Some time ago, the famous British physicist Stephen? Hawking continues to make startling statements. He said that human beings are fully capable of using the laws of nature to “travel through time and space”, and he also strongly advocated the creation of a “time machine”. He even seemed a little eager: “Our population is inversely proportional to the resources on the earth, and technological updates may not necessarily make our environment better, because our human genetics determine our own selfishness, so More chances for our survival are to set our sights on other planets and find planets suitable for human habitation.”
Is “time travel” just a dream?
Starting from the earth, it is very difficult for manned people to search for the “second home of mankind” into the depths of the universe. Almost impossible to do in a short amount of time. Hawking said: “Difficulties are for sure, but human beings must have this sense of exploration. We can spend 30 years building a base on the moon, 50 years reaching Mars, and 200 years exploring exoplanets, etc.”
Hawking said in his new book ” In “The Grand Design”, it is the first time to deny the understanding that God created the universe. “God has no place in the universe, and the universe we live in is just one of many universes that spontaneously emerged from nothing.” Hawking explained, “If God really exists in the universe, it is actually just a movie about The law book of science is not a god who will help you satisfy you if you ask for it.”
Hawking does not recognize God, he believes that the physical space-time shift is more infinite than God. First he sees time as the fourth dimension. Any object has a specific length, width and height, but there is another “degree” besides this, and this degree is time. And “time travel” means traveling through the fourth dimension.
To understand this concept is not difficult, just take driving a car as an analogy. Going straight is the first dimension, turning left or right is the second dimension, and climbing up and down the mountain road brings about changes in height, which is the third dimension. But how to go through the time of the fourth dimension? Russian physicists believe that Europe’s Large Hadron Collider could be used to help with “time travel”. But activating this superpower will only happen when the collider is running at full capacity. It’s just an idea right now.
Everyone knows that science fiction movies about “time travel” are inseparable from a giant machine with extremely high energy consumption. This machine can open a channel through the fourth-dimensional time and space, that is, the “time tunnel”. A brave traveler who rewrites time may be a little reckless, but he can definitely step into the “time tunnel” to the next unknown era… This concept is no longer fantasy, but a bit “down-to-earth”, because in some physics It keeps popping up in home calculations.
Many physicists are working hard to enter the “time tunnel”, and have set a new term for this – “wormhole”. Their basic understanding is: any matter is not completely smooth without gaps, and if you look closely, you will find small holes and cracks on it. This is a basic law of physics, even time.
Wormholes are small passages, which can also be said to be “shortcuts” to travel through time and space. They are constantly forming, disappearing, and reconnecting throughout the quantum world. At the tiniest scale — smaller than a molecule or even an atom — we come to a place called the quantum foam, which is where wormholes exist. But these real “space-time tunnels” are only 10 minus 33 centimeters in size. But it’s so small, it’s impossible for humans to pass through it!
Some scientists believe that humans can intercept such a wormhole, and then expand it hundreds of billions of billions of times, enough to allow a person or even a spaceship to pass through it. Huge wormholes are created in the universe.
According to the explanation of theoretical physics, a wormhole is a tunnel connecting different times and spaces. Its entrance may be as big as a grain of dust, or it may be as big as a house, a planet, or even a star.
So far, this is just an escalating idea, which may be difficult to realize. But if it works, it would be a remarkable feat, with one end not far from Earth and the other near a planet so far away from us.
”Time machine”, a scientific concept that is gradually approaching
If “time travel” was considered a fantasy in science fiction earlier, today it has suddenly become the favorite project of theoretical physicists. In the scientific community before the 20th century, “time travel” was once considered a heresy; but after the advent of the 21st century, it is completely different. California Institute of Technology famous physicist Kip? Thorne once said in his lecture: “Time travel was once the province of writers, and serious scientists avoided it like the plague. Today, in serious scientific journals, you can often see good theoretical physicists. An analysis article on time travel.”
Originating from the launch of the concept of “time travel”, many scientists are designing various “time machines”. The most important one is the Large Hadron Collider in Europe, which was completed in the autumn of 2008 and is located on the border of France and Switzerland. Scientists are trying to collide beams of protons at nearly the speed of light. As expected, the device could provide new insights into how particles and energy operate in space, as well as simulate the regenerative conditions of the universe after the Big Bang.
After the collider was activated, there were fears of a giant black hole that could swallow the earth. But scientists quickly issued a statement saying that running a particle collider could create a very limited number of black holes, either small enough to be seen with a microscope, or so large that people could travel through time and space, and could only be used as a “time travel” tool. That’s all.
This novel point of view was put forward by two doctors from the Steklov Institute of Physics and Mathematics; one named Yili? Arefieva, the other named Igor? Volovich. Volovich said: “‘Time travel’ conforms to the principles of modern theoretical mathematical physics. When high-energy particles collide, it is possible to make this kind of ‘wormhole’ appear, and even limit the ‘wormhole’ to a certain extent.” However, it should be noted that relying on the existing top technology, no matter how high the energy is, there is a limit. That is to say, once the European Large Hadron Collider successfully bursts out enough energy in the future, it may be a “time machine” The direct cause of being out of the cage.”
Scientists pointed out that in order to create such a “time machine”, time and space must be closed like a ring, and the Large Hadron Collider can do this. The size of the entrance of the “wormhole” or “time tunnel”, just like the construction of the landing airport of the “time machine”, depends on the space-time route and the scale of its navigation. After all, transporting a photon through time and space is very different from transporting a group of tourists through time.
In terms of physical properties, the entrance of a “wormhole” is very similar to the entrance of a “black hole”. What’s completely different is that people can’t come back after being sucked away by the “black hole”, but after passing through the “wormhole”, you can come back again. Some scientists predict that by traveling through “wormholes”, you can go to another galaxy or another universe, and even you can go back in time.
”Back to the past” was finally rejected as
”Back to the past”, which is a bit unbelievable. The new theory of physics assumes that if the two ports of the “wormhole” are set at the same location but at different times, then after the spaceship passes through the wormhole, you will go back to the distant past. Perhaps the dinosaurs in the distant era can still Witness the drop of this spaceship from the sky.
However, the “time travel” of “back to the past” has its own problems-can a person see his self a minute ago through a wormhole? What would happen if he used the wormhole to shoot his former self? He was dead now, so who fired the shot? This is an inexplicable paradox. To have such a “time machine” would be a complete violation of the fundamental rules that the entire universe follows.
Time travel back in time should never happen. For dinosaur hunters, it’s a big disappointment; for historians, it’s a complete relief.
In fact, time is like a river, each of us seems to be swept away mercilessly by the flow of time. Go back in time from the “wormhole”? This way is obviously not working. Time is a straight line, running forward and never turning back. Time flows at different speeds and in different places, but people can catch the train and find the “golden key” to the future.
”Fast and slow”: the core of the problem The
term “time machine” first appeared in Wells’ novel “The Time Machine” in 1895. At that time, the idea was only the author’s fantasy, until the special theory of relativity and the general theory of relativity came out one after another , this assumption began to have a certain physical basis.
In 1975, Carroll of the University of Maryland? Professor Alli built two atomic clocks, placed one on the ground and the other on an airplane and flew in the air for hours. When the airborne atomic clock returned to the ground, Professor Alli compared the two atomic clocks and found that the atomic clock on the ground was slower than the one in the air by less than one second. For another example, every spaceship has a clock that runs accurately inside. As precise as this is, it will still run faster than Earth by a billionth of a second or so each day.
More than 100 years ago, Einstein first proposed the concept of “fast and slow”. He believes that there should be places in the world where time slows down and places where time speeds up. Hawking said that in the space near the earth, the closer you are to the earth, the slower time will be. Science has found that matter slows down time, like the lower reaches of a river. The heavier the object, the greater the resistance to time. This astonishing fact opens the door to time travel into the future.
Exactly at the center of the Milky Way, 26,000 light-years away from Earth, there is the heaviest celestial body in the Milky Way—a supermassive black hole with a mass equal to 4 million suns, which is compressed into a single point under its own gravity. Such a supermassive black hole has a dramatic effect on time, slowing time far faster than any object in the Milky Way. This supermassive black hole is a “born time machine”.
If a space agency were controlling a probe launched from Earth, they would find that it takes 16 minutes of Earth time to complete one orbit. For the brave aboard the spaceship, time relative to Earth will slow down as it gets closer to this supermassive object. Here, the gravitational influence is far more extreme than Earth’s gravity. The time taken by the crew (referenced to Earth) will be slowed down by half. Originally, each lap took 16 minutes of earth time, but they actually only experienced 8 minutes, because the time there was very slow, and the second hand was slow, as if it was being held back by something.
Imagine that when the spacecraft and its crew orbit the black hole for 5 years of Earth time, 10 years have passed on Earth. When they returned to their hometown, the people on the earth were 5 years older than them. Therefore, a supermassive black hole is a deformed “time machine”.
Close to the speed of light, flying to the future Flying
at a speed close to light can send human beings to the future world and enter the new home of the universe. This is the greatest dream of scientists. Human beings first build a genuine “time machine” on the earth, and then load it with a huge amount of fuel to accelerate it to close to the speed of light. Under full-load power operation, it will take at least 6 years to drive out of the solar system without failure. time.
Due to the relatively large and heavy spaceship that resembles a “time machine”, the initial acceleration is relatively flat. As time goes by, the spaceship is very fast. A year later, reach the exoplanet. Two years later, its speed will reach half the speed of light, and it will be farther and farther away from the solar system. In another two years, it may have reached 90% of the speed of light. Four years after launch, the spacecraft will be 48 trillion kilometers away from the earth, which means that the spacecraft will start “time travel”, and the spacecraft will become a “time machine”. By then, its speed will be close to the speed of light, and one day on board is equivalent to two days on Earth.
After another two years of fully powered flight, the spacecraft will reach its top speed—99 percent of the speed of light. At that speed, a day on board would mean a year on Earth. The spaceship did “fly” into the future world. In theory, this means that we can cover endless distances in our lifetime.
Think about it, when people return to the earth from space and walk out of the spaceship, you may only be 7 years old, but the earth has passed countless thousands of years. So in a sense, you traveled through time and space to the future of Earth.
A “time machine”, or just a great dream
of “traveling through time and space”, is possible to travel to the future, but the current human civilization is far from reaching this ability. Some American scientists say that the “time machine” is nothing more than a great dream. Opening the “time tunnel” and entering the “wormhole” requires the energy of a star, which is currently impossible for humans.
Michio Kaku, a physicist at the City University of New York and author of the books “Hyperdimensional Space” and “Parallel Worlds”, said: “Wormholes can lead to the future, but we must be very careful. The ‘gasoline’ needed is far beyond the control of our modern technology.”
Kaku explained that creating a “wormhole” in the space-time structure requires a huge amount of energy, or it needs to control negative energy. Obviously, it is not something that humans can do.
Some physics theories believe that the power generated by the Big Bang should have formed countless thin tubes with high energy concentration, which are called “cosmic strings”. Atoms are tiny, and a centimeter of cosmic strings is heavier than the entire Himalayas. According to this theory, cosmic strings either stretch to infinity or form closed infinitely long loops. The energy generated at this special moment can send people who were in a state of disorder at that time into space travel. But at this time, people cannot survive. That kind of energy explosion is often the coming of a catastrophe.
Because the “cosmic string” has huge energy, scientists believe that it can also bend the nearby space-time. According to Richard Gott, an astrophysicist at Princeton University in the United States, when two “cosmic strings” are parallel to each other, there will be The special curvature of time and space is caused. Under such conditions, “time travel” and “time machine” will become possible. However, if there is no super civilization, it is very difficult to control the direction of this big bang, which is far beyond the technological capabilities of human beings. It will take a long time to solve the scientific and technological civilization that controls the earth’s resources and energy, and how to survive such a challenging emergency is also a huge problem.