rabies virus dog battle

Act 1: The place of forbearance under the city

  Tianxiawan is a typical rabies virus, which comes from the saliva pool of vicious dogs and is transmitted to this city through the tearing opening. Unlike most viruses that infect humans, the capsid armor of the rabies virus does not exhibit the radial symmetry of a regular polyhedron, but is spirally wound around him like a knitted sweater, wrapping him into the shape of a bullet.
  His ninjutsu cultivation has reached the pinnacle, especially the escape technique. Once he hides his breathing and heartbeat, he will be as calm as an unconscious masonry. But now, he touched the fresh breath of the skin cells at the wound, stretched his body, and the program in his body for spreading and killing began to start.
  They were groping under a city wall, when suddenly they heard a movement not far away.
  A companion was about to speak, but was immediately stopped by Tianshiwan. They listened carefully.
  ”What is that?” “It seems that there are abnormal people waiting, you go and have a look!”
  Tian Saiwan and his companions heard such a conversation. Not his own, but the immune warrior team in the host. Then, several immune cells rushed over quickly.
  This is the first time that Tianxiawan has hit the immune army. The survival instinct told them that now was not the time to face the enemy, so they had to start the second escape technique.
  Scientific knowledge
  rabies virus
  Rabies is also called hydrophobia, is an acute viral encephalitis aggressive, infected through exposure to saliva or other substances containing rabies virus. In general, mammals are thought to be susceptible to rabies virus, which mainly uses dogs, wolves, foxes, raccoons, cats, skunks and bats as hosts or vectors. The mice and rabbits that people are concerned about have been confirmed by research as not the storage hosts of rabies virus. They will not transmit rabies to each other within the population. They may only be infected by the rabies virus if they are accidentally bitten by a dog carrying the virus and not killed. This is extremely rare, and WHO recommends that post-exposure vaccination against rabies is rarely required after exposure to rodents, rabbits and hares.
  Rabies virus belongs to the Rhabdoviridae family of rabies virus and is a neurotropic virus. The virus is shaped like a bullet, one end is blunt and one end is flat, the virus has an envelope, and the envelope is composed of the outer glycoprotein G of the virus and the inner matrix protein M2. The protein capsid composed of the polymerase L protein, and the protein capsid is arranged in a helical symmetry to wrap the genetic material of the virus—single-negative stranded RNA (the protein capsid and the viral RNA together form the viral nucleocapsid).

rabies virus structure

Internal structure of rabies virus

  ①G protein
  virus G protein is induced to the virus neutralizing antibodies major antigen, can produce immunity against rabies virus infection, also associated with nerve invasion of the virus and spread across the synapse.
  ”Find the synapse near the wound, where our receptors are.”
  They found some suitable small doors on the city wall. This is the junction of nerves and muscles, and it is also the entrance and exit for the flow of express, mail and takeaways in and out of the city.
  ”Everyone take out the G protein ①!” The
  most precious thing for ninjas is their own ninja tools. They carry this recognition protein with them like a master key. As long as you look for the logo on the boat at the other end of the gate, whether it is nerve cell adhesion molecules (NCAM) or nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (NAChRs), you can fake yourself as a useful package and board the boat. Tianxiawan boarded a p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) express ship, and then successfully took the ship to hide within the city wall. Those still in the wall samurai shouting loudly:
  ”Hey have also obviously here?.” “Nobody is allowed to pondering, could just go somewhere else to express it, check to see there is no tetanus sneak into disarray”..
  Too After a while, the sound of searching faded away from the wall.
  Tiansaiwan finally had a chance to observe the space they entered. Unlike other cities, the water channels here are not like moats, but open channels, which means that they have reached the inner channel of the city of nerves-the nerve fibers that stretch in the outer city. It is the myelin sheath that forms the outer wall of the canal, which isolates it from the outside, and Tianxiwan is in the canal of the axon within the myelin sheath.
  ”The technique of ‘nervous addiction’ has succeeded.” Tianxiawan said, “We have to hurry.”
  This is a special technique of rabies virus. They only hide in nerve cells and never infect other areas, so that they can escape the search of the immune army.
  This nerve fiber channel is full of electric current. In contrast, its water flow is slower. Fortunately, Tianxiawan is lying on the boat and can move more clearly in the direction of the inner city—the central nervous system. The remaining companions who failed to find the receptor were miserable, and they could only paddle forward.
  ”Why do we have to move so slowly? I’ve heard of some of them going right into the blood vessels, propelled by the power pumped out of the heart, and soon they can be all over the world.”
  ”That’s not our strategy. Never get out of the nerve cells. Those immune warriors are not only quite powerful, if they catch one of us, they will be able to produce antibodies that specifically target us, so don’t expose them to their sight!” Tian Xiwan replied.
  They swim toward the inner city at a speed of 1 to 3 cm per day. Depending on the location of the tear, the distance from the canal to the inner city is different. At the end of this canal, there will be an officer who turns a blind eye to the door – that is the cell body of the neuron, and the whole canal is just a long extension of the axon of this cell body. As long as you pass that level, the central nervous system is close at hand.
  Tianshuiwan made a mental preparation that took two weeks.
Act 2 The Field of Battle of the Heavenly Keepers

  Under the inner city.
  This is where the periphery connects to the central nervous system. At the intersection of the inner city and the outer city, there is a natural cave like the intervertebral foramen, and you can even hear the river of blood vessels next door whizzing through the cave.

  ”If you guessed correctly, this should be the dorsal root ganglia.” Tianxiawan put down the telescope, “We can enter the central nervous system.”
  After passing the cave and climbing the city wall, you can see that there is a pavement not far under your feet. Brocade-covered mountain road. The mountain is getting higher and higher, and the highest place seems to be in the clouds and mist, which is a towering Tianshou Pavilion.
  Tian Shai Wan’s heart was surging, and the time for the final battle had come.
  As in the legend, the Tianshou Pavilion is the base camp of the City of Nervous System, and there must be the brains of the generals they want to attack this time. The blood-brain barrier and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid moat and stone wall, even those immune warriors who are responsible for killing assassins, don’t even think about crossing it, isolating the Tianshou from everything under the city; in front of the general, there is a gorgeous screen, and countless civil and military ministers can only be separated from each other. He held the screen, translated the news from various places into another peculiar and elegant language, coordinated it to the general, and then conveyed the general’s instructions downward.
  Scientific knowledge
  rabies virus genome latency
  genome of rabies virus is its single negative strand RNA non-segmented, 12KB total length of the genome, the virus encoding the desired main five proteins, viral envelope constituting ① G protein ( glycoprotein spike), which determines the infectivity, hemagglutination and virulence of the virus, ② the inner matrix protein M2 that constitutes the viral envelope, ③ the viral capsid matrix protein M1, ④ the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase L protein, ⑤ protect the nucleoprotein N of viral RNA.
  After the rabies virus enters the wound, it may take days or weeks to reach the central nervous system (brain), and during this period of time between the wound and the brain (the incubation period), the infection can be prevented by post-exposure vaccination or concurrent injection of immune globulin. The immune system can effectively clear the virus. The incubation period of rabies is only 5 to 6 days, and the time from infection to onset of rabies is between 20 to 60 days for most patients. There are very few cases with an incubation period of more than 6 months, and the longer ones can reach several years. The incubation period for bites is longer than for head bites.
  Scientific knowledge
  of how the rabies virus attacks the human body
  After entering the wound, the virus may undergo an initial replication expansion in the striated muscle cells surrounding the wound, after which it can invade the nerve. The virus may also lie dormant in macrophages, at which point the patient has few symptoms. Because the G protein of the virus can recognize many viral receptors, including nicotinic acetylcholine receptors at the neuromuscular binding site, nerve cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), neurotrophic factor receptors, p75NTR, etc. Contact with these receptors at the neuromuscular junction of the motor nerve leads to entry into the nerve cell from these sites.
  After the virus enters the nerve cells, it will start to move to the neurocytoplasm (at this time the patient will show neuropathic pain at the wound site), and transport it to the central nervous system, spinal cord, brain stem, cerebellum, etc. (at this time the patient will show neuropathic pain at the wound site) Symptoms such as convulsions, paralysis, and coma may be present). After entering the nerve cells, the virus moves quickly in the axon, reaching 15 to 100 mm per day in the human body.
  After the virus reaches the central nervous system, etc., it will rapidly proliferate in the nerve cells in it, begin to move in the opposite direction, and efferent nerves down the axon, enter various tissues and organs for replication, including salivary glands. At the end of the infection, it also affects the heart, pancreas, adrenal glands, and gastrointestinal tract, and patients develop hydrophobia, dyspnea, dysphagia, cardiovascular dysfunction, and sudden death.
  It is because of this process that no one really understands how the general works. The general is almost independent of the entire host’s body, yet he directs the host’s every move. He is the mystery of this world.
  Tianxiamaru knew that that gorgeous and long tapestry one by one spinal cord was the shortcut to the throne under the general. As long as you follow the mountain road of the spinal cord quickly, you can reach the general’s residence.
  They leaped down from the dorsal root ganglia, into the tapestry of that spinal cord, and started sprinting and copying.
  ”It is impossible for us to advance in a latent form on the mountain road. We can only try our best to break through! Either cause the host to become ill within 3 to 5 days, or fight to death.”
  Tianxiamaru mobilized while fighting.
  ”Look at the officials on these mountain roads! They are used to being pampered, without the assistance of immune warriors, and know nothing about infection.”
  The sprint paid off. The long mountain road had no power to fight back against this virus ninja’s surprise attack. One vertebra, two vertebrae… until the gate of the Tianshou Pavilion!
  Some errand officials are still crossing the killing field and heading towards the Tianshou Pavilion. Tensiamaru grabbed one and asked,
  ”What are you here for?”
  ”I-I’m here to deliver the letter!” The messenger trembled like a sieve, “I heard that the sunlight ahead and the sound of the wind have become louder. Sensitive, if the sun and the wind collide with sparkling fluctuations on the pond, it will be a terrifying sight!”
  Tian Saimaru looked towards the pavilion proudly. It turned out that those ministers of civil and military affairs were not so much working, but rather singing and dancing, creating a gorgeous dream, seeing the virus kill, but instead caused the nervous system of the whole city to fall into great excitement.
  And behind the screen, the tall figure of the general was swaying, perhaps holding a tachi, planning to slash the comers one by one.
  Day pill saliva rushed to eleven knife split screen
  object behind the screen, where what is general, there is a mass of huge, hot and humid mountains of meat.
  Tianshuiwan was stunned. Originally, they wanted to hold the general hostage and let him issue orders, so that the whole body would obey the command of the virus. But now…
  ”What should I do? There’s no way to communicate!” Tianxiamaru tried to chop at the ditches above Roshan.
  A battle report was sent from the corner of Roshan: “The brain stem may be a better breakthrough.”
  ”Hurry up! We need more shadow clones.”
  As a negative-strand RNA virus, the replication of rabies virus also needs to create a complementary template first, and then Mass production of shadow clones. Both replication and transcription events take place in a specialized “Negi’s body”—that is, the perimeter that rabies virus builds for itself in the cytoplasm of nerve cells. Tianxiamaru also copied himself, at the cost of abandoning his original body, but this is not a big deal for a qualified ninja.
  ”What’s the next step?”
  The hippocampus is now also full of avatars of Tianshuiwan. The battle report from the front continued to come. If you don’t spread the shadow clone quickly, when the host’s breathing stops, this damn piece of meat will first die from lack of oxygen.
  As if it was using suicide to force itself to fail.
  ”I heard that our destiny will be like a rebirth.” Rabies virus who said, “At this moment, just then that moment, we come from, will be gone.”
  Days spit pill recite, Run to the Tianshu to check around. At this moment, the scenery of the city was unobstructed, and recalling the words of his companions, he finally figured out everything.
  ”Let the main force go to the mouth and cheeks!” He had an idea. “Find the salivary glands so we can infect more people.”

  Scientific knowledge
  of rabies hazard
  Rabies can spread from animal to animal or from animal transmitted to humans. Almost all human infections with rabies virus are caused by animal bites, and only a few are infected by scratching. In addition to these two, it is also possible, but very rare, to become infected through transplantation of corneas, tissues or organs infected with rabies virus. Rabies in humans is mostly caused by dog ​​bites.
  Rabies is the infectious disease with the highest fatality rate so far. Basically, once the disease occurs, the fatality rate will be close to 100%, and there is no effective treatment method so far. Therefore, after being infected with rabies virus, rabies vaccine should be vaccinated in time or immune globulin should be injected at the same time.
  Scientific knowledge
  rabies vaccination
  rabies has been no way to heal, therefore, immunization is extremely important. There are two main types of immunization: pre-exposure immunization and post-exposure immunization. For staff who have long-term contact with domestic animals or wild animals, or need to deal with rabies dogs, etc., as well as researchers engaged in rabies virus research, pre-exposure immunization can be performed, usually 3 times at 0, 7, 21 or 28 days. .
  If a person is bitten by a sick animal, the wound should be treated in time, and the wound can be fully cleaned with water, 3% to 5% soapy water or 0.1% benzalkonium bromide according to the situation at the time. If the bite is severe, the wound should be perfused and cleaned, and then disinfected with 75% disinfectant alcohol or iodophor. After treatment, post-exposure vaccination requires 5 intramuscular injections of rabies vaccine on days 0, 3, 7, 14, and 28, or a “simple 4-needle method” immunization program on days 0, 3, 7, and 14. Anti-rabies immune globulin can be administered according to the injury.

The famous French microbiologist Louis Pasteur is the inventor of the rabies vaccine. In addition, he also invented pasteurization.

  It was an ordinary afternoon in the Edo period, somewhere on this earth, on a simple wooden bridge, a homeless man was being beaten by a group of farmers. More than half a month ago, this homeless man was bitten by a vicious dog and was not taken care of. In this day and age, there is no vaccine to save his life.
  Now he is lying on the ground, dying. If it was close to his brain, maybe there would be some way to hear the tinny voices there, some molecular-level conversation.
  There is the end of the battlefield, and the winner and loser are certain.
  ”Lord General! Those virus ninja teams took hold of the retainers’ boats and horses and entered the saliva pool again.” Those were some of the remaining immune warriors, struggling to pounce on Roshan, although this is absolutely not allowed in normal times.
  ”Lord General! Your saliva is too much, and you can’t swallow it back!” The messenger in charge of reporting the pain also said.
  ”A kind-hearted monk is feeding you water, but if you don’t drink it, you’ll be terrified even when you hear the word ‘water’.” The
  meat mountain squirmled and murmured in an inhuman language:
  ”I No pain. But no… no more saliva…” But
  it was too late. Those brocade clothes and jade food that supply the general’s daily operations—clean oxygen, glucose… No one can transport it to him anymore.
  And whether it was the virus parasitized in the general’s body or the virus thrown out of the body in saliva, they didn’t realize that this would be their last war. The operation of Tianxiwan in the dog’s body is similar to that in the human body, but after all, humans are not rabid dogs, and it is difficult to trigger the instinct to bite others. Not to mention, the infection efficiency in his saliva may not be as efficient as that of a venomous animal.
  Therefore, they can only invade from animals to humans, but cannot continue to spread from human to human. Every attempt can only cause people to suffer from severe diseases and die, block further transmission, and the viruses themselves will be trapped in the body. This is the sad song of the ninja, and it is also the greatest limitation of human rabies.