“Love Song” Holy Hand

  Pushkin once said with admiration: “In the twelfth century, under the scorching French sky in the afternoon, the rhythm of the Provencal dialect reverberated, and it was extremely pleasant to listen to. It was the bard who sang aloud, coming up with all kinds of styles for their poetry. Such variations surround the rhythm of poetry with extremely difficult forms…” Here Pushkin is describing Provencal lyric poetry.
  Provence lyric poems originated in southern France in the late 11th and early 12th centuries, when the region was economically developed, socially prosperous, and culturally prosperous. Engels once said that southern France “not only brilliantly developed a stage of medieval life, but even brought ancient Greek civilization back to light at the end of the Middle Ages”. In this highly developed society, a new type of poetry emerged, known historically as Provence lyric poetry. Provence lyric poetry once flourished, “at that time, it was a model that was beyond the reach of the Latin-speaking peoples, even the Germans and the British” (Engels), and had a strong influence on neighboring countries such as Germany, Italy, and the West. ‘s poetry. Provencal poetry lasted about two hundred years. During these two hundred years, a number of important poets have emerged, of which the most famous and popular is Bernard de Ventadour.
  Vandador is one of the greatest “trobadors”. Troubadour (“troubadour” in French), the Provencal lyric poet, is derived from the Occitan verb “trobar”, which means “to find”, “to find”; Poet” or “troubadour”; here literally translated as “Trubador”. Although Vandador was one of the greatest Troubadours, little is known about his life details. Born around the 1130s or early 1140s, according to his 13th-century “biography”, the poet’s parents were cleaners at the Castle of Vandador, and Bernard showed a great talent for poetry and music from an early age, so he Chosen by the Viscount to cultivate as Troubador. But never thought that Bernard had a love affair with the wife of the Viscount, and wrote many songs for it. The happy days were suddenly interrupted, and one day the Viscount found the young man lying with his wife. Bernard was kicked out of the castle. After that he wandered everywhere. Before long, Bernard bravely offered himself to Eleanor of Aquitaine, the greatest patron of art in Western Europe at the time. Eleanor received the poet kindly and was quickly attracted by his artistic talent, and they both fell in love. Bernard wrote a lot of songs about her. But then Eleanor remarried Henry II and left France for England. Bernard was so heartbroken for her that he fled into the Cistercian Abbey at Dalon, where he died.
  This is Bernard’s “little biography” (vida). The so-called “biography”, that is, a brief introduction to Trubardo’s life, was first compiled by people in the 13th century, and often described his life according to the poet’s artistic mood. Fact and fiction coexist. Bernard’s “Little Biography” undoubtedly contains elements of exaggeration and romanticization, especially his love with Eleanor. But it’s not entirely catchy. There is evidence that Vandador visited England at least once. He has a poem called “At this moment I have no desire to sing”. From the poem at the end, we can see that the poet dedicated it to King Henry II of England; in another famous “love song” “My heart is full of joy” Vandador sang: “My heart is full of love, / Straight to where she is, / She is a thousand miles away, / I am stuck in France…” This poem was interpreted by later generations as the poet In Ellie Noah left France for England. The famous music historian Paul Henry Lang also said in his famous book “Music in Western Civilization”: “Around the middle of the twelfth century, Bernard de Vandur appeared in England. Since then, Provencal lyric poetry has The gorse family is often involved.” So Bernard and Eleanor’s story is not entirely fictional.
  There are about 45 extant poems in Vandertower, almost all of them are “love songs”. But the “love song” here is not equivalent to the popular love song today, but a specific noun, “canso” in the Middle Provencal language (Ocquer language). “Love songs” is the most important style in Provence lyric poetry. Among the more than 2,500 Provence lyric poems in existence, there are about 1,000 love songs, accounting for 40% of the total; “Love songs” mainly describe the famous “elegant” love” (amour courtois). So what exactly is “elegant love”? Given its enormous popularity, an introduction is warranted here. Elegant love, in simple terms, is the love of a “lover” living in the court circle to a lady. As a term, it was first proposed by Gaston Paris, a famous French expert on Romance literature in the 19th century. He used the term in an essay on Chretien de Troy’s “Lancelot” to refer to a new emotional theme emerging in chivalrous literature, The characteristics are summarized in four points: 1. It is illegal, so it must be kept secret; it includes complete devotion to the body; 2. It is manifested in the obedience of the man to the woman: he regards himself as the servant of the lady, and does his best to satisfy The desire of the hostess; 3. It requires a man to strive to become more perfect in order to win the favor of the lady; 4. It is “an art, a science, a virtue”, and lovers must master its rules . Later, CS Lewis, a famous British medieval scholar, made further research and interpretation on it. In his influential masterpiece “Allegory of Love: A Study of Medieval Tradition”, he summarized its characteristics as: humility, elegance, Courtesy, Adultery and Religion of Love. . Since then, “elegant love” (perhaps better translated as “court love”) has become a term widely used in medieval literature, and even in social, historical, and cultural studies.
  ”Love Song” mainly describes the “court love” of this kind of lover to the lady. Vandador is the most famous poet of love songs. With his rich poetic imagination and superb skills, he has greatly expanded the limited forms and themes of his predecessors, and has won a great reputation for love songs. “When I Saw the Skylark” is his most famous “love song” and one of the most popular secular love songs in the Middle Ages. The song sings: “When I saw the skylark cheerfully / Beating the sun with its wings, / for that The joy that poured into my heart/until weary, fainted and fell./Ah! A great envy/grabbed me–any joy in sight./I wondered why my heart at that moment/was not thirsty And melting…//Alas, I thought I knew a lot about love/But I know very little about it!/Because I couldn’t help loving her/She never reciprocated./My whole heart, myself , / She and the whole world were taken by her, / When she took herself from me, / All that was left for me was a longing and a longing…” (Berner, quoted in the text • De Vandur’s poems were translated by the author, see “Chinese Poetry” in 2011.) In the
  song, “Poet-lover” associates the joy of the lark with the disappointment of his love, and the comparison of the two shows his innermost feelings even more. of pain. The “poet” loves his “lady” (midons) with his whole heart, hoping to win his love and favor, but she always shows indifference, or refuses, or is indifferent, failing to repay love with love: “She Never reciprocated with kindness…” How heart-wrenching! There is a tension, a contradiction between the ideal of sharing the joy of love and the situation of unrequited love—it even became a pattern for later “love songs.” This is true of many of Vandador’s poems, such as another of his love songs: “Yi refuses to give me affection / I still have affection for Yi… I send good wishes to Yi / Yi has few good news… In
  this poem, the contradiction even develops into a rupture: “Since prayer, mercy, and the rights I have / are not helping me, / Since ‘I love her’ does not please her / I will Never talk to her again! / I leave her, and give up; / If she destroys me, I will die, / If she does not save me, I will leave, / A miserable man, left home , I don’t know where I’m going.//I’m gone, a miserable man, I don’t know where I’m going./Tristan, you’ll never hear from me again./From now on, stop singing,/Farewell to joy and love. ”
  The “poet” fell in love with him, but received nothing in return. So the “poet” decided to give up and go far. It seems to be decisive here, but in fact it is a kind of helplessness, and there is a kind of attachment and nostalgia in the heart. How he hoped that his lady would keep him, even if there were only some expressions of remorse… but she was indifferent!
  In the final “tornada,” the “poet” addresses Tristan directly, taking this pathos to another level.
  Tristan is one of the most famous characters in knight literature. His love with Isser is so touching that he is known as one of the most beautiful love stories ever created in world literature. The great musician Wagner turned it into an opera in 1865 – one of his most important works. It tells the touching story of Tristan and Isena, who “love each other in life and follow in death”:
  King Tristan Demark proposes to Princess Isser of Ireland and is granted. But unfortunately, the two drank the love potion by mistake on their way back home, so they had an unstoppable love. The two meet in secret from time to time. Later, King Mark finally discovered their affair. Tristan had to leave Isser and go far away. But no matter where he went, he always missed Isser; even after marrying “Yeser the Jade Hand”, he still couldn’t forget his love for the blond Isser. Once Tristan was mortally wounded in battle, and only Isser could heal him. The queen came as soon as she got the news. It was previously agreed that if Yise was invited to come, the boat would be hung with white sails; otherwise, black sails would be hung. When the boat returned, Jade Hand, Isser jealous, told Tristan that the boat was on black sails. Tristan died of grief. Isser arrives, sees Tristan dead, hugs him, “body to body, lips to lips,” and dies of grief. The two were buried adjacent to each other after their death. From Tristan’s tomb grew a ligature branch, extending all the way to Isser’s tomb.
  This is the story of Tristan and Isser.
  Here Vandador leads Tristan, perhaps a hint of an analogy, a kind of sympathy: both are queens who are in love with others. How much hardship and suffering are involved in this kind of love… In this respect, the two are like brothers and sisters. In fact, Bernard not only mentioned Tristan in this poem, but another of his love songs: “Love leads me to the sea of ​​misery, / Joy less sadness and more haunting my mind; / As Tristan loves / Blonde Isser, dead knot .” The “Poet”‘s loyalty to love is similar to that of Tristan; but the difference is that although the “Poet” loves each other, the other person does not move or appreciate it. Comparing the two, they are even more pitiful.
  ”When I Saw the Skylark” is Vandador’s most famous “love song”. It is not only emotional and poetic, but also has a harmonious rhythm and beautiful melody: it is written in eight-syllable verse, with eight syllables per line and each stanza. (Except Tornada. Tornada, the last short stanza of a Provence lyric poem, is generally used as a parting speech to speak directly to a real or fictional character) Eight lines, rhyme style is ababccdcd, mode I, the beginning and the end of the poem are on the D sound… Its melody is so beautiful that it inspired people to write lyrics and sing for it in 4 languages. It was one of the most famous creations at that time.
  As one of the greatest Troubadours, Vandador, with his rich poetic imagination and virtuosity, formed the classic format of “love songs” for the first time: he created “poet-lover” (poet-lover) -lover), creating an antithesis between the objectivity of the court ideal and the subjectivity of the poet’s experience, between the subjective desire to share love and desire with each other and the real situation of the humble unrequited lover. This tension provides an example for all subsequent poets who write in this field.
  Vandador was a sign of the beginning of the prosperity of Provencal lyric poetry, and a group of famous Troubadours emerged after him, such as Giraut de Borneil, Raimbaut d’Orange, Bonn (Bertran de Born), Daniel (Arnaut Daniel), etc., thus pushing the Provencal lyric to full maturity and prosperity.