The difficult fusion of black and white peoples

  Mark Twain’s “The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn” was written before the Civil War, but it was written in 1884, after the Civil War. At this time, black people in the United States still did not have the rights stipulated in the Constitution, and did not obtain complete equality and social recognition. As Rod Horton described in “Background of American Literary Thought”, “Despite the Supreme Court’s decision that blacks have always been decided, and federal and state laws against racial discrimination, all the ingrained myths of the past And prejudice still continues to hinder people from treating black people equally.” In such a social context, the publication of this novel exposed the most acute social problem in the United States at that time – racial discrimination, and described the difficult integration of black and white races . This makes this work of great historical and epochal significance.
  Today, after reading this novel carefully, we can see that the integration of the two ethnic groups has its special selectivity and limitations under the social background at that time.
  
  The characters of black and white fusion have great selectivity.
  
  Jim is a representative of black people. Although he has some backward thoughts of black people, he is kind and caring. In the process of drifting with Huck, I kept taking care of him. When I was on duty at night, I couldn’t bear to wake Huck and protect Huck from seeing his father’s tragic death… What is commendable is that although he is a slave, he does not have the servility of servility. , when he heard that he was about to be sold, he decided to flee to Liberty Island. An accidental opportunity made him yearn for freedom, and he pursued it bravely and perseveringly. The protagonist of the book, Huck, is the son of an alcoholic, an undisciplined vagabond. He was barely educated and wandered around all day. After he was adopted by the Douglas Widow, when his freshness wore off, he began to play truant. “For Wu. He is an image that is incompatible with civilized society, and it is precisely in this way that he can see the world from the eyes of a pure child, making it easier for him to break the society’s consistent concept of discrimination against blacks and form the idea of ​​national equality.
  In the author’s pen, black Jim is a very kind and noble person, with a simple and honest character, excellent quality of self-sacrifice, responsible and loving. A morally impeccable black man, so to speak. Look at Huck again, he’s a white child who doesn’t fit into a civilized society, and he doesn’t have many of the worldly thoughts that society agrees on in his head. Of course, it is this that enables Jim and Huck to establish an equal friendship, but in terms of the choice of their fusion objects, it is very special. One is a black slave with infinite virtue, and the other is a free body. white children.
  Moreover, the two of them, in pursuit of their respective freedoms, took the first step towards national integration by chance. Jim, because the owner, Miss Watson, was going to sell him to Orleans, where the slave trade was popular in the South, for eight hundred dollars, so he “slipped quickly”. Jim’s flight was triggered by the sudden occurrence of hearing that he was about to be sold, to the horrific South. Miss Watson, in his words, “has been chasing me all day long and treating me rudely”, but he never thought of running away to seek freedom. Huck was still prepared to escape, with food and weapons ready. But his escape also had a premise, and his father, who hadn’t shown up for more than a year, came back. The cruel and rude behavior of his father inspired Huck to break free from the shackles of reality and seek freedom. The two people who escaped, one had no freedom and the other had no warm home. In the early stages of their escape, they all needed to avoid crowds. So, on the banks of the Mississippi River, they met by chance and started a common pursuit of freedom.
  
  Difficult Fusion Progression
  
  Let’s try to see the progression of their relationship four times. (1) When the raft they were riding on was knocked over by a steamship, and after a few days when the two reunited, Huck pulled a “big lie” to play Jim, which made Jim, who regarded Huck as a “little baby”, hurt. mind. At this time, Huck began to really understand a little bit of Jim, he realized that black slaves also have noble personalities. So he felt “too mean and almost going to kiss his feet”. It took a full quarter of an hour before Huck plucked up the courage to humbly admit his mistake to a nigger, how difficult it was to take this step. (2) When they mistakenly thought Liberty Island had arrived in Cairo, Huck felt “shivering and feverish all over his body every time he heard Jim cheering for freedom.” He felt mean and bad and restless. When he heard Jim’s dream of reuniting his family in the Free State, he thought of an old saying: “Niggers always have to make an inch.” Huck’s mood brightened as soon as he had an idea, “as easy as a feather.” But I heard Jim say, “Without Huck, I’d never be free; it’s a good thing Huck did. I’ll never forget you, Huck, for the rest of my life, Huck, you’re my one and only friend.” Huck hesitated again, and Jim’s sincere gratitude made the kind-hearted Huck “suddenly discouraged”, gave up the idea of ​​reporting Jim, and lied again to protect Jim from being captured. Huck felt that he did a wrong thing by not handing Jim over, and was “very sad”, but then thought that if Jim was handed over, he would be even more sad. It can be seen that at this time in Huck’s subconscious, Jim has been regarded as an equal friend. (3) When the raft was overturned by the ship again, the two dispersed again. Huck survived the danger of two feuding families, and was taken to see Jim, who had been hiding in the swamp, again. Huck was delighted by this aftermath, and blamed Jim for not seeing him sooner. Since then, the two protagonists of Huck and Jim have repeatedly referred to “we” as “we” and depended on each other for life. (4) When he learns that Jim has been sold by the “King” and “Duke” two liars, Huck is afraid that everyone will know that he helped a black man escape, and he is shaken again at this time. He tried to get down on his knees in prayer, and was relieved by writing a letter to Miss Watson, “as if all sin had been washed away.” At this juncture, he and Jim were drifting down the river with So out of place came to his mind. Jim’s thoughtfulness, love and heartfelt gratitude for him, his sincere affection for him, put him in a dilemma. In the end, the good nature triumphed over the social conscience, and he made up his mind: “Then, come on, I’ll go to hell.” He immediately tore up the letter, Plan a campaign to rescue Jim. This time, Jim was not there, and Huck finished his inner torment alone. After hard struggles, he made his own independent judgment, “stepped a key step towards maturity”, and also completed the separation of racial stereotypes with Jim, the black slave, as a true friend of equality and sincerity, thus truly realizing the two. Black and white fusion between people.
  Judging from the four key emotional developments, they were all led by Huck. Jim’s care and love for him remained unchanged, and he always regarded him as “baby”, “little girl”, “little girl” son” and “best friend for life”. In order to establish a friendship between blacks and whites, what is needed is the unilateral acceptance of the whites, or in other words, it is entirely up to the whites to look at the benefits of the blacks objectively and to appreciate the sincerity of the blacks. This may be related to the writing perspective of Huck, a white child, and Huck’s psychological process needs to be used to reflect his growth experience. But on the other hand, we can also see that the integration of black and white races, in the author’s eyes, is only the acceptance of black people by white people, and the a priori concept of getting rid of racial discrimination.
  At the end of the work, Jim was finally freed when Miss Watson suddenly found her conscience, and released Jim in her dying will. It can also be seen that the author “placed his hope on the initiative of white people to compromise, reflecting the author’s helplessness. Emotions.”
  
  The Limits of Time and Space
  
  Huck and Jim’s relationship develops as they drift along the way, on a small raft on the Mississippi River. For this river, the most used words in the works are “big” and “quiet”. On this river, far from the hypocritical and cruel reality society, the broad Mississippi River gives people a feeling of tranquility and tranquility. The Mississippi River is endowed with a unique symbolic meaning in the work. It is a symbol of distance from civilized society and a way for the protagonist to grow towards freedom. The raft is the home of the persistent fugitives. “It’s a good thing. In the final analysis, it’s better to use a raft as a home. It seems that the other places are crowded and uncomfortable, and it makes people suffocated, but the raft is the best. It’s not like that on the raft. You feel very free, comfortable, and comfortable on the raft.” On a small raft on the Mississippi River, the feeling of being tied up on land in Huck and Jim’s heart completely disappeared; Here, they are satisfied with everything, feel happy, and feel free; also on this isolated river, a white man and a black man have become friends of life and death.
  In this way, the work once again has its limitations. The black and white fusion is set in such a specific environment, and the characters generally hide during the day, advance at night, and have their specific time. The limitations of space and time make the fusion of black and white people stay in the author’s imagination and longing.
  Fortunately, the author did not completely limit the fusion of black and white ethnic groups to a small raft that symbolizes freedom and harmony. First of all, while on land there is hypocrisy, in the raft it is comfort and freedom. But Huck and Jim’s little raft cannot exist alone on the Mississippi River, and will inevitably encounter the impact of “civilized society”. The small raft was twice overturned by the ship symbolizing industrial civilization, but it made Huck cherish Jim, the black man, more and more. Later, the “King” and “Duke” brought the deception tricks in the hypocritical society to the raft and sold Jim, but instead contributed to the final fusion of Huck and Jim. Secondly, at the end of the work, the author left a bright tail, and Miss Watson finally returned Jim’s freedom. This makes the fusion of black and white in American society not only limited to two people, but confined to the closed space of a small raft. So far, the author’s “ideal vision of an ideal society where everyone is equal and free regardless of skin color or race” has become a realistic possibility. This also makes the work have a deeper meaning.