Symptoms are different in patients at different stages
1. Mild poisoning or drunkers in the excited stage of poisoning are pale or flushed, their eyes are red, slightly dizzy, and they talk more; Emotional, moody, beating people and destroying things, etc. Of course, most people don’t feel that they are drunk, but continue to drink; a few people fall asleep soundly.
2. Moderate poisoning or ataxia period of poisoning. During this period, drunks usually have symptoms such as vomiting, unsteady walking, clumsy movements, slurred pronunciation or incoherent speech.
3. Deep poisoning or poisoning drowsiness period. During this period, drunks tend to have slightly purple lips, rapid heartbeat, dilated pupils, clammy skin, pale complexion, and slow breathing interspersed with snoring. Severe cases may coma, convulsions, incontinence, until respiratory failure and death.
first aid method
1. The first aid for mild poisoning should allow them to take a lot of water, drink lemon honey water or yogurt, speed up the metabolism of alcohol in the body, and achieve the purpose of hangover. If it has fallen asleep, pay attention to keeping warm, and it will return to normal after waking up.
2. First aid for moderate to severe poisoning If the patient vomits while still awake, let him drink some hangover soup after vomiting, and then lie down and rest.
3. Stimulate the throat with fingers to induce vomiting, expel the alcohol remaining in the stomach from the body, and prevent alcohol from continuously entering the blood. When inducing vomiting, pay attention to the properties, color and quantity of the vomit, and check whether the gastric mucosa is damaged; if the vomit is dark red or bright red, pay attention to whether there is bleeding in the digestive tract. Of course, there is no need to be nervous if you are drinking red wine.
4. Keep warm After acute alcohol poisoning occurs, blood vessels in the whole body dilate and emit a lot of heat, resulting in a drop in body temperature. In severe cases, shivering occurs. Add some clothes or quilts, turn on the air conditioner in the room, increase the indoor temperature, and keep warm to avoid catching cold.
5. Safety protection Most patients are irritable, hyperactive, talkative, dancing, and slow to react. They should be supported during activities to avoid falling. Of course, in addition to taking safety protection measures, they should also be careful not to hurt others.
6. Make sure the airway is smooth. Drunken patients will experience vomiting, disturbance of consciousness, and nausea. For patients who are unconscious, they should lie on their backs, turn their heads to one side or lie on their sides to ensure a smooth airway. When the patient vomits, the foreign matter should be removed from the mouth as soon as possible to prevent suffocation due to aspiration.
If the patient has problems such as clammy skin, slow breathing, and rapid pulse after rest, he should be sent to the hospital for emergency treatment; if the patient falls asleep and has symptoms such as weak breathing and convulsions, he should also be sent to the hospital for emergency treatment immediately.
Special treatment and symptomatic treatment
Naloxone hydrochloride is a non-specific awakening agent that increases breathing and promotes mental clarity. In addition, naloxone is an opioid receptor blocker, which can prevent and reverse alcohol poisoning. For patients with mild poisoning, provide 0.4-0.8 mg intravenously or intramuscularly; for patients with severe poisoning, provide 0.8-1.2 mg, add 20 ml of 10% glucose solution, and take intravenous injection, and 0.4-0.8 mg can be used again after 1 hour .
In addition, patients with stomach discomfort can take oral sucralfate tablets or aluminum hydroxide gel to protect the gastric mucosa; patients with headaches can take 30 mg of rotundine, 3 times a day.
Links to drinking knowledge
1. Do not let the patient drink coffee or strong tea during the hangover process. Although these two substances have the effect of refreshing and sobering up, they will also increase the burden on the heart and cause severe water loss in the body. After the ethanol is converted into acetaldehyde, it will be excreted from the kidneys before it is decomposed, poisoning the kidneys.
2. Drink alcohol carefully before and after medication. Some drugs have adverse effects with alcohol (Table 1). It is not safe to take medicine for 3 days before and after drinking alcohol, or drink alcohol within 7 days after stopping the medicine.