Tonga volcano eruption could cause ‘year without summer’
Myth: After the Tongan volcano eruption, a large amount of ash went into the stratosphere and remained there for a long time, creating a “sunshade effect” that would lead to a “year without a summer” in which global temperatures fell.
Fact: Volcanic eruptions do “cool” the Earth, mainly because they inject sulfur-containing aerosols into the atmosphere, which reflect more sunlight out of the stratosphere, creating a cooling effect in the atmosphere. There have been three large low-latitude eruptions in the last 100 years: Mount Elchichon in Mexico (1982), Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines (1991) and Mount Agung in Indonesia (2019). The winter after the eruption saw low temperatures in most parts of China except northeast China and Xinjiang.
But when it comes to the climate impact of a volcanic eruption, both the size of the eruption and the emissions are important factors to consider. The Philippines’ Mount Pinatubo Eruption Index (VEI), which dropped the global average temperature by 0.5 ° C, was level 6, and its 1991 eruption released 20 million tons of sulphur dioxide. The tongan volcano eruption is estimated to have a VEI of 5 to 6, but the sulfur dioxide released on the first day of the eruption was only 62,000 tons, so the impact on global temperature will not be large enough to cause a “year without a summer”.
A series of studies have shown that volcanic eruptions generally have a lasting effect on global and East Asian climate over the next year or two, with a cooling effect. For China, the volcanic eruption may also weaken the intensity of the east Asian summer monsoon in the following year, leading to the southward summer rain belt, thus affecting the precipitation in the whole flood season.
At present, the Tongan volcano is still active and further monitoring of its activity is required. If there is no further eruption, global temperatures will not be affected for the time being.
It’s cheaper to fill up sooner or later
Myth: Gas is charged by volume. According to the principle of heat expansion and cold contraction, the same quality of gasoline is smaller in the early morning and at night when the temperature is cooler, so it is more cost-effective to fill up in the morning and at night.
Fact: It’s not true that filling up sooner or later is cheaper. At present, gas stations have underground storage, and have a certain degree of protection layer, gasoline is stored in constant temperature all the year round, will not be affected by the outside temperature.
To say the least, even if the technology was not up to today’s standards for underground storage at a constant temperature, the density of gasoline at different temperatures did not change much, resulting in a small price difference.
Small cuts can be disinfected with saliva
Myth: If you put a broken finger in your mouth because it contains lysozyme, you can sterilize a small cut with saliva.
Truth: Lysozyme is an important non-specific immune factor in organisms, which has the functions of antibacterial and anti-inflammatory, improving immunity and inhibiting the growth of exogenous microorganisms.
Saliva contains lysozyme, but the amount is too small to play a role in sterilization. In addition, the secretion of saliva is affected by many factors, including age, dietary habits and drug intake, living habits, vary from person to person, with fixed.
On top of that, smearing saliva on a wound is likely to make it worse. Because the mouth is one of the areas with the highest density and most species of microbes, saliva also carries a variety of viruses, fungi and bacteria in the mouth. Therefore, small wounds in daily life are still recommended to be treated with band-aids and iodophor.
The fresh meat jumped because of parasites
Myth: Many people find that fresh meat spontaneously pulsates when they come home. This is a sign of parasites in the meat, so beware.
Fact: The fact that freshly butchered meat jumps isn’t a sign of parasites, it’s a sign of freshness. This is because the central nerve of fresh meat is dead shortly after slaughter, but the nerve endings around the muscle are not completely dead, and the energy substance ATP has not been used up in the muscle. As a result, muscles can also beat under mild external stimulation, which is also known as the “supergenic response.” After a period of slaughter, the ATP in the meat is exhausted, and the muscle fibers lock up and stop beating.
Artificially waxed apples are harmful to eat
Myth: If the apple’s skin is bright and smooth, sticky to the touch, and the powder comes off after a few scratches, it’s a sign that the apple is artificially waxed and toxic!
The truth: wax belongs to the kind of food additive that allows to use inside world limits, want to be regular wax only, won’t produce harm to human body health.
In fact, apple in the normal growth process, the epidermal will naturally secrete a layer of fruit wax, to prevent harmful substances outside the invasion of pulp, this is the apple itself against the outside environment of a favorable measure, harmless to the human body.
Artificial waxing is an important part of the commercialization of fruit processing, many countries, including Our country, are allowed to do waxing on the surface of fruit preservation. The purpose of waxing is to prevent the skin wrinkling caused by water loss after picking, which can lead to a loss of freshness, and waxing can prevent microbial invasion and extend the shelf life of apples.
China’s “health standards for the use of food additives” provides that can be the prid fatty acid salt (also known as fruit wax), Brazil palm wax as a film agent, used on the surface of fresh fruit.
Although regular wax does not have what harm to human body, but many people may feel the product is not quite clean, want to eat apple again after thorough purify fruit wax. Experts say the easiest way to remove wax from the skin is to peel it. An easy way to preserve more of the nutrients in apples is to blanch the skins with hot water.
Doses of COVID-19 vaccine given to children need to be halved
Myth: For most children, use half or less medication for adults. The dose of COVID-19 vaccine given to children also needs to be halved or the body becomes “overloaded”.
Fact: Uniform dosing is a global practice while ensuring safety. Currently, the doses and ingredients of the COVID-19 vaccine are exactly the same for all ages, including children. Therapeutic drugs are completely different. The dosage is related to the pharmacokinetics and liver metabolism of the drug in the body, and some need to consider body weight, and some also need to consider body surface area.
However, the mechanism of the vaccine is different from that of therapeutic drugs. The antigen in the vaccine is not directly “effective” after entering the body, but is presented by the immune system. Immune cells recognize the antigen and produce antibodies, which then play a role in blocking virus infection or preventing disease. There was no correlation between these processes and body surface area or body weight.
In fact, the vast majority of vaccines are administered in doses that do not differentiate between adults and children. For example, hepatitis B vaccine, cervical cancer vaccine, pneumonia vaccine dose does not differ between different populations. From the mechanism, the vaccine into the child body, antibody production mechanism and adults are exactly the same, there is no difference.
Experts in immunization programs say that children should pay special attention to their health when getting COVID-19 vaccines, as children older than 5 May experience some psychogenic reactions. Older children should avoid strenuous exercise and stay under observation for 30 minutes, and report any suspected adverse reactions in vaccinated children. If there is an overlap with other or non-programme vaccines, it is important to ensure that there is an interval of at least 14 days between the COVID-19 vaccine and other vaccines.
“Cold fireworks” have a low temperature and are not dangerous to discharge
Myth: As the name implies, “cold fireworks” discharge temperature is low, does not belong to fireworks and other dangerous goods.
Truth: the name “cold fireworks” has some misleading, they not only belong to fireworks, and its flammable, explosive dangerous goods basic attributes have not changed.
“Fairy stick” and “electronic fireworks” are commonly known as “cold fireworks” because the temperature of the flame (spark) drops rapidly after being emitted. The temperature 20 cm away from the jet drops to about 80℃, and the temperature 50 cm away from the jet drops to about 40℃. However, when discharge such products, the temperature of the nozzle is as high as 700 ~ 800℃, still can burn the human body, igniting flammable materials.
Therefore, in the production, operation, storage, setting off “cold fireworks”, still must strictly abide by the relevant fireworks safety management provisions. When setting off “cold fireworks” by the public, safety measures generally applicable to fireworks products should be taken. It is strictly prohibited to set off “cold fireworks” indoors or in any prohibited places.
Babies wearing diapers can cause ‘O-legs’
Myth: Nappies can cause babies’ legs to fail to close together, resulting in ‘O-legs’ as they get older.
Fact: O-legs have nothing to do with diapers. The fetus is curled up in the mother’s womb with o-shaped legs, which are normal after birth until about 2 years of age.
After the age of 2, as babies learn to walk and squat, their lower limbs adjust themselves to adapt to physiological needs, gradually becoming an “X” shaped appearance; Around the age of four or five, the degree of “X” is often most obvious. After the age of 6, the curve of the “X” shape gradually decreases, until about 7 or 8 years old, and the legs gradually form an adult-like appearance.
The current design of disposable diapers has no restrictions on the movement of babies’ legs, which can be naturally extended and moved frequently, so that joints and muscles can develop normally. Therefore, a baby’s “O-legs” before age 2 are a normal developmental condition, not caused by diapers. If there is really an abnormal situation, it can not be ignored. Parents must take their baby to the hospital for formal diagnosis and treatment, and do not correct it by themselves.