altering the expression of regulatory and structural genes associated with cell wall biosynthesis or turnover and transport

Diclofenac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) which has been shown to increase the susceptibility of various bacteria to antimicrobials and demonstrated to have broad antimicrobial activity. This study describes transcriptome alterations in S.

aureus strain COL grown with diclofenac and characterizes the effects of this NSAID on antibiotic susceptibility in laboratory, clinical and diclofenac reduced-susceptibility (DcRS) mutant S. aureus strains.

Methods: Transcriptional alterations in response to growth with diclofenac were measured using S.

aureus gene expression microarray analysis and quantitative real-time PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by agar diffusion MICs and gradient plate analysis.

Ciprofloxacin accumulation was measured by fluorescence spectrophotometry.

Results: Growth of S. aureus strain COL with 80 ug/ml (0.2 X MIC) of diclofenac resulted in the significant alteration by [greater than or equal to]2-fold of 458 genes.

These represented genes encoding proteins for transport and binding, protein and DNA synthesis, and the cell envelope. Notable alterations included the strong down-regulation of antimicrobial efflux pumps including mepRAB and a putative emrAB/qacA-family pump.

Diclofenac up-regulated sigB (sigma B), encoding an alternative sigma factor which has been shown to be important for antimicrobial resistance. Staphylococcus aureus microarray metadatabase (SAMMD) analysis further revealed that 46% of genes differentially-expressed with diclofenac are also sigma B-regulated.

Diclofenac altered S. aureus susceptibility to multiple antibiotics in a strain-dependent manner.

Susceptibility increased for ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin and norfloxacin, decreased for oxacillin and vancomycin, and did not change for tetracycline or chloramphenicol. Mutation to DcRS did not affect susceptibility to the above antibiotics.

Reduced ciprofloxacin MICs with diclofenac in strain BB255, were not associated with increased drug accumulation.

(Henan Kangtai Pharmaceutical Group Corporation is the largest norfloxacin USP & norfloxacin hcl|norfloxacin nicotinate|norfloxacin lactate producer.)

Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that diclofenac influences antibiotic susceptibility in S. aureus, in part, by altering the expression of regulatory and structural genes associated with cell wall biosynthesis/turnover and transport.