AI ethics debate

  As artificial intelligence penetrates more and more into every aspect of daily life, and human society accelerates toward intelligence and digitization, scientific and technological ethical issues also arise one after another. From AlphaGo’s defeat of the human Go world champion, to the privacy and security issues brought about by face recognition, to the frequent accountability of Tesla’s autopilot accidents, and the workplace anxiety caused by the popularity of virtual humans, many scholars have expressed their concerns about ethical governance issues. ‘s concerns.
The real value of artificial intelligence is not to replace people

  ”Congratulations to ‘Cui Xiaopan’ for winning the Best Newcomer Award at Vanke Headquarters in 2021! As the first digital employee of Vanke, ‘Cui Xiaopan’ officially ‘joined the job’ on February 1 this year… She urged the write-off rate of prepaid receivables overdue documents It reached 91.44%.” At the beginning of this year, a WeChat message posted by Yu Liang, chairman of the board of directors of Vanke Group, was swiped in the circle of friends. It is reported that this virtual person named “Cui Xiaopan” has been working for many days, and many Vanke employees don’t even know that the colleague who exchanges emails with him every day is not a real person. It was not until the “Best Newcomer Award” was announced that everything became clear. .
  With the rapid development of artificial intelligence technology, virtual humans are rapidly moving towards commercialization. Seeing virtual people with stunts enter the workplace, the “workers” are more and more worried about whether their “jobs” will be taken away. You must know that these virtual people can not only achieve “996”, but also “007”, and can even be open all year round without even paying wages.
  However, just like there are two sides to a coin, the emergence of artificial intelligence has also filled the vacancies of some high-risk jobs, such as jobs with toxic and harmful or high-risk working environments, or jobs that require long-term distance from urban areas. Artificial intelligence has played a role in human resources. Good supplement. On the one hand, it has helped many enterprises solve the problem of “difficulty in employing labor”; on the other hand, under the increasingly serious aging trend, it has effectively alleviated the labor shortage.
  As CEO and CTO of SpaceX and CEO of Tesla, Musk’s attitude towards artificial intelligence is complicated. On the one hand, he warned that the “off-track” development of artificial intelligence is one of the three major threats facing human beings, and it is necessary to avoid the development of artificial intelligence; on the other hand, he is actively developing human-friendly artificial intelligence, seeking human and artificial intelligence through brain-computer interface technology. In the way of symbiosis, almost all of its companies are related to artificial intelligence.
  ”The debate on artificial intelligence ethics is about the relationship between humans and machines, and more importantly, the relationship between humans and humans using artificial intelligence as a medium.” said Duan Weiwen, director of the Center for Science, Technology and Society, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. Intelligent ethical governance mainly involves four major difficulties: first, controllability and security; second, reliability, accuracy and stability; third, interpretability and transparency; fourth, accountability.” In his view , Every step in the development of machine intelligence is learning human intelligence, which cannot be separated from the help of human intelligence. In fact, human intelligence is smarter and smarter, not machine intelligence.
  ”The real value of artificial intelligence is not to replace people, but to put people first and benefit people. The relationship between artificial intelligence technology and ethics is not a relationship between one or the other or you are strong and I am weak, but complement each other.” Zhang Hui, Dean of the Artificial Intelligence Governance Research Institute, said, “Actually, no technology can develop disorderly without the constraints of laws and regulations, social ethics, and industry norms. In this regard, artificial intelligence is no exception. Under a legal, compliant and reasonable framework, artificial intelligence will only develop better and healthier.”
Global artificial intelligence ethics governance tends to be at the same frequency

  At present, more than 60 countries around the world have formulated and implemented artificial intelligence governance policies. It can be seen that the rules and order in the field of artificial intelligence are in the formation stage, and the development of ethical governance tends to be at the same frequency. Duan Weiwen pointed out: “The ethical governance of robots in foreign countries should be the most mature. For example, the United Kingdom, Singapore, and the European Union have relevant ethical design standards.” For example, the United Kingdom has introduced the first design standard on robot ethics in history – “Robot Guidelines for the Ethical Design and Application of Machine Systems. The UK Financial Stability Board (FBS) has formulated norms for the application of artificial intelligence and machine learning in financial services, emphasizing reliability, accountability, transparency, fairness and ethical standards.
  The United States hopes to ensure and enhance its dominant position in the field of artificial intelligence, so it pays more attention to the scientific nature and flexibility of supervision, and pays more attention to scientific and technological ethics governance in practical applications, such as strict management of the use of large-scale biometric identification technology. The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) requires companies to delete some face databases, even related algorithms.
  The EU’s regulatory style tends to be tough, and has successively issued guiding documents such as “EU Artificial Intelligence”, “Trusted AI Ethics Guide”, and “Algorithmic Responsibility and Transparent Governance Framework”, expecting to reshape global digital through high-standard legislation and supervision. development model.
  Foreign technology companies such as Microsoft and Google are also actively exploring the ethical governance of artificial intelligence. For example, Microsoft has three internal organizations, including the Responsible Artificial Intelligence Office, the Artificial Intelligence, Ethics and Engineering Research Committee, and the Responsible AI Strategic Management Team, which are responsible for AI rule formulation, case studies, and implementation supervision, etc., and have developed a series of technical solutions.
  Google defines the principles of AI design and use, both positive and negative, and promises to be willing to adjust those principles over time. It also established a central team for responsible innovation to promote the implementation of ethical governance practices. For example, to avoid aggravating unfairness or bias in algorithms, suspend the development of credit-related AI products; reject proposals for facial recognition based on technical issues and policy considerations; prudently continue research involving large-scale language models, while conducting comprehensive AI principles It cannot be officially launched until it is reviewed.

  The real value of artificial intelligence is not to replace people, but to put people first and benefit people. The relationship between artificial intelligence technology and ethics is not a relationship between one or the other, or the relationship between the strong and the weak, but complement each other.

  In terms of artificial intelligence ethics research, foreign countries are more active. Stephen Schwartzman, co-founder, global chairman and CEO of global private equity giant Blackstone Group, has donated $188 million to Oxford University to fund research on the ethics of artificial intelligence. Musk also donated $10 million to the Future of Life Institute to teach robots “ethics.”
  Zhang Hui pointed out: “Governments, enterprises and relevant social organizations and industry organizations in various countries are gradually strengthening dialogue and cooperation, and the United Nations is also playing an increasingly important role in the formulation of international artificial intelligence governance rules. It can be said that artificial intelligence governance has become a It has reached a global consensus, and has entered the stage of establishing rules and regulations and implementing them from the conceptual level.”

  ”It is also worth noting that the dynamic governance of artificial intelligence technology will in turn promote the development of artificial intelligence technology itself.” Duan Weiwen said. For example, the fact that face recognition technology is disabled in some scenarios is only temporary, and increasing governance efforts will push the shortcomings of related technologies to be filled more quickly.
Ethical governance of artificial intelligence is still a new proposition

  Artificial intelligence has had a profound impact on the entire human society. Zhang Hui said: “A technology with greater capabilities needs to be properly managed. Artificial intelligence is not only an important means for us to create a better life, but also an object that needs to be properly managed.”
  China’s artificial intelligence technology field is at the forefront of the world. AI ethics governance practices are also in the forefront of explorers, and some good practices are also being discussed and referenced overseas. For example, at the policy level, the “Guiding Opinions on Strengthening the Comprehensive Governance of Internet Information Service Algorithms”, “A New Generation of Artificial Intelligence Ethics Standards”, and “Opinions on Strengthening the Ethical Governance of Science and Technology” have provided top-level design guidance for the governance of science and technology ethics. Subdivision norm requirements have also emerged in rapidly developing fields.
  At the same time, some domestic technology companies such as Megvii, JD.com, and iFLYTEK have successively established specialized organizations such as the AI ​​Ethics Committee and the AI ​​Governance Research Institute, to vigorously promote the implementation of AI governance from the inside of the company and from within themselves. Tencent Research Institute and Tencent AI Lab jointly released the artificial intelligence ethics report “Technical Ethics in the Age of Intelligence – Reshaping Trust in the Digital Society”, advocating the establishment of new technology ethics for artificial intelligence. Alibaba Security explores “using AI to govern AI” to promote the sustainable development of artificial intelligence. Megvii was the first to release the “Artificial Intelligence Application Guidelines”, and launched the “Top Ten Global Artificial Intelligence Governance Events” selection for three consecutive years.

  However, as of now, the ethical governance of artificial intelligence is still a new proposition, and there is not much historical experience to refer to. The entire industry is also “governing while developing”, gradually improving laws and regulations and building a consensus on ethics and ethics.
  ”Artificial intelligence companies face a ‘technical trap’.” Duan Weiwen pointed out, “Artificial intelligence technology will also bring social value and ethical impact while empowering society, and in the short term, the negative impact may be magnified. Some companies are in If you don’t pay attention to ethical issues in the early development, it will lead to social distrust of it. For example, Facebook changed its name to Meta and transformed into a metaverse, which has attracted a lot of doubts, especially criticism of privacy and security. At this time, it is necessary to carry out’ Ethical callback ‘, making artificial intelligence ‘credible’ through a series of behaviors of enterprises.”
  He believes that the ethical issues brought about by the development of science and technology should be actively responded to. For example, on data ethics issues, it is necessary to strengthen data privacy protection and information security protection; for example, on algorithm ethics issues, platforms must be urged to eliminate prejudice and discrimination, and as far as possible to maintain fairness and fairness; for information dissemination ethics issues, content platforms need to use artificial intelligence technology to distribute content. Think about how to keep content safe, reduce disinformation, and more. “It is not enough to formulate ethical norms. Artificial intelligence companies should take these measures to grasp a ‘degree’ and seek a Social License (social license), so as to find the greatest common divisor between technology and ethics.” Duan Weiwen said .
  Finding the “greatest common divisor” must be a multi-party collaborative process. Zhang Hui said: “The application chain of artificial intelligence is very long, including technology providers, system integrators, application software developers, individual developers and other enterprises and practitioners, as well as users and beneficiaries of AI products and applications in different industries. etc. At present, various national laws and regulations are gradually improving the rights and responsibilities of different stakeholders. With the development of the industry, it is believed that the ethical governance path of artificial intelligence will become more and more clear in the future. Enterprises are promoting the innovation and application of AI technology. Every process and link must strictly abide by laws and regulations, which is the red line and bottom line of all work.”