Vulnerable information makes people stupid

  Accepting inaccurate information may be harmful, so it is better not to know.
  A few days ago, a friend reposted an article to the effect: Germany, with a population of 82 million, won 1/2 of the Nobel Prize. Behind the success of education, Germany implements “stocking” for children, homework is easy, and childhood is mainly about playing children’s innocence. It is precisely because the children’s intelligence is not developed early, so German scientists have great stamina and have won so many Nobel Prizes.
  The above article has often appeared in the past two years. For the time being, regardless of the logical problems in it, such as whether there is a positive correlation between the “stocking” of primary and secondary school students and the strong stamina of national scientific research, there are serious factual errors in the argument alone.
  Germany has won 1/2 of the world’s Nobel Prize. This “fact” lacks at least a time limit. If it is limited to before World War II, the credibility is still very high. Before the 1940s, the number of Nobel Prizes won by Germans was indeed the only one in the world.
  I made a rough statistics. After the Nobel Prize was founded in 1901, Germans won between 70 and 80 people, a large number, but there are two characteristics: one is concentrated in the three “hard technology” fields, namely In the fields of physics, chemistry and physiology (medicine), there were more than 20 people in all three fields. But in the other three “softer” areas, namely, the Peace Prize, the Literature Prize and the Economics Prize, very few were won. Second, the time for Germans to receive awards was concentrated before World War II, and almost two-thirds of them were won before World War II. This shows that the relative position of German scientific research strength in the world has dropped sharply after the war.
  Before World War II, Germany did possess dazzling original technology research and development capabilities. In many areas, Germany surpassed the emerging United States and the still powerful United Kingdom. Berlin has the world’s best universities and the most powerful scientific research institutions, Roentgen who discovered X-rays, Planck who founded quantum mechanics, and Einstein in his early years. These human science giants are showing their talents in the German-speaking world. At this time, there are two main languages ​​used in scientific literature around the world: English and German.
After World War II, it can be said that Germany is a country of outstanding engineers, but it is by no means a country of top scientists.

  But after World War II, the situation changed completely. Although Germany is still a “technological power” and can produce top-notch cars and lathes, it is no longer a “scientific research power” in the field of original scientific research. In the second half of the 20th century, Germany’s influence was not as strong as Japan’s in the semiconductor revolution and the information revolution. It can even be said that Germany is a country of outstanding engineers, but it is by no means a country of top scientists.
  The decline of Germany in the field of original scientific research is largely due to the complete change of the original scientific research system before World War II, which obviously has a large degree of international political factors. However, to talk about decline, it is better to look at why the German scientific community was so shining before the Nazis came to power? There are at least two reasons:
  one is the harsh professional training of scientific research personnel. Before World War II, American universities had always followed the example of the University of Berlin in learning. The original education in the Anglo-American system emphasized general education and generalists, while Germany in continental Europe opened up a new path and emphasized the specialization of disciplines, which is what American universities lack. This rigorously subdivided discipline and professional training has cultivated a large number of professional research personnel with a deeper understanding of scientific branches and stronger quantitative skills. This training model is just in line with the general trend of the scientific community to continue to “deep” and “precise”. . Obviously, scientists need not only imaginative brains, but also strict and boring long-term academic training, rather than the so-called happy education.
  The second is the tolerance and openness of the national environment. In the most brilliant era of German technology, the Nazis had not yet come to power. Jews, Slavs, Latins, and Anglo-Saxon scientists could all work freely in this country, and Einstein did not have to flee to other countries. At that time, narrow-minded German nationalism was still out of the question. German-speaking scientists were always at the forefront of the world, and they never gave up communicating and cooperating with English-speaking and French-speaking colleagues.
  The above two experiences are not outdated today. They are the “gravitational” laws that cannot be escaped by any scientific research center in the world during the rise of it. And those “scientific research experience” that are full of loopholes are both misleading and stupid.