The poet’s works are his life. Each of his creations is a deed of his mind, in which he gathered the highest forces, a sign on which to measure the portions of the path he traveled. His works are the inheritance which he leaves to posterity; those who know them know the poet. But because his life is in his works, one must know that in order to understand it. Only from the knowledge of the interrelationship between life and poetry, between man and poet, does one obtain a clear insight into his nature, a just appraisal of his position. All collecting on the life history of the poets, all explaining their works based on it.
The memories of Tieck’s life are a historical explanation of his works; they show their origin as acts of his spirit. To speak of them from another point of view is not the intention, although it does not bother with material, if only because so much has been said about it. But let’s talk again about how he behaved humanely and literarily to them in detail.
“One must have experienced it!” Was his password. He had experienced what he wrote. His poetry was the pure expression of his inner life; they were something quite personal, a part of his nature. Therein lies their meaning, the depth of their thoughts, the power, the liveliness, the vividness of the representation.
But much of what he experienced and experienced externally, he has laid down in it. For the novellas, this has always been acknowledged, but only from the wealth of experience and observations could they emerge. If it confirms more than a thousand others, that it depends on how one experiences things, then he was no less privileged in what he experienced. Of course, suffering was no small part of it. Anyone who knew his life knew that much of the species was scattered in the earlier poetry. As a rule, he gave it with historical fidelity, at the most, that he did not conceal a name, or put a fake one in its place. He had no reason to change and transform. The historical truth of the factual was unconnected with the poetic truth. This is no small testimony to his poetry at all.
In such isolated depictions of his life he has given fragments of memoirs which he has not written. But you could make it out of it. Collected, these scattered features give his life picture, not as he has designed it in the whole, but as it seemed to him from the point of view of the moment, viewed from one side. The following proofs make an attempt to give such a compilation of individual moments of life according to their time sequence.
Memories from childhood and boyhood can be found in the “Young Master Carpenter”; his father’s tales of the Magister Kindleben are used in the description of the old Magister. The adolescent enthusiasm of the carpenter for the “Götz” is his own. Traits from youth life also include: “Christmas Eve” the description of the Berlin Christmas Market; the conversations in “Phantasus” the story of the magical theater billet; “Musical Sorrows and Delights” his youthful attempts in music; “The Young Master Carpenter” his student trips to Jessen and Wittenberg; the story “Peter Leberecht’s” a characteristic of his childhood friend Piesker under the name Liesker; the novella “The Magic Castle” the description of another schoolmate named Schwieger. The man with the red coat, who has the fixed idea of having to follow the pygmies with his whip, who appears in the “traveler,” he had seen as a pupil at a wedding in a Berlin townhouse. The memories of Franconia and his wanderings in the Fichtelgebirge with Wackenroder he has laid down in the “Young Carpenter”; the moonstruck man who describes that moonlit magic night in the Fichtelgebirge is he. The impressions he received in Nuremberg are based on the Sternbald; He tells his adventure in the camp of the imperial troops at Fürth in the talks in “Phantasus”. Wackenroder’s willful deception, that the dog has learned to read, is caused to the old Labitte in the “witches’ Sabbath”. The night scene, which he experienced while reading the “Macbeth” in Göttingen, he describes in “Lovell”; from his studies of Spanish at this time he speaks in the “magic castle”. The adventures with Ophelia and the lunatic, who considered himself a son of Frederick the Great, he tells in The Traveler and the Young Carpenter; the story with the miner in the “Old Mountain”, who had never seen a cornfield, he experienced in Andreasberg am Harz.
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He gives single experiences from the later time until the moving to Dresden in the following places: In the “Abendgesprächen” the vision of 1798, when he went to his bride to Tegel; in the “learned society” a description of his literary life with Wackenroder, Bernhardi and others; in the novella “Waldeinsamkeit” he speaks of the emergence of “Blond Ekbert”; There are memories of Jena. The satirical and fantastic comedies describe his relationship to the literary world of the time; he transferred his hobby for lead soldiers to the old king in “Zerbino”; In the “Letters on Shakspeare” and the talks in “Phantasus,” he tells of his theatrical passion. In the person of Pastor Watelet, he tells of the impression made on him by Jacob Böhme’s writings in the “Cévennes,” whose religious views are his own. His journey through Germany in 1803 with Burgsdorff, his former circumstances and moods he represents in the “summer trip” and in the “Young Carpenter”; the musical life in the family of Count Finkenstein in the “Musical Sorrows and Delights”. Reichardt’s book “Napoleon Bonaparte and the French people under his consulate” gave rise to the novel “The Mysterious.” A poetic diary of his Italian journey contains the “travel poems of a patient”; he gives the impression of music in the papal chapel in the “Musical Sorrows and Pleasures”, memories of the German amateur theater in Rome in the “Young Carpenter”, his stay in Florence in the “Cup”. Illness and life in Munich is described in the conversations in “Phantasus” and “Liebeszauber”. The scenery for the society in “Phantasus” is taken from life in Ziebingen; the idiotic Theophilus is a figure he encountered there. The hero of the “Zopfnovelle”, who considers himself a Ziethen hussar without ever having been a soldier, is a historical person. He was a steward in Ziebingen, and his reassurances were actually made in Berlin, as a result of which his whimsical self-deception was discovered. Anecdotes from the life of Fichte and Oehlenschlager, whose witness he himself was, he gives in the “Uebereilungen,” he tells his experiences of somnambulism in the “miracle-addict”.
Finally, the conditions of the dresdener provided the material for the “scarecrow” in which several literary figures of that time appear; That is why the poet is in the magic castle. From his visits to Sesenheim, Stratford and Ulrich Hegner he tells in the “moonstruck”. “Poet Life” and the “Death of the Poet” contain a number of self-confessions and portrayals in the mouth of Shakspeare and Camoens. He develops the views of the Old English stage as a professor in the “Young Carpenter”, whom he has otherwise endowed with many of his peculiarities. His prosaic childhood friend Piesker, as he saw him later in Dresden, describes it as Beskow in the “Journey into the Blue”; He discusses his position on Young Germany in the same way, and in the “water man”, “obstinacy and mood”, “scarecrow” and “courtship”.
Anecdotes, which friends had told him about the novels, also provided the material for novellas, such as “Wassermensch”, “Eigensinn und Laune”, “Die Klausenburg”, “Der Weihnachtsabend”; the occasion for the “fifteenth of November” a Copper engraving in a Dutch beech, which represented an inundation.
Everywhere one may touch, one encounters one’s own experiences and experiences. The material from life crowded in on him from all sides, never was he embarrassed, rather it was too much for him, what he still wanted to express and present everything. If he was in the course of the work, time and energy were hardly enough. He worked infinitely quickly and easily, especially in his youth, where he often boldly cared for things under the spring. Everything about improving, filing and cleaning in detail was annoying to him. Rarely did he corrigate, more rarely did he design Concepte. Everything he wrote was a cast; as he had previously noted inwardly, so he pronounced it. His manuscripts bear this character of liquid and finished. He did not like to return to what was once finished.
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It can not therefore be said that he worked hastily; the preparations often lasted a very long time. He did not know any measured method of working; but in fact it was in a constant alternation of dreamy reflection and sinking and the most strained mechanical writing. Having finally decided on one of many plans and figures that he had in mind, he began to work through and form the material inwardly, forgetting his surroundings, seemingly idle and absorbed. In such times all things came to life before his soul into the individual; he finished it, as he used to say, in his head. Finally the masses flowed, the breakthrough came. It was not uncommon for us to decide on external occasions, an impending journey, or the urging of the booksellers who were asking for his published short stories for her paperbacks. Now he began to write, without seeing a friend and speaking, without getting up from his chair; hardly that he had time to eat. So he wrote short stories of many sheets in a few days. With an incredible hurry the pen flew over the paper.
With this influx of abundance he could never comfort himself to dictate; in the impatience with which he wrote, the detour through the pen of a third was much too long for him. Only when he reached for it did he find the right word. The stenography, which was recommended to him in Berlin, he rejected with mistrust, and only in recent years, when he was confined to the bed, he decided to dictate, but he confined himself mostly only on letters.
Tieck’s method of working was closely related to his nature, only a significant force could work that way; yet he felt the aftermath associated with it very well. How he accused himself of postponing, so in familiar letters, even his way of working; he could not command his moods, he sink into reverie and work again too much and too fast; only a little of it had happened, which his youthful imagination had shown him to be possible, that the best had been omitted from projecting over reason; man is insatiable in plans. There was a lack of balance between execution and design; working through it in the imagination consumed a part of the power, and always preferred the newest plans and materials.
In occasional verbal and written expressions, in letters or even publicly, he therefore developed an infinite wealth of plans. In such intimations he then took the joy which he exerted himself on herleadership promised, beforehand. What he wanted stood clearly and firmly before his soul; he saw what had not yet become, and the liveliness of the imagination made him overlook the line that separated thoughts and execution.
Of the designs of such designs little is available, because only in rare cases he came to the beginning of the same. A plan that arose next to Sternbald was to give a counterpart to that in a novel called “Alma,” which he called a book of love. Since 1797 he has carried himself with this idea, but his partial execution is later and falls into the years 1803-6. He often complained that these papers had been lost. The sonnets and love poems recorded under the name “Alma” are included in the collection of poems. He wanted to discuss the religious questions in 1802 in another novel, the sketch of which he kept in the novella “Die Sommerreise”. Lyrical passages from a dramatic adaptation of the “Magelone” can be found among his poems. He began to write a fist in the ziebinger period, which also has not received. Some other fragments give the literary estate. But only the “anti-Faust”, the dramatized “Melusine” and an approach to a “fairy tale novel” from the latest time are worth mentioning. Certainly he did not leave behind any really incomplete and incomplete poetry, as did others of our poets, Lessing, Schiller, Goethe.
Nevertheless, a sharp criticism has laid a significant emphasis on him; she did not measure his genius by what he really did and did, but rather by what he wanted to do, what he left unfinished. There is no more unjust procedure than to give his place in literature to a great poet afterwards [p. 157]. This criticism seems to have proved that Tieck’s poetry, by its very nature, could only be fragments. Let us take a look at the facts in relation to such allegations.
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Tieck, after showing the annexed list of his works, has left 23 perfect dramatic poems, of which five have first become known through the estate, and three have been fully communicated. Two of those 23 dramas each consist of two parts in five parts, together with a prelude, “Octavian” and “Fortunat,” one, “Lord of Fox,” is a free adaptation to Ben Jonson; All translations are excluded from this count. There are four incomplete ones in so many completed and partly very comprehensive poems; the “anti-Faust”, “Magelone”, “Melusine” and the “Donauweib”.
The narrative poetry in the broadest sense includes 75 completed poems, of which 38 come to the later novel, 37 to the older narrative and the novel, including the “Vittoria Accorombona”. These are contrasted with only three fragments, the novel “Sternbald”, the “Cevennes” and the fragment “Hüttenmeister”, which was published in the estate. That the arrangement of the phantasus did not come to fruition will not be considered, for it is a compilation which could be broken off at any moment, and the comprehensive discussion amendment is essentially completed.
He has also written 16 sketches on art in the lyrical tone Wackenroder’s, 45 critical literary and literary historical treatises, which he gave in the form of letters, reviews, introductions and prefaces; Of this he wrote 23 as editor or previous speaker for modern writers and for deceased or still living friends. In addition there are 107 dramaturgical reviews, [p. 158] treatises and advertisements of greater or lesser extent, as well as a strong volume of lyrical poems, and finally the notes on Shakspeare, and the arrangements and translations from Old German, English, and Spanish.
Thus, in addition to extensive critical and literary works, numerous translations and lyrical poems, there are 98 perfected, in part great poems, in dramatic or narrative form, and with them seven unfinished! Is it better to buy out a fifteen-year poet’s life? Indeed, it requires the delusion of a clear criticism to claim that Tieck could have accomplished nothing in essence!
It has always rightly been most regretted that he did not conclude the novella, in which the novella goes beyond itself, to an equally profound and magnificent historical painting, the “Revolt in the Cévennes.” , He was as often as he was here; the favorable constellation he was waiting for, in which his mood was to coincide with the circumstances, did not appear. Later he often regretted that he had not come to perfection, since he had worked his way through the whole conclusion. He had mastered the further development of the fable in his head, and at times he spoke of it in general hints. Old Councilor Beauvais, Edmund’s father, is discovered in his sanctuary in the mountains by the humorous musician, who claims to have recognized him through his secret science, while the dog Hector has led him on the track of the persecuted. The old Beauvais, bound by the royal troops, is continued, and there is opportunity to marry the cruelty of Marshal Montrevel and to describe the persecutor in its entirety again. Edmund decides to liberate his father with the help of his comrades. This happens with that mysterious ash, of which the hunter Favart tells in the beginning. Here, in the days of the first religious battles, a Huguenot-minded son once killed his old-believing father by a shot. He had fled the tree and flung himself down to the son, who was mad at his deed. In the same place the Huguenot Edmund frees his father; the tree is redeemed. Edmund sets himself free from his party, which he no longer completely belongs to internally; he flees to Geneva with his father and sister; Christine follows them. The cruel Montrevel is replaced by Villars, who brings about the conclusion of these movements. This should be about the contents of the third and fourth sections.
It may be audacious to the poet, who wanted to continue his work, to hold the view that it is already complete and complete in itself. If so, one might suspect that perhaps that is the reason why an external continuation did not occur. The various points through which the religious consciousness, the faith can move, are all touched; from atheism to the dreamy vision, all forms have found their expression. Edmund first appears as a Catholic fanatic who sees no salvation outside of his ancient historical church, and seeks to force the subjugation of the need of faith and conscience under their unchanging laws. He turns and becomes a camisard enthusiast; now he finds salvation alone in the visions and revelations that are his own. In the place of the historically believing rigidity, fanciful disintegration occurs, but he remains a religious persecutor, only from the other extreme he goes out. Then, through the old priest, he learns to know the mild and reconciling Christianity, the Christianity of the deed that stands above the opposites; he senses that he has fallen into another from a grave error; he inwardly turns away from his new fellow-believers. and he is attracted to that path of peace and reconciliation. So far, the development in what Tieck has given, is clear and clear. Should not a material internal conclusion be discernible?
“But Shakspeare!” Exclaims the malicious criticism; “How was it with his much-praised and long-promised book on Shakspeare?” Yes, well, in his exuberant enthusiasm for Shakspeare, he has often spoken of his poet and the book about him. Did he think he was here to find a job in his life! In 1796 he gave the introduction to the “Sturm” “as a sample of a larger work on Shakspeare” and concluded with a detailed program of the same; the Old English Theater of 1811 is a supplement to him to thoroughly talk about Shakspeare in his book; In 1823 he hopes to elaborate enough on the intimation of the preamble to “Preschool,” 1828 in the introduction to Lenz he mentions this work again. Often he spoke of it as if it were completed, as if it would appear in a short time; and in his last years it was touching to hear him complain that illness and adversity had still not brought him to the completion of his book on Shakspeare. Like a mirage, the idea of this work had gone before him through life. How often did he believe to take her, and she always fled again into the distance, until [p. 161] they border on life itself! It was an incessant pursuit of a goal, with equal enthusiasm to the end; a pursuit without reaching human weakness in great human power. His thoroughness as much as the advance of his imagination did not allow this favorite thought to be carried out.
To the society in the phantasy novella also belongs the learned antiquarian, whom the humorous critic claims to be one of the thoroughgoing Germans, who never come out of the preparations, and whose sheer thoroughness hardly touches the matter on the surface. Tieck described one side of his nature here. The name Shakspeare included for him all poetry, all enthusiasm, all the highest and the greatest. Not without consecration and long preparation did he believe he was allowed to enter this sanctuary. All the resources he could get hold of, he brought from near and far, but still they did not seem sufficient. He read, studied and considered the meaning of the poet incessantly, but he did not think he had dived right down to the bottom, that he had measured it entirely. On and on he pushed the limits of the task. The development of Shakspeare grew for him to the history of the English drama, the Western poetry and culture, the world lay in Shakspeare. Then he became impatient with his preparations; he already saw the full fruits in the germs. He had finished his book in the head, it seemed only necessary to raise his hand to complete it, and his perfection was a duty of piety towards the great spirit, in whose magic circle he felt magically bound. He took it as a sacrifice of the thanks he had to bring. Likewise, he spoke of the duty to write a book on Cervantes to write about Goethe and Fleck. He wanted to testify to the spirits that had worked for him, and all the world should know their greatness as he recognized them.