Most people’s first reaction when hearing weight loss through diet may be “dieting.” But in fact, dietary weight loss patterns involve a very wide range. Professional terms include energy-restricted diet, high-protein diet, light fasting, ketogenic diet, etc. Different diet patterns have their own characteristics.
Energy-restricted diet is a type of dietary pattern that guarantees basic nutritional requirements while restricting energy intake. The energy supply ratio of carbohydrate, protein and fat should meet the requirements of a balanced diet. There are three types of energy-restricted diets: 1. Decrease in a certain proportion based on the target intake (30%-50% reduction). 2. Reduce by about 500 kcal per day based on the target intake. 3. The energy supply is 1000～1500 kcal per day. A balanced energy-restricted diet that uses a nutrient meal replacement model is more helpful for weight loss, and proper supplementation of vitamin D and calcium can enhance the weight loss effect.
There are two modes of energy-restricted diet: low-energy diet (minus 30%-50% of the normal free-eating energy) and very low-energy diet (only 400-800 kcal of energy per day). Energy is mainly derived from protein. Limiting the intake of fat and carbohydrates to a certain extent will make the body hungry, which can easily cause lean body mass (also called lean body mass, which is the weight of other body components except fat) to decrease, and gout occurs. Adverse reactions such as increased risk and disturbance of electrolyte balance are not recommended. These two methods must be carried out under the strict guidance of a professional nutritionist or doctor to avoid harm.
High protein diet
A high-protein diet requires that the daily protein intake exceeds 20% or 1.5g/kg/d of the total daily energy, but generally does not exceed 30% or 2g/kg/d of the total daily energy. For patients with simple obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypercholesterolemia, this dietary pattern is more conducive to weight loss and improvement of blood lipids than a normal protein diet, and is conducive to controlling the weight rebound after weight loss. A high-protein diet can increase satiety, help maintain energy consumption, improve insulin sensitivity, lower blood sugar levels, and make weight loss obvious. At the same time, it is recommended to supplement vitamin D, calcium, B vitamins and other nutrients. You can supplement dietary fiber and fish oil in an appropriate amount. It is recommended to drink 2000-2500 ml of water, mainly boiled water or light tea, and drink small amounts for multiple times. High-protein diets must also be carried out under the guidance of professional nutritionists or doctors, and protein powders should be selected for supplements according to individual conditions.
Light fasting mode
Also known as intermittent fasting, one type adopts the “5+2” mode. That is, there are 5 days a week to eat normally, and the other 2 days (non-continuous) intake of 1/4 of the usual energy (about 500 kcal/day for women, about 600 kcal/day for men). Later, there were variations such as the interval-day fasting method, the 6/1 fasting method, and the 25+5 fasting method. Don’t eat too much on a normal day. Try to choose foods with high protein and fiber content on fasting days, choose foods with low energy density, and avoid high-fat and high-calorie foods. Studies have shown that light fasting mode can effectively lose weight and prevent type 2 diabetes, but there may also be discomforts such as dehydration, affecting sleep quality, and poor mood.
This is a high-fat (65%-90% of total energy), moderate protein, and low-carbohydrate diet. It was originally used for the dietary treatment of refractory epilepsy and malignant tumors in children. There are advantages to improving cognitive function. There are very few carbohydrates in this diet, and the liver converts fat into fatty acids and ketone bodies, which replace glucose as a source of energy for the brain. Constipation, hypoglycemia, hunger, nausea, vomiting, itching, and rash may occur on a ketogenic diet, as well as tachycardia, hyperlipidemia, hyperuricemia, ketoacidosis, and acute hyperlipidic pancreas. Inflammation, kidney stones, anemia, etc. Adopting a ketogenic diet must be carried out under the guidance and supervision of a professional nutritionist and doctor.
A vegetarian diet usually controls total energy intake. It is based on high-fiber foods such as coarse grains, vegetables and fruits, combined with exercise or meditation, which is a diet with a better weight loss effect. However, long-term use of a vegetarian diet can easily lead to uneven nutritional intake, anemia, vitamin B12, unsaturated fatty acid deficiency, etc., women of childbearing age are prone to menstrual disorders, and even cause amenorrhea and infertility. Therefore, it is recommended to adopt a flexible vegetarian diet, and occasionally eat some meat, appropriate intake of beans and soy products, eggs, dairy products and whole grains to supplement protein, and increase the amount of nuts, fungi and algae food.
The Mediterranean diet ranked first in the best diet rankings issued by the United States in 2021. This diet is mainly composed of whole grains, fresh fruits and vegetables, legumes, nuts, olive oil, daily intake of dairy products, moderate intake of seafood and poultry and eggs every week, and moderate consumption of red wine, red meat and Intake of sweets is low. The Mediterranean diet is not only beneficial to cardiovascular health, but also helps to lose weight, control blood sugar, improve cognitive function, improve immunity, and prevent cancer.
Deshu Diet (DASH) is a diet developed for people with high blood pressure in the United States, and it ranks second in the ranking of the best diets. This diet model recommends intake of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean meat and low-fat dairy products, limit the amount of salt, limit the intake of fatty meat, foods with high saturated fat content, sweets, and beverages, and try to avoid sodium content Highly processed foods are not only good for controlling blood pressure and preventing cardiovascular diseases, but also for weight loss.
At the top of the weight loss diet list is a commercial weight loss model called Weight Watcher (WW), which is a specialized weight management company that uses diet record management software, online tracking guidance, and offline organization of activities. Combination packages such as exercise guidance for weight loss guidance.
One dietary pattern may not completely solve the problem of weight loss. In addition, weight loss is also divided into different stages. Different dietary patterns may be adopted at different stages. Each individual’s situation is different, so a professional nutritionist or doctor Will give a personalized weight loss program. For example, take a high-protein diet in the early stage, and use a light fasting diet in the mid-term to maintain a balanced energy-limited diet during the maintenance period; some people adopt a ketogenic diet first, a transitional diet in the middle, and finally a balanced energy-limited diet. Regardless of which diet you choose, you are encouraged to do regular exercise at the same time, at least 3 times a week for more than 30 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise, and 2 times a week for resistance training.