The Arcadian origin of the city of Ruvo is also inferred from the name imposed on it by its first founders.

It is not easy to agree with the nomenclatures of ancient cities. Few are those for which it can be said that they took their name both from that of the respective founder, both from local circumstances that suggested it, and finally from relevant events that took place on their site. For the maximum number of cities the origin of their name remains enveloped in the deep haze of time.

Some Commentators of Horace in his annotations on the word Rubos , where the Poet spent the night on his journey from Rome to Brindisi, say that this city took its name a copia ruborum , as Roberto Stefano also erroneously said, refuted in the first chapter. It is easy to see the frivolity of this etymology. The brambles are found everywhere where the land is not fully cultivated, and much of it is left to the woods and pastures. The Ruvestino countryside does not have a greater quantity of brambles than there are in other places.

The aforementioned Commentators, on the other hand, wrote at a time when the ancient Ruvestine coins had not yet been published, which made it clear that this was an ancient Greek city. So the etymology of its name is badly taken from the Latin Rubi , while it must be taken from the Greek legend Ρύψ which is found in the most ancient of them. Therefore, given the certain Greek origin of the aforementioned city, the conjectures relating to its name cannot and must not start from other considerations, except from those that may suggest its origin [123] .

It is known that the leaders of the foreign colonies that came to settle in Italy have often given their name not only to the cities they founded, such as Cuma, Taranto and others, but also to the regions they conquered, as mentioned earlier in Peucezia , of Oenotria , Daunia and others. But it was also the custom of the Greek colonies established here to reproduce the names of the cities of their original homeland that they had left for the need to go elsewhere to procure their livelihood.

So Dionysius of Halicarnassus tells us that the Greeks who came from the Peloponnese to Campania Inter ceteras urbes condidere Larissam Pelloponnesiacæ illius cognomine, quæ quondam Metropolis ipsorum fuerat . Speaking of the second expedition of the Arcadians led by Evander, as mentioned above, and departed from the city of Arcadia called Pallantium , he says that having established himself near the Tiber in the place where the city of Rome later rose, they built a small city and he adds : Huic Oppidulo a veteri Patria nomen apponunt Pallantium, nunc vero Palatium a Romanis dicitur corrupta voce injuria temporum [124] .

Pausanias also says the same when speaking of Evandro. Hunc in coloniam missum, deducta a Pallantio in locum Tiberi proximum Arcadum manu, oppidum condidisse, quod urbis Romæ postea pars fuerit: appellatum vero de Arcadici Oppidi nomine ab ipso Evandro, et Inquilinorum comitatu Pallantium, quod n consecuta cetas du Nomen literis submotis , immutavit [125] .

It was also noted earlier with the authority of Pliny and Strabo that Diomedes founded in Daunia the city of Argos Hippium , later called Argyripa , and finally Arpi , to reproduce here the name of the Greek city Argos , from which Virgil said of him.

Ille urbem Argyripam patriæ cognomine gentis,

Victor Gargani condebat Japygis agris [126] .

Then Servius on another place of the Poet observes. Diomedes in Apulia condidit civitatem, quam Patriæ suæ nomine appellavit, et Argos Ippion dixit, quod nomen postea vetustate corruptum est, et factum ut civitas Argyripa diceretur, quod rursus corruptum Arpos dixit Plinius lib. III Chapter XI [127] .

The same can be said of the cities of Eraclea , and Locri similarly reproduced by Greece in Italy, and also of Turio which can be said to be called by the Greek city Thuria of which Strabone, Pausania, Stefano Byzantine and others are mentioned [128] . Neither of the Greek cities alone were the names reproduced here; but also of the rivers of Greece. The river Crati which flows where before there was the city of Sybaris, and then that of Turio, and which is formed by the union of two rivers, took its name from a river of Greece, of which Strabo says.In Achaicas porro Ægas fluvius est Crathis, here ex duobus fluminibus auctus a permixtione, seu temperatione nomen habet, ut et Italiæ Crathis [129] .

We read the same also with Herodotus. Inde Ægira, et Æga in qua est Crathis fluvius perennis, a quo Italicus ille vocatus est [130] . Pausanias similarly speaking of Mount Crati of Greece, says In eo [a93]Mount Chratidis amnis fontes sunt. Labitur is in mare præter Ægas, desertum ætate mea vicum, Achæorum olim urbem. Ab eo nomen accepit Crathis Italiæ in Brutiis fluvius [131] .

The same can be said of the Acheloo river of Aetolia, from which our river called by Strabo took its name, and by Pliny Acalandro , who today bears the name of Salandrella , and flows through the fields of ancient Eraclea.

There is therefore every reason to say that the city of Ruvo has likewise taken its name from another ancient city in Greece that was wanted to be reproduced here. It remains only to investigate which of them those who founded it had in aim to give it its name.

Strabo tells us that in the Peloponnese, from which Oenotro and Peucezio left with their followers, there were two ancient cities, from which the name imposed on our city could very well derive. Of the first of these located in Acaja he says Quod ad reliquas sive urbes, sive portiones Achajæ attinet Rypes non habitantur: Regionem, cui Rypidi nomen fuit Æginenses, ac Pharienses occuparunt, et Æschilus alicubi hæc habet

Sacramque Buran, et Ceraunias Rypas,

Fuit hæc Myscelli homeland, here Crotonem condidit. Sed et Leuctrum pagus fuit Rypidis ad urbem Rypas pertinens [132] .

After having spoken of the cities of Arcadia destroyed in whole, or in part, Quæ vero Homerus refert

Ripen ac Stratiam, et ventosæ mænia Ænispæ,

eas neque easy, neque ulla cum utilitate inveneris cum sint desertæ [133] . Which also proves that these cities were of little consideration. Di Ripen also mentions Pausanias referring in the same way to Homer [134] .

The aforementioned two cities, namely Rypes and Ripen, which at the time of Strabo were destroyed, before the Trojan War, when Oenotro and Peucezio [a94]they came to Italy they were certainly there. From one of them it must be said that he took the city of Ruvo after him. However, penetrating to the bottom of the thing it must be said that he took it from the first and not from the second, and this for a double reason. The first because the name of our city is always found in the plural as that of Ρύπες by Strabo, Herodotus, and Pausanias, and of Ρύπαι by Stephen Byzantine, as we will see now. Hence, even in Latin the version of his name has been made in the plural, and is called Rubi .

The second because the city of Greece called Ρύπας by Aeschylus was much more illustrious than the small city called Ρίπεν of Homer, and the Greeks reproduced here the names of the conspicuous cities of their native country, not the ignoble Bicocche. Then Tommaso Pinedo in his notes to Stefano Bizantino De Urbibus on the word Ρύπαι observes: Rhypæ urbs Achaica. Una de duodecim Achæorum urbibus famigeratis auctore Pausanias in Achaicis, et Ρύπαι et Ρύπες dicitur Straboni lib. IX, Pausaniæ quoted book. Ejus tantum ruinæ ætate Pausaniæ extabant, ut ipse refert eodem libro . And in true Pausanias in naming the aforementioned twelve illustrious cities of Achaea, among which Ρύπες, says this: Sunt vero eæ urbes apud universos Græcos notæ et illustres [135] . Herodotus also reports them one by one, and among them there is Ρύπες [136] .

Add to this that Homer’s Ρίπεν is written with ι, and Aeschylus’ Ρύπας is written with in the same way that is read in all Ruvestine coins. So in the version of the name of our city it was said Rubi and not Riba as it should have been said if his name had been taken from Homer’s Ρίπεν. This is also a strong argument for believing that the Greeks of the Peloponnese led by Peucezio wanted here to reproduce one of the twelve most illustrious cities of their native country.

Nor should it be said that in the place of Pausanias just mentioned we read Ρίπες and not Ρύπες, as this was an amanuensis error warned and corrected by the learned Frederick Sylburgio in his annotations to Pausanias, who in other places wrote the name of this city always with ‘ύ and not [a95]with the. In Achaicarum urbium cathalogo mendosa sunt quædam nomina. Pro Ρίπες enim scribendum Ρύπες for ύ, ut non infra tantum cap. 18 et 23, sed etiam apud Herodotum et Strabonem, et confirmat etiam ordo alphabeticus apud Stephanum. Imo apud eundem Stephanum non way Ρύπες appellantur cives ipsi, sed etiam urbs .

In fact, Pausanias in chapter XVIII of the same book VII speaks again of that city and says thus: Augustus deinde vel quod ad navium appulsum Patras valde esse appositas judicaret, vel alia quacumque de causa, emigrare illam multitudinem ex illis oppidis Patras jussit. Quin eodem Rhypis Acheorum urbe funditus eversa, multitudinem omnem traduxit. And further down in chapter XXIII. Paululum supra militarem viam cernuntur Rhypum ruinæ. In both these places we read Ρύπας Ρύπων not Ρίπας Ριπων. So also Luca Olstenio in his notes to Stefano Bizantino on the word Ρύπαι attaches this second place of Pausanias and observes: Ρύπαι autem videntur dictæ Pausaniæ .

It therefore seems that this and no other must be the natural and adequate conjecture on the origin and etymology of the name of our city. This cannot be repeated from the name of the leader of the Colony, as has been said for other cities, since it is known that the leader of the Greeks established there was Peucezio , and he gave his name to the Region he conquered, not to the new ones. cities that were founded in it. Furthermore, there is no other local circumstance which may have an analogy or a relationship with the Greek name imposed on it.

It is known that cities have often taken their names from rivers, lakes, springs, mountains etc. adjacent to the same. There is nothing in Ruvo and its surroundings that could have influenced its nomenclature. In this position, the most plausible and adequate explanation of the origin of its name is to repeat it from the reproduction that was wanted to make here of one of the twelve most illustrious cities of Acaja.

Nor would it be worth saying to the contrary that Ρύπες is written with π and Ρύβαςτεινων or abbreviated Ρύβα that can be read in Ruvo’s coins is written with β, which was also considered in the Latin Rubi nomenclature . These are but small variations, which decide nothing. Could you have suggested these or the whim of those who lived in later ages, [a96]or the time-induced corruption of the city’s primitive name. It has been said before that the city of Argos Hippium founded by Diomedes in Daunia was then called Argyripa , and finally Arpi , and that Pallantium founded by Evander was later called Palatium . The same could also be observed for many other cities. What wonder is it then that the Ρύπας of our city has since changed into Ρύβας?

Meanwhile, it is noteworthy that only the most recent Ruvestine coins are seen written with β, but the ancient ones have π. Add to that that in some of them the name of the city is written in the way that follows Ρύψ (Rhyps). These are the coins shown in num. 1 2 3 and 4 of Table First and 6 and 7 of Table Second annexed to Chap. II, and also illustrated by Cav. Avellino. Prove this clearly that β was foreign to the primitive name of our city, and that this variation was nothing more than a corruption induced in later times. If coins give light to History many times, much more can they challenge a purely material factual article, which is the ancient coinage of the city to which they belong.

Now if this was surely Ρύψ (Rhyps), there can be no more doubt that the name of our city is derived from that of the illustrious city of Achaea called Ρύπαι and Ρύπες. Stephen Byzantine in reporting the said ancient city of Acaja added the following derivative of it πολίτης Ρύψ civis Rhypæus . The Ρύψ that is read in the most ancient Ruvestine coins is clear for itself that it comes from the said ancient city of Achaja.

Then opportunely observes the prelodate Mr. Millingen on the ancient Ruvo coins in the aforementioned place. Ses monnaies di lui nous apprennent en effet que son veritable nom di lui ètait Ρύψ (Rhyps), nom identique avec le nominatif de Ρύπες, une des douze villes de l’Achaje et Patrie de Myscellus fondateur de Croton [137] .

What Mr. Millingen says is so true that the first Ruvestine coins were believed to belong to the ancient city of Achaja. [a97]called Rhypæ , and this error was rebuked by Signor Cavaliere Avellino who attributed it to Ruvo, as I noted earlier in Chapter II. In addition, in his Catalog of the Ruvestine Coins which will be linked at the end of this book, it is appropriate in the Achean origin of our city.

After these demonstrations, doubting that our city has reproduced here the name of the ancient and illustrious city of Achaea called Ρύπαι, or Ρύπες would be the same as getting pissed off by Skepticism. With positive frivolity, therefore, Francesco Maria Pratilli in the description of the Via Appia meant that the city of Ruvo does not allow itself to be recognized as less ancient than its other neighboring cities! In this truly golden stretch, however, one cannot fail to admire that same diligence and accuracy with which he also sold in the same place that Cicero, Pomponio Mela, Stefano Bizantino, and Strabo [138] had spoken of Ruvo !

The first three writers, however, never dreamed of making it a motto. As for Strabo it has been believed up to now that he has not talked about it at all, and one would continue to believe the same if it had not been shown by me in the first Chapter up to the evidence that that place of this Writer where we read Νήτιον has been corrupted , and instead of this city that never existed, the name of our city must be replaced. Such inaccuracies, on the other hand, are familiar to Pratilli who did not bother to investigate the things that he disposed of with overwhelming ease.

It is not my intention to enter into a competence of antiquity with the other cities of Peucezia which, sipping a coffee, declared them older than the city of Ruvo. Who, except Pratilli, could dare to speak with such frankness about events that took place before the Trojan War? If, however, in the midst of so much fog, conjectures and arguments can be of value, these cannot fail to prevail for the greater antiquity of my homeland.

It has first been shown that those who founded it proposed to reproduce in it one of the twelve illustrious cities of Achaja, their homeland. They had left there, not because they hated it, but because the overabundance of the Population meant that the native soil did not [a98]it was enough to feed him, as Dionysius of Halicarnassus makes him know. They therefore abandoned their homeland forced by the empire of necessity which forced them to look elsewhere for a comfortable sustenance, and they brought with them the love of it.

The love of one’s homeland is very powerful in the hearts of men. The remembrance of those places where we opened our eyes to the light, where we were brought up and educated, and where we spent our first years, is always dear to us and is never erased either by time or by distance. Dulcis amor Patriæ. For this holy love man faces all dangers, and if necessary sheds his own blood.

However, this love for their native country was felt by the first Greek colonists who, under the command of Peucezio, conquered that Region, and settled there. Certainly their descendants, who did not know Greece, and the said twelve illustrious cities which had left their ancestors, could certainly not feel it in the same way. Consequently they could not have the same passion for them that their ancestors had.

This gives me the right to say that the other ancient cities of Peucezia have gradually been able to be founded by the children and grandchildren of the first Greek colonists who conquered it. But the city of Ruvo, which took the name of one of the twelve illustrious cities of Acaja, of which we have already spoken, must be believed to have been founded by those first settlers who had fresh and alive the remembrance of them, and wanted to reproduce here the one that was for them either the most noble, or the most expensive.

And indeed the city of Daunia Argos Hippium was founded by Diomede himself, the city Pallantium was founded by Evandro himself, the city of Larissa was founded by the same first Greek colonists who came to Campania, to reproduce here those illustrious cities of Greece that had let, the names of which they were dear to them. The same must also be believed for Ruvo, because these are the conjectures that common sense suggests, and the knowledge of the human heart. If Mr. Pratilli had paid the same attention, he would not have decided ex cathedra that the city of Ruvo is the least ancient of that Region. Whence did he find this? Quantum est in rebus inane!