What is syndrome X

Recently, the 33-year-old Ms. Zhang often suffered from chest tightness, pain in the anterior heart area, shortness of breath, and sometimes shortness of breath, sometimes accompanied by radiation pain in the left shoulder. Because she was deeply disturbed, she came to the hospital for registration. After the doctor consulted the condition in detail, she was advised to do a series of related examinations such as electrocardiogram to confirm the diagnosis. After completing all the examinations, the results only indicated “mild myocardial ischemia” and no other abnormalities were seen. According to the examination results, the doctor initially judged her as “coronary heart disease”. To clarify the nature of coronary heart disease, she was also required to undergo coronary angiography.

Ms. Zhang accepted the doctor’s opinion and immediately underwent coronary angiography. The results of the inspection report suggest that “there is no abnormal coronary artery.” This made Ms. Zhang very puzzled. She clearly had obvious symptoms of discomfort. How did the examination result show no abnormalities? The doctor answered her doubts. It turned out that the clinical symptom of a disease in the clinic is chest pain and discomfort in the precordial area, but because the site of the disease is in the heart’s microvessels rather than the coronary arteries, the results of coronary angiography showed normal. The disease is medically called “Syndrome X”, and Ms. Zhang may have the disease.

What are the characteristics of X syndrome
Syndrome X, also known as microvascular angina, refers to the symptoms of exertional angina (angina pectoris when doing some strenuous things) or angina-like discomfort, and the results of coronary angiography show a normal coronary artery or no obstructive lesions. Group clinical syndrome.

The main feature of Syndrome X is chest pain caused by coronary artery microvasospasm discomfort in the anterior chest area, which is caused by the diminished reserve function of small coronary arteries and the myocardial ischemia caused by coronary artery contraction. The lesions are located on the anterior coronary arteries that cannot be developed by current coronary angiography. When the coronary anterior arterioles appear to contract abnormally in a patchy distribution, they will cause local myocardial ischemia at the distal end and cause chest pain.

The cause of X syndrome is not completely clear. Such diseases account for 1% to 15% of the total number of angina. Such diseases are more common in women, especially in menopausal women. Psychological factors and mental factors are also important influencing factors of syndrome X.

Clinical manifestations: chest pain
The main clinical manifestation of Syndrome X is paroxysmal chest pain, which can be both typical angina pectoris and atypical chest pain. Patients with this type of chest pain do not respond to nitroglycerin. Chest pain can last up to 2 hours. A considerable number of patients were awakened by pain in the early morning, and some patients showed dull pain lasting longer.

Some patients with only mild or no coronary artery disease, who are too concerned about their personal health due to chest pain, may experience mental symptoms such as panic, anxiety, and depression. In addition, some patients have concurrent functional or mental chest pain, which is a manifestation of the anxiety state of neurasthenia. This kind of pain can be located in the apex of the heart, and can last for several hours. It is often aggravated or turned into a sharp knife-like pain under the breast, which often occurs when emotional tension and fatigue. May be accompanied by tenderness in the precardiac area, and may be accompanied by palpitations, numbness and tingling in the extremities, dizziness, difficulty breathing, general weakness, emotional instability or depression. Except for analgesics, other drugs can not relieve pain, but the pain can be intervened in various forms, such as rest, labor, taking tranquilizers and placebo. Contrary to myocardial ischemic pain, functional pain often occurs after hyperventilation, which can cause increased muscle tension and a diffuse chest tightness.

There is no special treatment
There is no effective method for the treatment of syndrome X. The main purpose of treatment is to alleviate the pain of repeated chest pain attacks, reduce myocardial oxygen consumption and improve coronary artery reserve function.

Medications commonly use anti-angina drugs such as nitrates, calcium antagonists, and β-blockers to relieve or relieve symptoms, but may not be effective for some patients. Because of repeated chest pain, the psychological impact on the patient will be caused. Therefore, it is also necessary to pay close attention to the psychological changes of the patient and use psychological treatment if necessary.

Three strokes to prevent X syndrome
First of all, patients need to treat the disease correctly, adjust their emotions, avoid tension, avoid bad stimulation, maintain an optimistic and cheerful mental state, and build confidence to overcome the disease.

Secondly, patients need to change their lifestyles, have regular daily routines and avoid staying up late; reasonably arrange work, combine work and rest, cooperate with appropriate exercise, avoid excessive fatigue; maintain emotional stability, avoid emotional excitement and tension; pay attention to keep warm, avoid cold stimulation, etc. . At the same time, patients need to take their medicines on time as directed by their doctors. If an adverse reaction occurs after taking the medicine, you should consult a doctor and return to the clinic regularly.

Finally, patients should pay attention to diet, eat less and eat more meals, regular and quantitative diet, eat 3 to 5 times a day, each meal is controlled to sixty-seven full, and overeating is strictly prohibited. Patients should eat more vegetables and fruits rich in vitamins and dietary fiber, avoid fried, spicy and other irritating foods, reduce salt intake, increase the amount of water properly, reduce the viscosity of blood, avoid drinking coffee, strong tea, Stimulant foods such as hard alcohol, quit smoking and alcohol, and avoid fatty foods. In addition, obese patients should eat more vegetable protein to control their weight.