Bleeding is one of the main complications of trauma. The bleeding site and degree are different, and the hemostasis measures are also different.
Hemostasis method 1: Acupressure to stop bleeding
When bleeding is caused by cuts or bruises, many people “see the doctor in a hurry” and often apply hemostatic remedies or egg whites, toothpaste, etc. to the wound, hoping to achieve the goal of hemostasis. As everyone knows, scribbling not only can’t stop the bleeding, but it may also cause wound infection.
For wounds with a lot of bleeding, you can first try acupressure hemostasis. Use your fingers to compress the proximal end of the bleeding vessel to block blood flow. When using acupressure to stop bleeding, you must grasp the correct compression position. This method is only suitable for first aid, the time of compression of blood vessels should not be too long, and you should seek medical attention as soon as possible.
Facial bleeding Press the facial artery (mandibular angle) with the thumb. When severe facial bleeding occurs, it is often necessary to press on both sides of the arteries to effectively stop the bleeding. (Picture 1)
Temporal hemorrhage Press the temporal artery (the depression above the ear ) with the thumb. (Picture 2)
Forearm bleeding Press the brachial artery (inside of the upper arm biceps) with your fingers. (Picture 3)
Finger bleeding Use the thumb and index finger of the other hand to press both sides of the base of the bleeding finger. (Picture 4) In addition, clenching a fist can also effectively stop bleeding.
Thigh bleeding Slightly flex the thigh to relax the muscles and press hard on the femoral artery (in the femoral triangle, at the midpoint of the base of the thigh). (Figure 5)
Bleeding from the foot Press the anterior tibial artery (at the midpoint of the inner and outer malleolus of the foot) and the posterior tibial artery (at the pulsation between the medial malleolus and Achilles tendon) with both thumbs. (Figure 6)
Hemostasis method 2: bandage to stop bleeding
Bandaging hemostasis is suitable for bleeding from superficial wounds. If the amount of bleeding is not much, you can use a band-aid to stop the bleeding, first stick one side of the band-aid on one side of the wound (fixing), and then tighten it to the opposite side to complete the other side. When using a dressing to stop bleeding, a dressing (or gauze) of sufficient thickness should be covered on the wound, and the covering area should exceed the circumference of the wound by at least 3 cm. If there is no medical dressing, clean handkerchiefs, cloth, etc. can be used on the spot to bandage to stop bleeding.
Hemostasis method 3: pressure bandage to stop bleeding
The compression bandage hemostasis method is suitable for bleeding caused by small arteries, veins, and capillaries in various parts of the body. Use gauze or clothing to properly press the wound, so that the local bleeding capillaries and small blood vessels will be compressed at the same time, which helps to stop bleeding. During operation, the wound can be covered with dressings or clean towels, bandages, triangles, etc., and then pressure-wrapped to achieve the purpose of hemostasis.
Direct compression method Directly compress the bleeding site to stop bleeding. Properly raise the affected area, cover the wound with a dressing, compress the wound with hand pressure, and finally use a bandage, triangle bandage, etc. to compress the wound.
The indirect compression method is suitable for wounds with foreign bodies, such as scissors, knives, glass slides, etc. Don’t pull out the foreign body rashly. You should keep it first, fix the foreign body on the edge of the wound, and then use a bandage to compress it.
The best wrapping material is elastic bandage. The wrapping methods mainly include ring wrapping (Figure 7), spiral wrapping (Figure 8), return wrapping (Figure 9) and “8” wrapping (Figure 10). Among them, the circular bandaging method is suitable for wounds with little bleeding and the thickness of the limbs is uniform; the spiral bandaging method is suitable for the bandaging of the trunk position of the limbs; the return bandaging method is suitable for the bandaging of the head, the end of the limbs or the parts of the severed limbs; “8” bandaging The method is applicable to wounds on the palm, ankle and other joints.
Hemostasis method 4: Tourniquet to stop bleeding
Tourniquet hemostasis can be used when the limbs are damaged by large blood vessels, or when the wound is large and the amount of bleeding is heavy. Correctly tying the tourniquet is the key to hemostasis: upper limb bleeding should be tied to the upper third of the upper arm; lower limb bleeding should be tied to the upper middle of the thigh. The tourniquet should be tied to the proximal end, if it is tied to the distal end, it may aggravate bleeding in the affected area; the tourniquet should be moderately tight and should be lined, and the time of using the tourniquet should be strictly recorded, and the tourniquet should be relaxed for 10 minutes every 1 hour or so. During the relaxation of the tourniquet, acupressure and direct pressure can be used to stop bleeding to minimize bleeding.
When there is no tourniquet around, you can use cloth, scarves and other long strips to temporarily act as a tourniquet to stop bleeding, and prohibit inelastic materials such as iron wires, ropes and wires. Due to the poor elasticity of fabrics and other materials, too tight binding can cause limb damage or ischemic necrosis, so it can only be used in an emergency for a short time. Moreover, during use, the skin color and blood circulation of the wound should be closely observed.
Hemostasis method 5: ice compress to stop bleeding
When a nosebleed occurs suddenly, many people will lie down or tilt their heads back. This seems to “stop” the nosebleed, but this is completely wrong. Especially when the amount of nosebleeds is large, head back is easy to cause blood to flow into the respiratory tract through the throat, which may cause the risk of suffocation.
Cold compress can promote vasoconstriction and reduce bleeding, which is suitable for patients with epistaxis. You can use crushed ice wrapped towels or ice towels to apply cold to the roots of the nose. In addition, pressure can be used to stop the bleeding (press the wing of the nose with the thumb for more than 10 minutes).
In daily life and work, it is inevitable to encounter bleeding caused by knife cuts, stab wounds, and stab wounds. Proficiency in the correct method of hemostasis is not only common medical knowledge that everyone should have, but also a necessary ability to ensure the safety of oneself and others. In places with frequent activities (such as homes or offices), some medical supplies, such as band-aids, gauze, bandages, triangles, etc., can be properly spared, so that you can better rescue yourself and others in the event of an accident.