanted to examine those who asked for benefices, and in this he proceeded severely, that he left these uncovered rather than unworthy. Having presented a certain Monozella, praised musician, to ask for the abbey of San Paolo in Rome, he asked him: – Can you sing? – Holiness yes. – I’d be curious to hear some songs. – And songs I know. – Do you also play any instruments? – The guitar ». Then Benedict changing his tone: – How! would an acrobat pretend to become the venerable head of the monastery of San Paolo? ” and he drove it out. He wanted everyone to listen to whoever recurred to him, and did justice, and said that a pope must look like Melchizedek,

The science of men and business did not have equal to virtue; and he believed in a pontiff that goodness was enough without politics, while that much was needed to float among the comings and goings of the worldly. Benedict intended to return to Rome, but the French cardinals dissuaded him. Falling into serious illness, he renewed his intention, but the Italians had to lose all hope when they saw him build that grandiose fortified palace, with architecture by Pietro Obreri and paintings by Simon Memmi; and immediately the cardinals did the same, and the miserable Avignon was converted into a beautiful city, where even the great lords of France and kings had palaces. The arts of Philip of Valois were successful, by suspending the prebends of the cardinals and threatening [527]treating Benedict as Boniface VIII prevented him from reconciling with Lodovico Bavaro.

After the vacation of only thirteen days, Pietro Roger of Limousin was elected pope (1342), who wanted to be called Clement VI, and who, more condescending to cardinals and practicing in temporal matters, explained masterly pomp, said that no one should withdraw discontent from the presence of Pope, and invited to the court the cherics without benefice so that they could cover the many left vacant by the precessor. In a few months he emptied the treasury, emptied by the skill of John XXII and the thriftiness of Benedict XII; and to anyone who appraised him of the means with which he provided new liberalities, they want him to say: – My predecessors did not know how to be popes ». He bought the city of Avignon from Giovanna di Napoli for eighty thousand sequins; and there, however much the Romans shrieked, the curial wealth and proceeds passed. The court took that tone,

In the meantime, Rome was suffering, one could hardly say how much from the remoteness of those popes, whom she usually harasses neighbors and mourns lost; mutually troubled by turbulent plebs and partisan nobility, justice and administration crushed, streets cluttered with ruins of ruins, churches crumbling, altars stripped, priests without the necessary decorum of vestments; Roman lords trafficked ancient monuments, of which they embellished the nearby cities and the indolent Naples [371] . Colonna and Orsini were corifei of two factions, fighting every day in the city and outside; and for [528]to side with them or not to be oppressed by them, the other lords too had changed the palaces and the Coliseo and the other remains of Roman magnificence into fortresses; [529]and pretending to be superior to the vassals of the empire, they boldly waged private war, threatened and kidnapped, defaced the asylums of the sacred virgins, dishonored spinsters, took their wives away from the marital home; the laborers, when they went out to work, were robbed right up to the doors by the mobs that infested the countryside: hence Boccaccio said that Rome, as it was already the head of the world, so then was the queue [372] ; and Villani, that “the foreigners and the Romans were there like sheep among wolves, everything in robbery and prey”.

The people had set up a municipal government, divided the city into thirteen districts, each with a flag; four members per ward made up the people’s council, which also had another college of twenty-five members, with a captain of the forces, but with no participation in civilian interests. At the head of the people as a political community stood the prefect of Rome [373] ; while the senator represented the law, superior even to the nobles, always chosen from among the greatest of them; between that order, that is, against which he should have exercised his authority, which instead vented in private enmities.

[530]
King Robert’s authority had no strength; and the people, believing they would suffer less under the immediate administration of the pope, offered Benedict XII the dignity of senator, captain, mayor, defender: but soon a riot drove his two representatives from the Capitol. The pontifical vicar sitting in Orvieto was restricted in his spiritual authority: deputies were sent to the pope when he was elected [374] , then no more attention was paid to it.

This decadence awakened the memories of ancient greatness more vividly, and it was mainly touched by Nicola son of Lorenzo, one of the suckers who brought water to the city, before Sixtus V brought the Felix there, and that Rome became the city of fountains. He was “fed the milk of eloquence from his youth, a good grammarian, a better rhetoric, a good authorist.” Oh, how and how fast he was a reader! He used a lot of Tito Livio, Seneca and Tullio and Valerio Massimo; he was very pleased with the magnificence of Julio Cesare to tell; he speculated everything he said in the carvings of the marbles which lie around Rome. It was none other than it who knew how to read the ancient pitafj, all ancient writings vulgarizing, these marble figures rightly interpret ». From such studies he had drawn admiration for the ancient Roman republic; [531]resurrect a people already dead. Beautiful figure, noble bearing, expressive physiognomy, sonorous voice, easy and passionate words, sagacity in seeing the right means, ability to show oneself inspired only by the public well, what more did you require to be a revolutionary?

The Thirteen deputed him to Avignon (1342) to beg Clement VI for his return; and Cola Rienzi (as they called him) spoke frankly to the pope, who first disliked him, then made him notary of the Apostolic Chamber, a lucrative office, in which he did not use goose quills but of silver, to signify the nobility of this office . To the degenerate nephews of those who had heard Gracchus and Cicero, he spoke of the ancient glories; he placed before the gentlemen inscriptions and symbols capable of stimulating national vanity [375] and sounding out its resolve; and he fantasized the rights of the people, always behind the [532]ancient reminiscences [376] . The killing of one of his brothers (1344) by the Colonna family and remaining unpunished ended up making him execrated that aristocracy, no less corrupt and more overbearing and compact than the ancient one; so that he thought to restore the tribunes of the plebs, and by associating the recollections of Crescenzio and Arnaldo with the classics, to repress not only the barons, but also the popes deserters of the fold.

Always noble is the intent to regenerate the homeland; but how easy it is to believe that great names make up for great things, and to mistake memories for hopes! The Roman people then, whose ideas are, [533]like the horizon of his city, circumscribed among the seven hills, he gives a willing ear to those who remind him of the greatness of those he considers to be his ancestors. The men of letters, who then returned to reading in Livio and Sallustio, delighted in re-hearing the ancient names; and Cola got on credit like anyone offering a specific one in very serious illness: then, seizing an opportunity that the barons were out, he invited the people to a meeting (1347), where he would talk to them about the past and the present, about evils and de ‘remedj. It was a sight, and therefore it was very welcome. Cola watches the night in church praying; then after hearing three masses, armed with everything except his head, he goes up to the Capitol, amidst fervent young people and amidst a pomp of flags, flagpoles, emblems, and all that noisy jubilation that in no place is known to do as much as in Rome. From the steps from which he saw the places of Cicero’s speeches and the triumphs of the Scips and Caesars, he does not reason as a reformer should, but declaims as demagogues usually do; and taken by the usual illusion that the idol of the plebs would be able to repress and order it, he reads a reform of thegood state , assuring others and perhaps himself persuading himself that the pope (whose vicar stood by his side) would know how to free his Rome from the tyranny of the barons.

Cola’s regulations consisted in guaranteeing citizens against the power of the nobility, ordering urban militias in Rome and ships on the coasts, securing bridges and roads, demolishing the rocks and fences from which the barons were threatening; ready justice and life for life, money for the poor, public aid for widows and orphans, especially those who died fighting. He invited each municipality to send two mayors to a general parliament; first example of a representative assembly: so that with this and with the Italian federation which is proposed under the Roman senate, “the [534]which had not lost if not necessarily the ancient supremacy of making and interpreting laws ”, a new era could open up to Italy, once again placed at the head of Europe.

These last subtleties were not meant by the people, but by security, cheap prices, subsidies, the return of the pope; so that in jubilant concord he gave Cola the task (May) to implement that constitution with the title of tribune, and offered him arms to reduce the councils to effect. And it seizes the doors, orders the armed men to go out, and hangs some robbers in the city.

The Colonnas present us with something of the grandeur of the patricians of ancient Rome. We saw the persecution that Bonifatius VIII exercised against them, in which Stephen, caught by the satellites and disdaining the simulation, replied: – I am a Roman citizen »; of which firmness struck, they let him free. Having lost Palestrina and all the other castles, to anyone who asked him what fortress he still had left, he replied “This” touching his heart. Successive popes restored possessions and dignity to that house, which sided with Henry VII, opposed Lodovico Bavaro, after whose departure Stefano prevailed over the Orsini emulators; which victory sang Petrarch, protected by this family, whom he did not finish praising. Giovanni, a most generous cardinal, was the soul of the court of Avignon. Jacopo dared to appear in Rome with a handful of resolute, and post the excommunication against Bavaro while he was there; then fled to Avignon, he was made bishop of Lombez. Agapito, and after him Giordano, were bishops of Luni, Pietro canon of the Lateran, Henry, a famous battler.

Against these now stood Cola di Rienzo; and old Stephen, who did not know how to induce himself to fear [535]the lepid sucker, of the unfaithful scholar, at first tore up the intimation sent to him to leave the city; but then that Cola with the sound of a hammer collected the companies of the people, he had a lot of them to be able to steal with a single servant in his Palestrina. The primary baron of Rome! think how dismayed the others were, who left, abandoning their bravadoes to prompt, inexorable justice.

The Orsini, another very ancient family, which gave five popes, thirty cardinals, without number senators and captains, had mainly been raised by Nicholas III, and divided into many branches, then illustrious in Naples, in France, in Germany. Giordano di Montegiordano and Nicola di Castel Sant’Angelo, out of hatred for the Colonna, flanked the tribune; Rinaldo and Giordano lords of Marino opposed him, Bertoldo lord of Vicovaro.

Having reduced the city to quiet, Cola sent ushers to the unusual rôcche dei Colonna, the Orsini, the Savelli, summoning them to appear and swear peace; and many in the Gospel promised not to harass the streets, not to harm the people or the tribune, not to fend for criminals, and at every request to present themselves with arms to the Capitol. The gentlemen, the judges, the notaries, the artisans had to swear the same. Giovanni da Vico, lord of Viterbo and prefect of Rome, was forced to come and invoke the grace of Cola; to which the other fortresses where the Heritage was sown, willingly or necessarily, submitted.

The good Roman people gloated at seeing justice and retaliation applied to all, albeit arbitrarily; the couriers that the tribune sent, reported to him: – We have brought this rod through cities and forests; thousands of men dropped to their knees and kissed her with tears, grateful for the safety returned to the streets, and for the dispersion of the killers ». Christians, [536]who from every part of Europe flocked to the doorstep of the Apostles, marveled at the unusual security, and returned to their homeland, magnified the strength of the tribune.

The Court of Avignon was frightened to see that movement spread; but Cola, “severe and merciful, of liberty, of peace, of tribune justice, of the illustrious liberating Roman republic”, sent her letters in which he promised fidelity to the Holy See. He sent others to the potentates of France, Germany and throughout Italy; and to the Florentines he said: – It was a gift of the Holy Spirit to have had mercy on this city, subverted by wicked and cruel rulers, indeed destroyers, so that justice was compressed, peace expelled, freedom prostrated, security removed, condemned charity, oppressed the truth, profane mercy and devotion; so that not only strangers, but also citizens and provincials, could come and stay there in safety, but inside and outside enemies, seditions, wars, killings, rube, fire. Therefore, give thanks to the Savior and to the holy Apostles, and unite with us to exterminate the tyranny of the rebels and the plague of tyrants, and to reform freedom, peace, justice in all of sacred Italy. We also ask you to send two mayors and ambassadors to the parliament that we intend to celebrate for the sake of health and peace for all of Italy; and a jurisperist, whom we will keep with salary in our consistory ».

The attempt seemed good to those many who fed on memories rather than opportunities: Petrarch took enthusiasm for Cola; but while in the direct song it is as sublime as it is sober [377] , in the letter [537]to the tribune he weaves a prolix philatera, all rhetorical flowers (as he praised it) and clichés and examples of ancients: – Your magnificent signature announces the reestablishment of freedom; which consoles me, recreates me, enchants me ….. Your letters run through the hands of all the prelates, they want to read, copy; it seems that they descend from heaven or come from the antipodes; as soon as the courier arrives, the people flock to read them, and the oracles of Delphic Apollo never had so many different interpretations. Your attempt is so admirable, that it will save you from any reproach, and show the greatness of your courage and the majesty of the Roman people, without offending the respect due to the Supreme Pontiff. And as a wise and eloquent man like you, you are reconciling apparently clashing things ….. Nothing that indicates low fear or crazy presumption ….. It is not known whether to admire your actions or your style anymore; and they say that you operate like Brutus, speak like Cicero … Do not leave your magnanimous enterprise ….. Excellent foundation, truth, peace, justice, freedom … How I approach anyone who dares to question the justice of the tribunal and the sincerity of your intentions! … To you, the only victor of freedom, I think of the night, of you the day, watching and sleeping ». But among so many words he does not know how to give him other advice other than these: “to receive the Eucharist every morning, before going to business, which he knows he already practices, and Camillus and Brutus would certainly have practiced it if in their time had been its use; and to read as often as he can, or be read, as Augustus also practiced ». and they say that you operate like Brutus, speak like Cicero … Do not leave your magnanimous enterprise ….. Excellent foundation, truth, peace, justice, freedom … How I approach anyone who dares to question the justice of the tribunal and the sincerity of your intentions! … To you, the only victor of freedom, I think of the night, of you the day, watching and sleeping ». But among so many words he does not know how to give him any other advice than these: “to receive the Eucharist every morning, before going to business, which he knows he already practices, and Camillus and Brutus would certainly have practiced it if in their time had been its use; and to read as often as he can, or be read, as Augustus also practiced ». and they say that you operate like Brutus, speak like Cicero … Do not leave your magnanimous enterprise ….. Excellent foundation, truth, peace, justice, freedom … How I approach anyone who dares to question the justice of the tribunal and the sincerity of your intentions! … To you, the only victor of freedom, I think of the night, of you the day, watching and sleeping ». But among so many words he does not know how to give him any other advice than these: “to receive the Eucharist every morning, before going to business, which he knows he already practices, and Camillus and Brutus would certainly have practiced it if in their time had been its use; and to read as often as he can, or be read, as Augustus also practiced ». justice, freedom … How I am against anyone who dares to question the justice of the tribunal and the sincerity of your intentions! and sleeping ». But among so many words he does not know how to give him any other advice than these: “to receive the Eucharist every morning, before going to business, which he knows he already practices, and Camillus and Brutus would certainly have practiced it if in their time had been its use; and to read as often as he can, or be read, as Augustus also practiced ». justice, freedom … How I am against anyone who dares to question the justice of the tribunal and the sincerity of your intentions! and sleeping ». But among so many words he does not know how to give him any other advice than these: “to receive the Eucharist every morning, before going to business, which he knows he already practices, and Camillus and Brutus would certainly have practiced it if in their time had been its use; and to read as often as he can, or be read, as Augustus also practiced ». But among so many words he does not know how to give him any other advice than these: “to receive the Eucharist every morning, before going to business, which he knows he already practices, and Camillus and Brutus would certainly have practiced it if in their time had been its use; and to read as often as he can, or be read, as Augustus also practiced ». But among so many words he does not know how to give him any other advice than these: “to receive the Eucharist every morning, before going to business, which he knows he already practices, and Camillus and Brutus would certainly have practiced it if in their time had been its use; and to read as often as he can, or be read, as Augustus also practiced ».

This letter and the verses they made, on the word of Petrarch, [538]admire Cola from the literary world; many cities submitted to it, others supported it; Florence, Siena, Perugia sent their forces, the cities of Umbria deputies, Gaeta ten thousand gold florins; Venice and Luchino Visconti made their allies clear, Giovanna di Napoli honored her messengers, the emperor Lodovico no less: although there were cities that treated him like a fool, and the Pepoli, the Estensi, the Scaligeri, the Gonzagas, the Carrara, the Ordelaffi, the Malatesta made songs of it; the more the king of France.

He seemed to justify the latter by showing more vanity in the head than vigor in character, by making ambitious follow-up to such loyal beginnings. He wanted to surround himself with pomp, perhaps to dazzle the people; he lived on very expensive splendours; He “made him stand before himself, while he sat, all the barons standing, erect, with folded arms, and drawn hoods. Oh, how fearful they were! He had a very young and beautiful wife, who when she went to San Pietro, she was accompanied by armed young men; some patrician women followed her; her maidservants with the usual little panels in her face made her wind, and industriously roasted, so that her face would not be offended by flies. He had an uncle of his, Janni had his name, he was a barber, and he was a great lord, and he was on horseback, accompanied by Roman citizens. All his relatives were equal. “[378] ; assumed the dalmatic, used by the ancients [539]emperors at their coronation; and with the staff of command and with seven crowns on his head, symbol of the seven virtues, brandishing the sword towards the four regions [540]of heaven, intoned: “I will judge the earth according to justice, and the peoples according to equity.”

By virtue of this dominion that he claimed over the world, he cited Louis of Hungary and Joan of Naples, Lodovico emperor and Charles the anticesar to produce for his tribunal the titles of their choice, “which, as it is written, belongs only to the Roman people “; he ordered the pope to return to his see; elevating himself to the idea of ​​national unity, he declared free all the cities of Italy, to which, “wanting to imitate the kindness and liberty of the ancient Romans,” he granted citizenship and the right to elect emperors; and he insisted that the Italian states, the pope and the emperor send legates to Rome in order to agree on the peace and good of all of Europe [379] . As happens to these redone, which [541]the height makes you dizzy, he sought illustrious relations; and not that allying himself with some baron, he did not care to dishonor [542]his mother pretending to be Henry VII’s bastard [380] .

Clement VI, who at first had named him pontifical rector, was irritated to see him transmoding into powers and pretensions; the pontifical vicar, who had supported him up until then, protested against the one intimated to the pope and the princes; the opinion of him, who does not want his idols to be lasting, prevented him from denying him; and exaggerating in the contradiction as already in the applause, he was accused of the disordered expenses, of which consequently the taxes that every new government is obliged to increase. At a banquet which he gave to the primary nobility, it was disputed whether it would be better for a people to rule over a miser or a prodigal; and Stefano Colonna, lifting up the gilded and jeweled hem of the tribune’s robe, “The modest clothes of your peers would suit you better than these magnificences.” Irritated Cola ordered all the noble guests to be taken, and voicing a conspiracy, condemned them to be cut off their heads. The friar was sent to each one to arrange it; but summoned the people, the tribune began a rumor about the Dimitte nobis debita nostra , and pleaded that the people absolve him. The inmates showed up from behind [543]the other with his head bowed imploring grace (1347), and Cola placed them in prefectures and other offices in Campania and Tuscany.

To irritate and not to kill, half a measure that loses the tyrants. The barons, yearning for nothing but revenge, force themselves into the rocks, curl up the discontented, and bring war to the contours, and spoil the collections near the scythe. The good man of letters, the peaceful tribune, unsuccessfully summoned to exonerate himself in court, was forced to take up arms; a bloody battle took place (20 9bre), where the people prevailed over the warriors; fighting perished the old Colonna with his son Giovanni and some nephews and other lords; in the field the tribune knighted his own son, sprinkling him with the blood of the great ones; and instead of continuing the unexpected victory, he went to triumph in the Capitol, and in Araceli, drying his sword, he said to her: “You have cut off the ear of such a head, that pope or emperor could not cut it.”

But to the people who benefited most from these triumphs? The tribune found himself thinned out of money and income; the means of obtaining it exacerbated; whereupon the cardinal legate Berferudo of Deux, having resumed his courage, sentenced Cola to be a traitor and heretic, and made an agreement with the barons to starve Rome. With speeches and with the flocking bell he tried to revive the enthusiasm of the people; but courage was not enough for him to bear the greatest penalty, that of abandonment; he prayed, wept, trembled, finally abdicated his power (16 xbre), and closed himself in Castel Sant’Angelo with his relatives and the few faithful, until he found a way to escape. His opponents rejoiced at him and those who were trembling at having shown themselves to be friends, they hung him in effigy, and destroyed in one breath what he had laboriously accomplished in seven months.

The tribune, wandering but not evil, lived a few years among the Franciscan hermits of Monte Majella in the [544]Apennines, where the errors of the Fraticelli spread, especially of Puritans who declaim against the authority and pomp of the popes, in the enthusiasm of solitude he believed himself called to cooperate in a universal reform of the world, which God was about to accomplish. he predicted as destined for great things, and to effect that reign of love, of which the Fraticelli were awaiting the coming. To start the work he presented himself to the emperor Charles IV, telling him to have him confide serious secrets, encourage him to liberate Italy, and supply him with arms, without which justice is not valid; soon a poor pope would build the temple of the Holy Spirit in Rome, in fifteen years the world would be united in the same fold under a single shepherd, and Charles would rule over the West, Cola over the East. Charles,

He would have been condemned if some had not suggested that he was a poet, and the poet is a sacred thing, according to Cicero, and therefore should not be sent to death. – I rejoice (Petrarch writes) that men unaware of the muses grant them the privilege of saving a man from death, hated by his judges. What more could they have achieved under Augustus in the time when the highest honors were bestowed upon them, and poets flocked from every band to see that unique prince, lord of kings and friend of vati? I congratulate the muses and Renzi: but if you ask me what I think, I will tell you that Renzi is a good speaker, sweet, insinuating, that there are few thoughts in his compositions, but a lot of amenity and a very vague color: I believe has read all the poets, but he doesn’t deserve the name of a poet, whoever wears an embroidered dress does not deserve the name of embroiderer. You too, like me, will swell with bile at the knowledge that a man is in danger [545]for having wanted to save the republic, and you will smile upon hearing that the name of poet saved him, who has never composed a verse ” [381] .

It is still the usual rhetoric; but meanwhile you understand that Petrarch, after hearing that Cola “did not love the people, but the dregs of the people obeyed and seconded”, after seeing him persecute his Colonna, regretted that his idol should fall, but did not do like those who most they proudly trample those who most blindly raised, nor was he ashamed to show himself to be a friend to the unfortunate. – I loved (he says) his valor, I approved of his designs, I admired his courage; I congratulated Italy that Rome resumed the empire of other times, and I foresaw the peace of the world. Nor do I regret having praised him. So if he had continued as he had begun! … This man, who made the rebels tremble throughout the universe, who delighted the dignitaries with beautiful hopes, entered this Court humiliated and vilified; once he was surrounded by the Roman people and by conspicuous lords, he proceeded between two satellites; and the populace ran to gaze at the man of whom he had understood so much. It is the king of the Romans who sent him to the pontiff of Rome; what a gift! what barter! The pontiff entrusted his cause to three distinguished prelates, to decide what punishment the one who wanted to liberate the republic deserves. O times! or costumes! He would never be punished excessively for not continuing firmly; not annihilated in one fell swoop, as he could, all the enemies of freedom; not grasped an opportunity that no emperor had presented itself with. Strange blindness! he called himself severe and lenient when the republic needed severity, not clemency. Or if he wanted to be lenient towards those audiences and the populace ran to gaze at the man of whom they had heard so much. It is the king of the Romans who sent him to the pontiff of Rome; what a gift! what barter! The pontiff entrusted his cause to three distinguished prelates, to decide what punishment the one who wanted to liberate the republic deserves. O times! or costumes! He would never be punished excessively for not continuing firmly; not annihilated in one fell swoop, as he could, all the enemies of freedom; not grasped an opportunity that no emperor had presented itself with. Strange blindness! he called himself severe and lenient when the republic needed severity, not clemency. Or if he wanted to be lenient towards those audiences and the populace ran to gaze at the man of whom they had heard so much. It is the king of the Romans who sent him to the pontiff of Rome; what a gift! what barter! The pontiff entrusted his cause to three distinguished prelates, to decide what punishment the one who wanted to liberate the republic deserves. O times! or costumes! He would never be punished excessively for not continuing firmly; not annihilated in one fell swoop, as he could, all the enemies of freedom; not grasped an opportunity that no emperor had presented itself with. Strange blindness! he called himself severe and lenient when the republic needed severity, not clemency. Or if he wanted to be lenient towards those audiences The pontiff entrusted his cause to three distinguished prelates, to decide what punishment the one who wanted to liberate the republic deserves. O times! or costumes! He would never be punished excessively for not continuing firmly; not annihilated in one fell swoop, as he could, all the enemies of freedom; not grasped an opportunity that equaled no emperor had presented itself. Strange blindness! he called himself severe and lenient when the republic needed severity, not clemency. Or if he wanted to be lenient towards those audiences The pontiff entrusted his cause to three distinguished prelates, to decide what punishment the one who wanted to liberate the republic deserves. O times! or costumes! He would never be punished excessively for not continuing firmly; not annihilated in one fell swoop, as he could, all the enemies of freedom; not grasped an opportunity that no emperor had presented itself with. Strange blindness! he called himself severe and lenient when the republic needed severity, not clemency. Or if he wanted to be lenient towards those audiences not grasped an opportunity that no emperor had presented itself with. Strange blindness! he called himself severe and lenient when the republic needed severity, not clemency. Or if he wanted to be lenient towards those audiences not grasped an opportunity that no emperor had presented itself with. Strange blindness! he called himself severe and lenient when the republic needed severity, not clemency. Or if he wanted to be lenient towards those audiences [546]parricides, shouldn’t he deprive them of the means to harm, and drive them out of the fortresses from which they draw so much pride? I hoped that he would compensate the freedom of Italy; since he entered into such a beautiful design, I saw him again and admired if anything else: the more hope smiled on me, the more it afflicts me to see myself disappointed; yet I will not cease to admire the beginning. But that a Roman citizen is grieved to see his homeland, from queen of the world, become the slave of the most vile men, is it a title of accusation? ” [382] .

And he wrote to the Romans: – If in a safe place, before a fair judge, the affair were to be debated, I would hope to clarify that the Roman Empire, although trampled and oppressed for a long time by fortune, and invaded by foreigners, still exists in Rome and nowhere else. ; and there it will stay, even if only the bare stone of the Capitoline Hill remains of such a metropolis, if it is a truth that the possessor of bad faith cannot acquire the right of prescription. Therefore, citizens, do not abandon your compatriot in extreme danger, show that he is yours by asking him back with a solemn embassy: that if in anything he sinned, he sinned in Rome; and to you alone belongs the judgment of the sins committed in Rome, if the common rights are not denied to you, founders and followers of the laws, who dictated them to all peoples. That if your tribune, like the good are of opinion, [547]golden age. Rush to the salvation of those who encountered a thousand dangers for yours and became a sign of immense envy: think of his courage and his intent, of what your affairs were, and how suddenly, by the advice and work of a single , has been erected to high hopes, not that Rome, the whole of Italy; how great the Italian name sounded at once; how different the face of the world and the inclination of souls. I believe that from the very beginning of the world onwards a greater undertaking has been attempted; and if it had gone to prosperous success, it would seem rather divine than human ” [383] .

Petrarch’s intercession was valid for the tribune, acquitted of excommunication, to be left to live in peace.

Rome resumed temperance brake under the legate and two senators; and the coming plague, a good auxiliary to the oppressors, depressed the boiling spirits; the jubilee (1350) attracted people and money, which the pope had wanted to renew after fifty years, so that everyone in the course of a common life could enjoy it, promising plenary indulgences even to those who had died on the way, and commanding the angels to take them immediately to paradise [384] . Those whom the spectacle of so many deaths from the plague had brought to their conscience, or who had made vows in danger, rushed to the threshold of the apostles, nor did the very rigid winter hold them back.

“On Christmas day (says Matteo Villani, writing what he saw) the holy indulgence began to all those who went on pilgrimage to Rome, making the visitations ordered for the Holy Church to the basilica of [548]St. Peter, and St. John Lateran, and St. Paul outside Rome; to which men and females of every state and dignity concur of Christians, with astonishing and incredible multitude, the general mortality having been shortly before, and still being among the faithful Christians in different parts of Europe. With so much devotion and humility they followed the romeaggio, that with great patience they bore the discomfort of the weather, which was an immeasurable cold, and ice and snow and showers, and the streets that were all messy and broken; and paths full of day and night; and the hotels and houses above the paths were not sufficient to keep the horses and men indoors. But the Germans and the Hungarians, in flocks and in very large crowds, were in the camp at night, huddled together in the cold, at each other with great fires. And for the ostellani it could not be answered, not that to give the bread, the wine, the fodder, but to take the money. And many times it happened that the Romans, wanting to follow their path, left the money of their price above the tables, following their journey: and it was not of travelers who took them away, as long as those who took them away from the host. On the way there was no noise or noise, but involved and helped each other with patience and comfort. And starting some robbers in the land of Rome to steal and kill, from the same Rome they were dead and taken, helping to help one another. The villagers made people look at the paths, and frightened the robbers; so that according to the fact the roads were very safe and you walked all that year. The multitude of Christians who went to Rome was impossible to number: [549]thousand, and then for the Ascension and for Pentecost more than eight hundred thousand. But when the state came, people began to lack for the occupation of the ricolte, and for the disorderly heat; but not so that, since there was less Rome, there weren’t continuously more than two hundred thousand foreign men there every day. At the visitation of the three churches, the streets were so full in the continovo, that it is convenient to follow the crowd on foot and on horseback, that little could be advanced; and therefore it was more difficult. Every day of the visitation the romei offered to catuna church, some little, some much, as he thought. The holy shroud of Christ was shown in the church of San Pietro, for the consolation of Rome, every Sunday and every day of solemn feast; so that most of the Romans could see it. The press was large and indiscreet at the continovo: because it happened more than once that when two, when four, when six, and sometimes it was that twelve were found dead from the grasp and trampling of the people. The Romans were all made hoteliers, giving their houses to Rome on horseback; removing a large tornese per horse on the day, and when one and a half, and sometimes two, according to the weather; having to buy the romeo for the life of him and the horse, except the bad bed. At the end of the year more lords and great ladies and hideous men and women from beyond the mountains and distant countries, and even Italy, concur in it; and in the last, so that no one who was in Rome and did not have time to be able to provide the visitations, remained without the indulgence of the merits of the Passion of Christ, it was dispensed until the last day, that catuno should fully have the said indulgence “. when you are, and sometimes it was that twelve were found dead from the grasp and trampling of the people. The Romans were all made hoteliers, giving their houses to Rome on horseback; removing a large tornese per horse on the day, and when one and a half, and sometimes two, according to the weather; having to buy the romeo for the life of him and the horse, except the bad bed. At the end of the year more lords and great ladies and hideous men and women from beyond the mountains and distant countries, and even Italy, concur in it; and in the last, so that no one who was in Rome and did not have time to be able to provide the visitations, remained without the indulgence of the merits of the Passion of Christ, it was dispensed until the last day, that catuno should fully have the said indulgence “. when you are, and sometimes it was that twelve were found dead from the grasp and trampling of the people. The Romans were all made hoteliers, giving their houses to Rome on horseback; removing a large tornese per horse on the day, and when one and a half, and sometimes two, according to the weather; having to buy the romeo for the life of him and the horse, except the bad bed. At the end of the year more lords and great ladies and hideous men and women from beyond the mountains and distant countries, and even Italy, concur in it; and in the last, so that no one who was in Rome and did not have time to be able to provide the visitations, remained without the indulgence of the merits of the Passion of Christ, it was dispensed until the last day, that catuno should fully have the said indulgence “. and at times it was that twelve were found dead from the grasp and trampling of the people. The Romans were all made hoteliers, giving their houses to Rome on horseback; removing a large tornese per horse on the day, and when one and a half, and sometimes two, according to the weather; having to buy the romeo for the life of him and the horse, except the bad bed. At the end of the year more lords and great ladies and hideous men and women from beyond the mountains and distant countries, and even Italy, concur in it; and in the last, so that no one who was in Rome and did not have time to be able to provide the visitations, remained without the indulgence of the merits of the Passion of Christ, it was dispensed until the last day, that catuno should fully have the said indulgence “. and at times it was that twelve were found dead from the grasp and trampling of the people. The Romans were all made hoteliers, giving their houses to Rome on horseback; removing a large tornese per horse on the day, and when one and a half, and sometimes two, according to the weather; having to buy the romeo for the life of him and the horse, except the bad bed. At the end of the year more lords and great ladies and hideous men and women from beyond the mountains and distant countries, and even Italy, concur in it; and in the last, so that no one who was in Rome and did not have time to be able to provide the visitations, remained without the indulgence of the merits of the Passion of Christ, it was dispensed until the last day, that catuno should fully have the said indulgence “. giving his houses to Rome on horseback; removing a large tornese per horse on the day, and when one and a half, and sometimes two, according to the weather; having to buy the romeo for the life of him and the horse, except the bad bed. At the end of the year more lords and great ladies and hideous men and women from beyond the mountains and distant countries, and even Italy, concur in it; and in the last, so that no one who was in Rome and did not have time to be able to provide the visitations, remained without the indulgence of the merits of the Passion of Christ, it was dispensed until the last day, that catuno should fully have the said indulgence “. giving his houses to Rome on horseback; removing a large tornese per horse on the day, and when one and a half, and sometimes two, according to the weather; having to buy the romeo for the life of him and the horse, except the bad bed. At the end of the year more lords and great ladies and hideous men and women from beyond the mountains and distant countries, and even Italy, concur in it; and in the last, so that no one who was in Rome and did not have time to be able to provide the visitations, remained without the indulgence of the merits of the Passion of Christ, it was dispensed until the last day, that catuno should fully have the said indulgence “. At the end of the year more lords and great ladies and hideous men and women from beyond the mountains and distant countries, and even Italy, concur in it; and in the last, so that no one who was in Rome and did not have time to be able to provide the visitations, remained without the indulgence of the merits of the Passion of Christ, it was dispensed until the last day, that catuno should fully have the said indulgence “. At the end of the year more lords and great ladies and hideous men and women from beyond the mountains and distant countries, and even Italy, concur in it; and in the last, so that no one who was in Rome and did not have time to be able to provide the visitations, remained without the indulgence of the merits of the Passion of Christ, it was dispensed until the last day, that catuno should fully have the said indulgence “.

The exhaustion caused by the plague, and the wealth produced by the jubilee, encouraged Clement VI to humiliate the rebellious nobility. Bertoldo Orsini and [550]Stefano Colonna, placed to rule the city, had been one stoned, the other fleeing from the mob, asking for bread: then the war between the parties was reignited; noble tyrants and vulgar tyrants arose, until, making use of the concepts that failed to Cola Rienzi, he was placed second tribune of the people and august consul Francesco Baroncelli, former scribe of the senate, whom many seditious sent to torture, and which soon from another sedition was slain. Then appeared the cardinal Egidio Albornoz (1353), a very noble Spaniard, who as archbishop of Toledo fighting the Moors in the famous battle of the Rio Salado, had won the golden spurs, and now he was sent by the pope to subdue Romagna, “extinguish the heresy, suppress license, restore priesthood honor, raise the majesty of divine worship, to quell discord, to give help to the unhappy, to procure the health of souls, to undo the alliances hatched against the Roman Church, to oblige the usurpers to make the badly taken away, and to restore their authority with peace or war ». There were so many evils to be repaired, so much the confidence of the pope in his legacy. More than the scarce mob and the money, the dignity, the personal merit, the discontent of the peoples made him powerful, to whom he came to restore the good state, knocking down the Ordelaffi, the Manfredi and the other tyrannies, against whom Clement VI before dying had launched the excommunication. He forced the prefect Giovanni di Vico to surrender the cities of Viterbo, Orvieto, Trani, Amelia, Narni, Marta, Camino, which he had occupied, and took over the lordship. to undo the alliances hatched against the Roman Church, to force the usurpers to return the badly taken away, and to restore their authority with peace or war ». There were so many evils to be repaired, so much the confidence of the pope in his legacy. More than the scarce mob and the money, the dignity, the personal merit, the discontent of the peoples made him powerful, to whom he came to restore the good state, knocking down the Ordelaffi, the Manfredi and the other tyrannies, against whom Clement VI before dying had launched the excommunication. He forced the prefect Giovanni di Vico to surrender the cities of Viterbo, Orvieto, Trani, Amelia, Narni, Marta, Camino, which he had occupied, and took over the lordship. to undo the alliances hatched against the Roman Church, to force the usurpers to return the badly taken away, and to restore their authority with peace or war ». There were so many evils to be repaired, so much the confidence of the pope in his legacy. More than the scarce mob and the money, the dignity, the personal merit, the discontent of the peoples made him powerful, to whom he came to restore the good state, knocking down the Ordelaffi, the Manfredi and the other tyrannies, against whom Clement VI before dying had launched the excommunication. He forced the prefect Giovanni di Vico to surrender the cities of Viterbo, Orvieto, Trani, Amelia, Narni, Marta, Camino, which he had occupied, and took over the lordship. There were so many evils to be repaired, such was the confidence of the pope in his legate. More than the scarce mob and the money, the dignity, the personal merit, the discontent of the peoples made him powerful, to whom he came to restore the good state, knocking down the Ordelaffi, the Manfredi and the other tyrannies, against whom Clement VI before dying had launched the excommunication. He forced the prefect Giovanni di Vico to surrender the cities of Viterbo, Orvieto, Trani, Amelia, Narni, Marta, Camino, which he had occupied, and took over the lordship. There were so many evils to be repaired, such was the confidence of the pope in his legate. More than the scarce mob and the money, the dignity, the personal merit, the discontent of the peoples made him powerful, to whom he came to restore the good state, knocking down the Ordelaffi, the Manfredi and the other tyrannies, against whom Clement VI before dying had launched the excommunication. He forced the prefect Giovanni di Vico to surrender the cities of Viterbo, Orvieto, Trani, Amelia, Narni, Marta, Camino, which he had occupied, and took over the lordship. against which Clement VI had excommunicated before his death. He forced the prefect Giovanni di Vico to surrender the cities of Viterbo, Orvieto, Trani, Amelia, Narni, Marta, Camino, which he had occupied, and took over the lordship. against which Clement VI had excommunicated before his death. He forced the prefect Giovanni di Vico to surrender the cities of Viterbo, Orvieto, Trani, Amelia, Narni, Marta, Camino, which he had occupied, and took over the lordship.

The people then (1354) begged him to give him as rector Cola Rienzi who had come with him, and he in fact instituted him a senator, so that with his popularity he might revive some order; and Cola, having found someone to lend him, bought a band of two hundred and fifty knights and two hundred foot soldiers. [551]As usual, he was received with as much enthusiasm, with what contempt he had been expelled; the nobles, who cursed him, kept themselves closed, and he gave a terrible example by seizing and trying the famous leader of fortune (August 29) frà Moriale. For many years he had desolated Italy with his band; and feared by the peoples, respected by the princes, he would never have believed that a peasant dared to seek him a knight in punishment and infamy, and that he had lent him large sums. As he knew he prepared the torture for him from his senses, he prayed, threatened, exhibited; all in vain; so that contrite, and with all the exteriorities of a penitent he went to death, kissing the fatal stock, and saying: – Hello, oh holy justice ». The pope had sixty thousand florins seized that he had put to good use with Venetian merchants,[385] .

Cola was recognized by Innocent VI as a noble knight; and if he had profited from the weariness of the Romans, he could obtain the glory which is the most beautiful after a revolution, that of a restorer. But he was thrown into excessive eating and drinking; the terror he inspired, he thought was submission; since he then he exercised power in the name of the pope, he ceased to be the toy of the people. He led the troops to besiege Palestrina, [552]where the young Colonna had strengthened, but was forced to turn away from him for lack of money. To make it, he placed taxes on salt and wine, which filled the discontent of the Romans, who rose and shouted: “Mora the traitor who made the gabelle”, attacked him in the palace. Not believing they were threatening his life, he waited for that outburst in senatorial dress and with the people’s banner in hand; and he asked to speak: but caught in stones and fire, he tried to steal, and discovered (1354 8bre) was slaughtered and hung on the gallows. Thus the people break their idols: yet the height of the concept and a certain generosity in implementing it separate Cola from ordinary turmoil, and still leave him the subject of study, of meditations, of sympathy.

Cardinal Albornoz and Rodolfo di Varano, lord of Camerino, commander of the pontifical army, put the brakes on Rome again; then with gentleness and strength they continued to subdue the patrimony of St. Peter, the Duchy of Spoleto, the March of Ancona and the other small towns, in each of which a tyrant had made a nest.