Fake news in western society

  ”Today people’s ability to fake has surpassed people’s ability to distinguish between true and false.” This is a line of dialogue from the American movie “Simeone”. Nowadays, all kinds of “fake” exist around people, and fake news has become a social phenomenon in contemporary Western society. middle. The famous historian Pustin used the following quotation in his article “The Torrent of False Events” in his work “Illusions” – a friend with an envious look:
  ”Look, how beautiful your child is!”
  Mother: ” Oh, that’s alright – you should go and see more beautiful pictures of him!” The
  mother’s reply, exaggerated but vividly described how fake events pervade our lives. Authenticity is the lifeblood of news, the foundation of its existence, and the moral code that the world news community abides by. And the emergence of fake news is undoubtedly a shame for the world press.
  Fake news (pseudo events), also known as fake events, is defined by historian Bustin in his book “Illusions” as: news that is deliberately created by design, if it is not arranged through design. processes, events that may not occur. Fake news is planned, not spontaneous, it is also a pre-release, not authenticity but “news value”. Because fake news events are specially arranged, they are usually more interesting and more intense than real events. Fake news thrives because of the symbiotic relationship between media and sources.
  From the perspective of communication, the reason why fake news is so popular can be seen from two aspects: the object of fake news, that is, the fake news itself; the subject of fake news, that is, the counterfeiter and the spreader. As far as the object of fake news is concerned, the generation of fake news is related to the news value and degree of ambiguity of the events involved in the fake news; and from the perspective of the subject of fake news, it is mainly because the media is eager for quick success, blindly pursuing sensational effects and enhancing the attractiveness of newspapers. , while taking advantage of the public’s curiosity. If we look at the motives of journalists to create fake news, fake news in Western society can be roughly divided into the following types:
  
  1. The media creates and reports fake news due to their obedience to certain political needs.
  
  During World War II, a secret British radio station “Atlantic German Shortwave Radio” often mixed real news and fake news on news programs to create chaos and spread panic in Germany. For example, in a broadcast in October 1943, it mixed two true news and two false news. One of the fake news was that 650 citizens were admitted to hospitals in the city of Frankfurt because they drank poisonous tap water. After the news was broadcast, it caused widespread panic in the local area.
  At the time, the news and commentary programs broadcast by the German “Haha Jazz” were the most influential programs on its secret radio station. “Sir Haha” broadcasts 15 minutes of English news to the world every day through a shortwave transmitter station located on the outskirts of Berlin, and the time is not fixed. He deliberately placed the shortwave frequencies very close to the BBC shortwave frequencies to mislead listeners into thinking it was a BBC broadcast. He spoke cordially with the audience in fluent and pure English, and from time to time broadcast some fake news about the war situation. In the UK, 18 million radios listened to his broadcasts, and most but a few became his loyal listeners.
  Similar examples were numerous in World War II, and later it even developed into a psychological tactic that was widely used through the medium of broadcasting. For another example, from August 15th to 18th, 1943, a large number of German troops from the Western Front assembled to the Eastern Front, during which they had to pass through a small town called Magdenburg. In order to create chaos and stop the German army from gathering, the secret radio station “Voice of Germany” set up by the Allies carefully designed an “emergency announcement”: “For the safety of the German residents, the Führer has set aside a special train to wait at Magdenburg station. Board this Train, you will be taken to an ideal place where you can hardly hear the rumble of planes. In Magdenburg, the Führer has prepared free food, clothing, drinks and chocolate for you. Residents, go to Magdenburg with confidence Go, I wish you safety.” Many people put down their clothes and food, and rushed towards Magdenburg with their bare hands. In fact, there are no clothes, food, or trains here at all. The residents crowded the place in a mess. Many people were squeezed to death and injured, and the German troops could not assemble on time.
  In order to obey the needs of the organization and achieve a certain political purpose, this kind of behavior of journalists or the media that ignores the truth of the views and publicly makes false reports without remembering the social effects, is like the story of “the wolf is coming”, maybe people will believe it a few times before. , and gradually people will no longer believe it, and by then, perhaps the media has lost more than just credibility.
  
  2. Journalists or media created and reported fake news out of the pursuit of historical material sensation.
  
  On April 20, 1983, “Star” magazine first serialized the 60-volume “Hitler Diaries”, which caused a sensation all over the world. They snapped up magazines to get a glimpse of the inner monologue of the WWII sinner. Immediately afterwards, the famous British newspaper “The Sunday Times” also spent a lot of money to buy a long series. However, many experts have expressed doubts about this. Some experts say that during World War II, Hitler was always busy until dawn before going to bed and never kept a diary. In addition, people who worked with him for many years never mentioned it in his memoirs. The Hitler Diaries. Some historians pointed out that some of the records in the diary were obviously wrong and violated historical facts.
  In May 1983, the then West German Archives, West German Criminal and Federal Office for Material Inspection finally launched a joint investigation into the Hitler Diaries. On May 6, 1983, West German scientists declared that the diaries were all fake. The manuscript is written in 4 inks, none of which were used during World War II. By measuring the evaporation of chloride in the ink, the scientists identified that the diary, written in 1943, was actually less than a year old. Under the pressure of strong public opinion, the “Sunday Times” announced that it would no longer publish “Hitler’s Diary”, and the two editors in charge were forced to resign. “Star” magazine put all these accounts on the head of the discoverer of “Hitler’s Diaries” – journalist Jardan Hedman, accusing him of defrauding the publishing house’s property. After a lengthy interrogation, Headman finally revealed the source of the diary.
  It turned out that all these diaries were bought by Hedman and Kenrad Kuja, an antique dealer and master forger in Stuttgart. This person runs a Nazi souvenir shop in West Germany. Of course, most of the souvenirs in it are forged by him, including Hitler’s poems, Nazi secrets, badges, etc., but ordinary people will never see it. When Jadan Heidman, a fan of Nazi relics, saw three volumes of “Hitler’s Diaries” with Hitler’s personal emblem and black ribbons on display on the counter, he was stunned. The reporter’s news sensitivity told him that if these diaries are genuine, then he can definitely create a Guinness record in the history of journalism! Hedman believed—or would rather convince himself that the diaries were real, that he had ordered them all, paid 85,000 marks apiece, and told him not to publicize them, but to unanimously declare The source of the diary is a former Hitler lieutenant who fled to South America. So Kuja spent a total of 3 years at home creating this 60-volume fake “Hitler’s Diary”.
  Once the incident was revealed, the sales of “Star” Weekly plummeted, and this major newspaper scandal that fooled the world’s news media also made people extremely cautious about the so-called “historical materials” that appeared in the future. We all say that history is the least deceiving fact, and the emergence of “fake historical materials” in media reports can’t help but make us question: Is news just a game of words?
  
  3. Journalists or media created and reported fake news
  
  in order to satisfy people’s reverie about technology News, with press pictures – a “pregnant” mummy. The message described: The mummy’s caretaker confessed that he could not resist the beauty of the female mummy, and he couldn’t help expressing his love for her, causing her to become pregnant. A scientist pointed out that the 3,000-year-old mummy can still be fertilized and pregnant. Perhaps the liquid soaked in the mummy has a magical effect, and after examination, scientists have concluded that the fetus is a baby girl. The whole message is unequivocal.
  This is an interesting piece of fake news, because anyone with a little scientific knowledge will know that a dead person cannot be pregnant, let alone a mummified corpse with its guts (including the uterus) hollowed out! As for the fake news picture, it was later verified that the original body of the picture was King Sethos (sometimes called King Seti) I of Egypt, one of the best-preserved mummies in the world, and was also the first mummy with his palms in front of him. The king of breasts. He was the king of the 19th Dynasty, and the burial ground was stolen and the mummy itself was damaged, which was later restored in the 21st Dynasty. Apparently, the so-called mummified pregnant woman is the mummy of King Sethos I of Egypt, which is now stored in the Cairo Museum in Egypt.
  Another example, on July 22, 2001, it was reported that American doctor White would go to Ukraine to perform a surgical replacement. According to White, after nearly 30 years of experiments, the Hericium replacement surgery has reached an absolute level of proficiency. In the last monkey head transplant, two monkeys who had swapped their heads came back to life within six hours of the surgery. This fake news can confuse some readers as well as some editors because of the dream of human beings to replace organs. But only three days later, a doctor of biology in the United States revealed on the Internet that the earliest report about Dr. White’s “head transplant” came from the American supermarket tabloid “National Inquirer” on June 5, 1979, and all of what he said was untrue.

  Some people say that the problem can only be attributed to the distraction of some media editors in physiology class that year, but I think at least our IQ is also greatly challenged. Journalists or media create and report fake news in order to satisfy people’s reverie about technology, which makes technology news take the road of entertainment, and has our era of pan-entertainment come?
  
  4. Journalists or the media create and report fake news to meet the emotional needs of the audience.
  
  In 1980, Janet Cook, a female reporter for the Washington Post, fabricated a heart-wrenching story: an 8-year-old woman Heroin addict boy Jimmy, a victim of the rampant drug trade in Washington’s ghetto. Growing up with addiction, violence and despair, he became addicted at a young age at the instigation of his mother’s live-in boyfriend. The story is brilliantly written and moving, and readers often shed tears of sympathy as they read. The story won the most prestigious Pulitzer Prize for journalism. However, as the so-called big tree attracts the wind, the news of little Jimmy’s drug use caused a strong shock in the society. Many people asked Janet Cook to tell the boy’s whereabouts so that he could get help from all walks of life. The Washington police in the United States asked the newspaper to provide Jimmy real address for investigation. Hundreds of police officers and plainclothes inspected the area provided by the newspaper for three weeks, but did not find the 8-year-old drug addict named Jimmy. The fabricated report came to light, and she was fired from the newspaper and ordered to return her prize. Afterwards, Janet Cook issued a statement acknowledging that “the story of what happened to Jimmy was basically fabricated.” In her resignation statement, she said: “I have never met or interviewed an 8-year-old who was addicted to heroin. The September 28, 1980 Washington Post article was a serious misrepresentation that I deeply regret. I apologize to my newspaper, to my profession, to the Pulitzer Prize committee and to those who seek truth. In the face of the truth, I have tendered my resignation today.” Since then, no American media has dared to hire this man. A notorious female reporter. Because any of her works may be ridiculed and questioned: “Is this true or false?” Which newspaper can afford it?
  Yet we can’t deny that Janet Cook’s story was a success, as it managed to earn readers’ tears, and it catered to people’s emotional need to sympathize with the underdog. But after all, news is not a simple story, news is always based on its authenticity. Lost of authenticity, it can be a romance or a sci-fi movie, but it is no longer news.
  
  5. Journalists give up their professional ethics to create and report fake news for personal gain.
  
  In May 2003, the famous “New York Times” opened its own scars and voluntarily disclosed the scandal of the newspaper’s reporter Jason Blair’s plagiarism and fabrication of fake news. He was expelled, and at the same time took the initiative to apologize to readers, victims of untrue news, and plagiarists, as well as “professional journalists with conscience”, and encouraged readers to write and call to correct this matter. In June, The New York Times said in a statement that its executive editor, Howell Raines, was forced to announce his resignation after a scandal involving the plagiarism of his young reporters. Meanwhile, New York Times editor-in-chief Gerald Boyd also announced his resignation.
  According to reports, Jason was promoted from a small intern to an important reporter covering domestic news in a very short period of time by constantly concocting fake news during his internship. Since then, Jason has been living in Brooklyn, New York, but by using his mobile phone and computer to contact the newspaper, he has created the illusion that he is running around and working hard. According to the “New York Times” press release records, Maryland, West Virginia, Ohio, Texas and other states have left the “hard-working footprint” of the young reporter. Since he was promoted to domestic news reporter in October 2002, Jason has published a total of 73 articles, of which at least 36 “have various plagiarism problems”. Eventually, Jason resigned to his boss after the San Francisco Express questioned that the big reporter might “plagiarize” a news report about the missing U.S. military.
  The incident became the biggest scandal in The New York Times’ 152nd anniversary. Other mainstream media in the United States also reported this in great lengths, and aroused widespread concern. The series of actions of the “New York Times” also made people feel admiration and emotion. At the same time, it is hoped that the leader of the world’s print media can revive its glory through this event.
  In May 2003, the New York Post admitted that the work of a freelance writer for the paper had been plagiarized from an article in the National Enquirer magazine.
  In March 2004, USA Today ran a front-page article acknowledging that one of the newspaper’s star reporters, Jack Corley, had fabricated at least eight breaking stories in the last 10 years, and plagiarized them from other outlets. Lots of conversations and material from the parties involved.