Wizards and geeks ups and downs

  The Thames meanders through old London. On the northeast bank of the river, there is a large medieval building complex quietly located, which is composed of several ancient castles and ancient towers, which is the Tower of London after years of vicissitudes. Historically, the Tower of London has served as a fortress, arsenal, mint, observatory, and even as a zoo, where Chaucer, the author of “Canterbury Tales”, came here to see lions. Unfortunately, the Tower of London has also been used as a prison, and almost all the princes and nobles and famous people in the political and religious circles are imprisoned. Among them was Walter Reilly, a favorite of Tudor Queen Elizabeth I who was once a big hit. Unusually, Rayleigh was imprisoned here twice because he offended the royal family, and the second time lasted for thirteen springs and autumns. He completed a masterpiece “World History” here.
  So, what kind of character was Walter Reilly? It can be said that he has a variety of identities, has extremely rich and even peculiar experiences, and can be regarded as a wizard, geek, and all-rounder. He was an explorer, a statesman, a colonizer, a soldier, a poet, a court favorite, the captain of the bodyguard who was closest to the queen, and once a pirate captain; he dabbled in literature, history, philosophy, navigation, mathematics, and astronomy , botany, and medicine; he traveled to the Americas for many expeditions and brought back tobacco and potatoes for the first time, which had an important impact on the economic and social development of Europe; as a favorite, he had an extraordinary relationship with the queen, which resulted in many affairs Gossip has been spread by word of mouth in the UK.
  
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  Walter Raleigh was born in 1552. His father was a wealthy squire in Devon, West England, who had been married three times. Reilly had several half-brothers. He fought in the wars of religion in France at the age of 17, serving in the Huguenot army. At the age of 20, he studied at Oriel College, Oxford University and Middle Temple College, London. After that, he followed his brother to participate in the seafaring expedition that was in the ascendant in the society at that time, but it was stopped due to heavy rain and sandstorm. He instead recruited 100 infantry on his own to go to Ireland to suppress an anti-British rebellion in Munster province. He was a fighter and was jailed twice at the age of 28 for a duel.
  Raleigh also has experience as a pirate. The difference is that Rayleigh is handsome and personable, and his clothes are gorgeous, with pearls on his ears, and his mustache has been carefully dyed and trimmed, so he looks like a playboy. , There is a strong bookish air, this kind of playboy style, elegant literati romantic temperament and pirate adventurer style, so incredible fusion, which naturally makes Rayleigh have a special personal charm.
  Raleigh’s first meeting with Queen Elizabeth has something of a legend that has long been talked about in British folklore. It is said that they met on the streets of London, and there happened to be a muddy wetland in front of them. Rayleigh did not hesitate to take off his scarlet cloak and spread it on it, letting the queen walk across it like stepping on a carpet. The Queen was impressed by the handsome, elegant, well-dressed young man in front of her. And when the queen asked the waiter carefully about the young man’s situation, she was even more heartbroken. Of course, there is also another version: Raleigh met the Queen because Raleigh’s outspoken criticism of British policy towards Ireland caught the Queen’s attention and summoned him. The Queen was 48 at the time and Raleigh was 29. Soon, Rayleigh was called to the palace, was knighted, granted various privileges, and became the queen’s bodyguard.
  Perhaps it should be said that the Queen appreciates Rayleigh to a greater extent because Rayleigh has the idea of ​​governing the country and the spirit of risk-taking, which has adapted to the Queen’s political needs. Queen Elizabeth I had lofty ambitions and was determined to fight against Spain, seize maritime hegemony, and implement a policy of overseas colonial expansion to revitalize Britain. And Rayleigh clearly stated: “Whoever controls the oceans, whoever controls the trade; whoever controls the world’s trade, whoever controls the world’s wealth, and ultimately the world itself.” The Queen’s idea of ​​governing the country hit it off.
  From 1584 to 1617, Raleigh made no fewer than seven voyages across the ocean to America in order to establish British colonies overseas and to search for gold mines. Raleigh, who is very adventurous and hard-working, rode bad winds, treaded dangerous waves, and endured untold hardships. He once arrived in North Carolina, USA. In honor of this explorer, the capital of the state was called Raleigh; he also arrived in what is now Virginia. , and the name “Virginia” was determined by Rayleigh at that time, it contains the meaning of “virgin” virgin, symbolizing “virgin queen”, in order to win the queen’s favor. Raleigh has also visited Trinidad, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname and other places in Central and South America. However, due to various constraints, no permanent “base” has been established and no gold mine has been found. However, Rayleigh’s first expedition to North America brought back valuable tobacco and potatoes that the British and Europeans had never seen. More importantly, Raleigh’s expeditions, including those of others at the time, provided the experience for Britain to go to sea and expand overseas. Just the second year after Rayleigh’s death, in 1620, the British immigration ship “Mayflower” arrived in the United States, opening a new chapter for the British to implement overseas colonial policy.
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  As an explorer and adventurer, Rayleigh is also good at writing poetry, especially writing poetry. It should be said that he is a very good court lyric poet. His legacy contains 560 lines of poetry. His poems are mainly about life and love, some of which are written to Queen Elizabeth.
  Rayleigh’s more famous poem “What Is Life”: “What is life? It’s a drama of passion / Joy is interspersed with music”, “God is the audience, sharp and strict / Can always see whose performance is wrong “, “We go to rest while acting like this / Just dying seriously, this is no child’s play.” This poem expresses the sigh of the truth of life and the shortness of time in humorous style.
  One of Rayleigh’s best works on love is “What is Love”: “Tell me what love is / It’s a clear spring, it’s a brook / There are tears of happiness / There are tears of remorse / It’s the melodious bell / One day , it will eventually send you and me / to heaven, or to hell / friends, this is love / tell me what love is / it is sunshine mixed with rain / toothache mixed with delicious food / it is games that win each other Difficulty/It is the girl’s shyness on the outside, and the willingness on the inside/friend, this is love.” This poem describes love in the form of questions and answers, vivid metaphors, and clear language, which is impressive. “Silent Lovers” is another excellent work. The author wrote two songs on this topic. The first one is said to be for the Queen: “Passion is like a surging water / Gurgling in the shallows, silent in the depths / If you open your mouth to reveal your love / You will know There is no affection in my heart…” Reilly also wrote a poem directly praising Elizabeth: “Her face/so white/instantly grabbed/my eyes//her words/so sweet/long lingering/in my ears/ /Her wisdom/so perceptive/beats/against my chest”, “my eyes/looked at/her face/charismatic//in my ears/knowing/her words/teaching well// My chest / Worry and fear / Her wisdom / Faith is forever.” These poems clearly express Rayleigh’s admiration and admiration for the Queen, and they are written with sincerity and simplicity. According to Anglo-American experts on Queen Elizabeth I, the queen “loved to be praised” and even in her old age she “required” and even “encouraged” her favourites, “with flirtatious attention and gracious attention to her. Words or actions to express.” Edmund Spencer, Rayleigh’s good friend, as one of the most outstanding British poets of the 16th century, is famous for his long poem “The Fairy Queen”. Interestingly, this work Also dedicated to Queen Elizabeth. In the Elizabethan era, literature and art, especially poetry, were widely admired throughout the United Kingdom. The queen herself also wrote poems, her “I was also young and beautiful back then”, etc., have been passed down to this day.
  
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  Undoubtedly, the charismatic and talented Rayleigh made the Queen deeply infatuated. Rayleigh is also very good at expressing himself, and he is handy to win the Queen’s favor. He brought back two natives and many wonderful insights from America, which fascinated the queen. He demonstrated smoking in front of the Queen, puffed clouds, and even used a scale to show the weight of cigarette smoke, leaving the Queen stunned. Not only could he recite poetry and composition, but he also possessed the astonishing talents that any successful courtier of the royal family at the time had to possess: he could sing, dance, play an instrument, play tennis, hunt, ride a gun, speak some foreign languages, etc. It is good to be able to lift weights lightly and show all of your talents without any pretence.” These, Rayleigh is doing. As Catherine Bush, an American writer who has done a lot of research on British history, said: Elizabeth “respected Raleigh’s extensive experience and curiosity about various things”, “he shared the Queen’s thirst for knowledge”, and the Queen “explained through Raleigh meets the psychological need to take risks.”
  In this way, it is only natural that Rayleigh will be greatly reused and receive all kinds of privileges and favorable treatment from the Queen. Raleigh was knighted, became the queen’s chief of guards, and was appointed vice-admiral, chief of the Tin Mines, and governor of Cornwall, among others. The Queen gave Raleigh 40,000 acres of land in Ireland to grow potatoes. Raleigh also acquired properties in England and Ireland. At that time, the Queen awarded some daily necessities monopoly rights to the princes and ministers, and Rayleigh obtained the liquor license and the monopoly rights of the export of various suede fabrics in London, and even obtained the monopoly rights of playing cards.
  Rayleigh and the Queen have an extraordinary relationship. The two often ride horses together, and they sometimes flirt with each other so intimately together; the tobacco that Reilly brought to England fascinates the Queen, who also spit in front of Reilly; Makes faces at Rayleigh; before every expedition of Rayleigh, the queen has to say goodbye, and the queen even shows that she is reluctant to travel with Rayleigh, saying “you are needed here”… No wonder people are a bit sarcastic Said Rayleigh to be “the most perfect aristocrat” at the time.
  However, the good times did not last long, as Rayleigh’s poem said, “Life is like a play”. Raleigh was Elizabeth’s favorite for about ten years, from his 30s to 40s. The queen pursues celibacy, and she has privately expressed “disgust” to get married. She said that she was married to England. In fact, she has her own difficulties: she is worried that she will fall into a political marriage if she is not careful, which will affect her power. control, and no personal happiness; then his father, Henry VIII, killed his mother, leaving her with eternal pain. Of course, some people say that she is for biological reasons, so there is no way to check. There’s another saying: she’s staying single because she “can indulge in those mysterious romances.” This is probably one of the important reasons. The same is true. Elizabeth had many favorites or lovers in her life, and each period was different. The most influential were Lester, Robert Dudley, “Dance Minister” Christopher Hatton, and then Ray. Leigh, and then the Earl of Essex in his place. Essex is 14 years younger than Reilly. He is young and full of youthful energy. He is also a talented person. He is also the adopted son of the Queen’s old lover, Lester. The Queen soon fell in love with this handsome and smart young man. . Reilly had to step aside in dismay.
  It’s more than that. That year, Rayleigh married a beautiful maid beside her without the knowledge of the queen, and the maid soon became pregnant, which was obviously outrageous in the queen’s view, because all maids at that time had to go through a marriage. Queen approves. The Queen gave the young woman a vicious slap in the face in the presence of a large audience, and then sent the couple to the Tower of London for confinement. Raleigh quietly wrote poems that the Queen was heartless. In fact, the Queen is not completely like this, she still misses her old love and let them go after a few months. Rayleigh’s hot years are gone. During the British campaign against Spain in June 1596, Rayleigh’s rival, the Earl of Essex, even served as the commander-in-chief of the British army together with Admiral Howard, while Rayleigh only served as a commander under them. However, later on, Rayleigh may have been somewhat relieved that Essex was arrogant, like a wild horse, and his personal ambitions were inflated. He finally launched a rebellion, and was immediately arrested and beheaded for treason. Only 34 years old.
  So, what happened to Rayleigh in the end? Equally bad. Just a year after Essex’s death, in 1603, the Queen died and was succeeded by James I, the son of Mary, Queen of Scots, who was executed by Elizabeth. Great reversals of British and foreign policies occurred immediately, such as reconciling with Spain and banning smoking in the whole country. Raleigh was sentenced to death by political opponents for trying to overthrow the king, and was later suspended for thirteen years in the Tower of London, the longest prisoner held here.
  At that time, some of the people who were convicted and imprisoned in the Tower of London had very special identities and great social influence, and the royal family gave them “care”. I have visited the Tower of London many times, and I have visited Rayleigh’s residence in the “Bloody Tower”: there are two floors, the upper floor is a comfortable bedroom, the lower floor is an elegant study and reception room, the floor is paved with exquisite tiles, and all kinds of antique furnishings. Raleigh lives with his family. He can grow tobacco in the garden in front of the tower and convert a chicken coop into a chemistry laboratory. Not only that, he also devoted himself to writing and completed the “World History”, which was written from Genesis to the 2nd century BC. It is also a wonderful book! In 1616, Raleigh was granted parole on the condition that he went to Guyana again to find gold. However, he struggled to get there and found nothing, and his subordinates went against the interests of the Spaniards by burning down a settlement. The king was furious and decided to execute Rayleigh according to the original sentence. This is 1618. The humorous Rayleigh faced the executioner’s axe and made the last joke: “This medicine is too powerful, but it can cure all diseases.” Rayleigh was 66 years old. Thirty-nine years after his body was preserved, he was buried in the cemetery of St Margaret’s Church in London. !