Wormhole, more than science fiction

  For a long time, people could not be sure whether the wormhole actually existed. However, some studies in recent years have shown that wormholes are indeed possible, and it is possible to construct miniature wormholes using familiar physics theories.
  In the early days of black hole research, even before the term “black hole” was born, physicists did not know whether these strange objects actually existed in the real world. At that time, the general theory of relativity used to describe gravity had just emerged, and black holes might have been just a strange part of the complex mathematical process of the theory. However, over the years, more and more evidence has shown that black holes are indeed real celestial bodies, and they even exist in the Milky Way.
  Looking wormhole
  Today, it is also difficult to determine general relativity predicted another strange celestial bodies – wormhole – exists. Wormholes are magical tunnels that can lead to the other side of the universe, but do they really exist? If wormholes exist in our universe, can human beings hope to use them to travel the universe?
  In 1935, some people predicted the existence of wormholes, but research after that seemed to point to a negative answer-wormholes seemed unlikely to exist. However, the latest research provides some clues about how wormholes are produced, and the process may be simpler than physicists have long thought.
  The concept of wormholes was first proposed by physicists Albert Einstein and Nathan Rosen. They have studied some strange equations and thought about what these equations represent. Now we already know that these equations describe a small piece of space called “black holes” that cannot be escaped. Einstein and Rosen discovered that, at least in theory, the surface of a black hole may become a bridge connecting another piece of space. This kind of travel may be like walking along the drain pipe of a bathtub, and then coming out into another bathtub like before, without getting stuck in the pipe.
  Subsequent research work expanded this idea, but encountered two problems that have never been overcome: Wormholes are very fragile and tiny, which makes it difficult to form wormholes that are easy to find and can be used by humans. First, according to general relativity, the gravitational action of any ordinary matter passing through the wormhole will pull and close the tunnel. The formation of a stable wormhole requires certain additional, atypical ingredients to keep the wormhole open, and researchers call it “singular” matter.
  Secondly, the formation process of wormholes studied by scientists relies on a special effect that prevents travelers from the macroscopic world from entering it. Therefore, the difficulty in studying wormholes is that the process of generating wormholes and the strange substances that stabilize wormholes cannot deviate too far from the familiar physics theories.
  ”Singularity” does not mean that physicists can just think of something on paper that can achieve this function. But so far, people can only conceive wormholes on a microscopic scale based on familiar physics theories. To produce a larger wormhole, it seems that an unusual and credible process or substance is needed. “That’s the tricky part,” said Brianna Grado-White, a physicist and wormhole researcher at Brandeis University.
  Breakthrough progress
  In 2017, a breakthrough was made in wormhole research. Ping Gao, Daniel Jafferis of Harvard University, and Aron Wall of the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey discovered a breakthrough. A method that uses quantum entanglement (a long-distance connection between quantum entities) to achieve sustainable opening of wormholes.
  The strange nature of the entangled state allows it to provide the strange material needed to maintain the stability of the wormhole. Since entanglement is a standard feature of quantum physics, this state is relatively easy to produce. “This is indeed a wonderful theoretical idea.” said Nabil Iqbal, a physicist at Durham University in the United Kingdom, who was not involved in the research.
  Iqbal and his colleague Simon Ross at Durham University proposed a way to easily imagine wormholes in a preprint study. The two scientists wanted to explore whether a large-scale wormhole could be created using the Go-Jeffries-Wall method.
  Their work theoretically proposes how the special disturbance in the magnetic field around the black hole can lead to the creation of a stable wormhole. Unfortunately, this effect can still only generate microscopic wormholes, and Iqbal also said that this situation is almost impossible to appear in reality.
  The work of Iqbal and Ross highlights the tricky part of the process of wormhole construction: finding a process that can be achieved, and this process does not require too many additional conditions beyond the well-known physical theories. The physicist Juan Maldacena of the Princeton Institute for Advanced Study pointed out in 2013 that there is a connection between wormholes and quantum entanglement. He and his partner, Alexei Mi of Princeton University Alexey Milekhin discovered a way to create large wormholes.
  The difficulty of their method is that it requires the dark matter that fills the universe to exhibit a specific behavior, but this is unlikely to happen in the universe in which we live. “The methods we can use are limited,” Grado-White said. “In order to make things look the same as what we need, there are not many methods that can be done.” The
  wormhole research craze has not yet receded. At present, it seems impossible for people to customize human-scale wormhole machines, but research has indeed made some progress. “We have learned that a simple quantum effect can actually be used to create a wormhole that can remain open,” Grado-White said. “For a long time, we thought it was impossible to make such a thing, but the results showed that it was possible.