Classical period to Renaissance period
Classical period is a broad term for the long-term cultural history of a series of civilizations centered on the Mediterranean Sea, including ancient Greece and ancient Rome. The model of the ancient world’s spiritual culture is undoubtedly ancient Greece. The ancient Greeks advocated rationalism, affirmed the power of human beings, and praised human beings as the greatest creation in the universe. There is very little rainfall in Greece, and the rivers often dry up in summer. The lack of water results in less abundant products and lack of food. For this reason, the life of the ancient Greeks was extremely simple and simple. Expressed in hair style, the hair of the ancient Greeks showed a natural, smooth, concise and refined style. At that time, the most common hairstyle for men was short and curly hair, which was tied with a band, which became the prototype of the headband in the future. Women like to put their long hair in a bun, and they use simple bone pins and gold spirals as decoration. The flower crown is also a kind of headdress they love, and the wreath made of violets and myrtle is often worn by ancient Greek women. The ancient Greeks admired blond hair, and they often dyed their hair and wore wigs.
After the glory of ancient Greece was eclipsed, ancient Rome replaced it, but ancient Roman culture was deeply influenced by ancient Greek culture in all aspects. The costumes and hairstyles of the ancient Romans were very similar to those of the ancient Greeks, and the ancient Roman men in robes also had short curly hair. The basic hairstyle for women is that the hair is parted in the middle. Pull a bun on the back of your neck. However, around the 1st century BC, the Roman horse plundered a lot of wealth from overseas, and the hairstyle at this time changed from advocating natural simplicity to gorgeous luxury. Men are also very particular about the grooming of their hair and beards, and there are many barber shops at the entrance of the main street. In the heyday, the ancient Roman ladies spent a lot of time on grooming their hair, and used specially trained female slaves to comb out countless patterns every day. The famous ancient Roman poet Ovid recorded the experience and skills of hair style in the book Kama Sutra, making it the earliest existing books on hair style.
In the “Dark Middle Ages” between ancient Greece, ancient Rome and modern times, under the domination of Christian moral principles, it is not allowed to pay attention to hairstyles. Early Christian elders were misogynistic about women’s makeup and opposed dyeing their hair yellow or fire-like. In 692 AD, the religious council also made a resolution to excommunicate those who have curly hair, those who dye their hair, and those who use wigs. Strict asceticism even believed that a woman’s long hair would arouse people’s evil carnal desires. Due to the shackles of Christian canons, medieval men and women wore headscarves to cover their hair.
Getting rid of the darkness and dullness of the Middle Ages, the Renaissance originated from Italy makes people re-understand themselves, and attaches great importance to nature and human personality. During this period, the spirit of freedom manifested in the hairstyle was that the reverence for blonde hair was restored, and the women’s love for blonde hair at that time was almost extreme. 16th century. In the book “On Women’s Beauty”, Ferenzola of Italy considers blond to be the most beautiful color in hair, which in our opinion is a pale yellow that is close to brown. The English poet Milton also painted Eve’s hair blonde in his poem Paradise Lost. In Italy, men’s hair is mostly mid-length or shoulder-length, with bangs on the forehead. Due to the lax rule of the church, women in this period openly dressed themselves up, and it is rare for women who are unwilling to dress up like Dante’s description in “The Divine Comedy”. Most women’s hairstyles were curly and lobed, and people at that time liked to hang a pearl right in front of the ribbon on their head. Because of people’s preference for pearls in decoration during this period, this period is also known as the “Pearl Period”.
17th to 18th century
In the 17th century, the “Baroque” style was popular, and the word “Baroque” originated from the Spanish and Portuguese “deformed pearls”. As an adjective, the word has the meaning of “tawdry and messy”. The “Baroque” style is actually a deterioration of the Renaissance. Today, the word has lost its original derogatory meaning and only refers to a style that was popular in Europe in the 17th century. art style. The “Baroque” style shows excessive imagination, pretending to be solemn and arrogant, and loses the real method of seeking truth from facts. This style was first reflected in Italian architecture, and reached its peak in France in the mid-17th century. 17th century France in the era of Louis XIII and Louis XIV. The national power has reached its peak, and the prosperity of national power has promoted the development of clothing and accessories in the direction of flashy. The Baroque style of French hair style in this period was characterized by heavy decoration, using curves, complex and circuitous shapes, and the use of exaggerated patterns regardless of the function of patterns. Louis XIII ladies went out without any headdresses, and Louis XIII’s Austrian wife, Anna, brought a new hairstyle to France: a fringe on the forehead, the sides of the hair were cut short, and the hair above the ears was made Small curly hair, the rest of the hair tied in a bun at the back of the head. During this period, a hairstyle called “concentric lock” was popular among men, also known as vertical braids: the hair on one side was braided, or made into curls and strings, draped over the shoulders, and the end was decorated with roses cord or silk thread. Men also had a wavy hair that matched a large felt hat and reached shoulders, leading to the fashion for wearing wigs. By the time of Louis XIV, the fake curls of the shawl became more and more luxurious. During this period, women’s hairstyles were popular with “nylon hairstyles”. The sides were cut very short, and the curly hair fell to the shoulders. The short curly hair on the forehead was often fixed at the center of the hair, and the hair on the top of the head was combed to the back of the head and pulled into a bun. Because the king greatly admired the high bun of his friend Mrs. Fengtang, there was also a wind of “Fengtang fever” in the palace.
The “Rococo” art style is an art style that originated in France and quickly spread to Europe after the Baroque art style. This artistic style was originally raised to oppose the red tape art of the court. It originated in the late Louis XIV (1643-1715) era and became popular in the Louis XV (1715-1774) era. The style is delicate, exquisite, flashy and cumbersome , also known as “Louis XV style”. The embodiment of Rococo art in women’s hairstyles is the popularity of high buns. In the mid-18th century, hairstyles were relatively simple. The hair attached to the head was combed from the forehead to the top of the head and tied up on the back of the head, but since 1760, The hair is gradually increased, and the hair combed high on the forehead is placed on a wool pad, and then pomade and powder are applied to the hair, and the hair is braided into small circles and balls. – The popularity of high bun has prompted hairdressers to compete in hair design and creation. Various hairstyles have been given various interesting names. Popular in France are “World Map” and “Zodiac”. “, “The Cradle of Love”, etc. Hair stylists also made some hairstyles that can reflect the situation of the times. In 1778, France defeated Britain in a naval battle. French women’s heads immediately appeared warship-style hairstyles, and they used the name of warships to match their hair. formula named.
For updos that are intricately styled and combed, keep them in place for at least 3 to 4 weeks. Hair becomes unclean due to long-term uncombing. Over time, lice begin to chase each other in the “pyramid” on the head. Fortunately, all social classes at that time did not pay attention to hygiene. For this gorgeous and dirty hair, Western European geniuses also invented a stick with an ivory hook for scratching. During this period, all men wore wigs and powder, and this trend persisted until the French Revolution.
In the second half of the 18th century, the political history of the European world underwent profound changes. With the growing growth of the third class represented by the middle class, the requirements for clothing became simpler. The French Revolution that broke out in 1789 ruthlessly “destroyed all the privileges of the upper class, and all the flamboyant atmosphere disappeared. Almost no one dared to display elegant clothes in public. People regarded the simplicity of clothes as a sign of “patriotism”. In this period, men mostly braided the hair at the back of their heads into very short braids and tied them with thin ribbons, and wigs continued to be used by people. Robespierre still wore powdered wigs during his reign, and Napoleon was also in the It was only after the expedition to Italy that it got rid of this vulgarity. Women’s hairstyles in this period were known for their simplicity, with low buns, or parting the hair in the middle, making fluffy curls at the lower sides of the head, and the back hair was combed. Bun or long curly hair. A kind of uncombed hair was also popular at that time. The short hair was slightly rolled on the head, and the rest of the hair was left to hang down naturally. Romanticism in the late 18th and early
19th centuries from the 19th century to the 21st century
With the rise of thought trends, admiration for nature, opposition to worship of reason, and contempt for formalism, hairstyles in this period showed a variety of styles. Romanticism prompted hairstyles to return to natural simplicity, from the last few years of the 18th century to Napoleon’s first empire. During the period, French m” respected the classical style of ancient Greece and Rome, and French fashionistas looked back at that long-term era again. French women once again embraced buns with hair behind their backs
Live the classic hairstyle. With this hairstyle, the hair is braided or wavy like a Greco-Roman woman, and smoothed with “ancient oil”. After the classical hairstyle, the playboys at that time also changed their long curly hair, advocating the thick and fluffy “Pluto” style and the angled “dog ear” style short hair. During the Restoration Period, men’s hair was cut into medium lengths, and straight hair was rolled into small curls. The woman combed her hair from above her ears, combed the back of her head high, and made fluffy curls at the corners of her mane.
In the 1870s, women brushed their hair back to reveal the face and ears, with the ends tied in a bun and curled or looped over the shoulders. The braids are often combed very loosely, and sometimes a hoop is used, and bangs or sashes are combed on the forehead. By the 1880s, hairstyles had become simpler, with hair tied behind the head, sometimes rolled into a low bun, and the forehead hair was often cut short and rolled into a small curl in front of the forehead. Between the 1890s and 1900s, the glossy effect sought by the barber industry was abandoned, so that fine curls made the neck appear soft. In the 20th century, more and more people began to devote themselves to busy work, and their leisure time was greatly reduced. At this time, a simple, easy-to-manage and easy-to-shape hairstyle was required. Many trendy women have even cut their long hair, believing that short hair is more contemporary than a bun. It’s a major transition from knotted to short hair.
Compared with the previous era, the 20th century is an era of rapid development. Due to the heavy damage by war and economic crisis, this era is also an era of change. The hairstyle of this era is not only used as a means of decoration, but also an external manifestation of people’s thinking and emotional changes, so the hairstyle is more personalized and functional.
In the ten years of the early 20th century, the wind of short hair blew almost all over the world, forming a variety of short hair styles. The First World War between 1914 and 1918 brought more and more women into society. They were trained as nurses or other jobs in the army. Their requirements for self-grooming became simple and functional, and brevity was this period. Common features of women’s hairstyles. Women are more likely to go out to work and participate in social work, and they also need relaxed and casual hairstyles.
Compared with the 1920s, the hair in the 1930s grew longer to cover the ears. Due to the improvement and promotion of electric perm technology during this period, a looser hairstyle with a slight curl at the tip of the hair was popular. By the end of the 1930s, this hairstyle evolved into a “long wave” style, with shoulder-length perm. Long and big waves, this kind of wavy hair is still the mainstream hairstyle for women to this day. By the 1940s, most of Europe had become a battlefield, and war once again made hairstyles simple, and some women even tied their hair with only a headscarf. Men’s hair in the 30s and 40s is generally short, combed back neatly, or blown a little ripple above the forehead. Young people like to use no hair oil to make their hair look natural and casual.
The 1950s was an era of economic development and a stable life. Women’s hairstyles are very popular regardless of length. Short hair is cut by the hairdresser according to the growth state of the hair. Young girls with long hair love to use ribbons to tie their hair at the back of the head and let it hang down naturally. This “ponytail” It was a feature of the 50’s. The popularity of celebrity hairstyles during this period was stronger than ever. Audrey Hepburn’s hairstyle in “Roman Holiday” once swept the world. For a time, many women rushed to the barbershop to ask for a trim like her. hairstyle.
The 1960s became the most characteristic era of the 20th century because of its turbulence. Around 1960, women’s high buns became popular, with fashionable women combing their hair from the forehead to the back and twisting it into a towering bun or intricate curls at the back of the head. With the rise of rock music, rock singers became public icons because of their rebellious temperament. Elvis Presley, as the pioneer of rock music, has his hair permed in waves on his forehead, then smeared with a lot of hair oil and wax, combed behind his ears, and his sideburns are very long. At that time, young people, especially the blue-collar class, were fashionable. After 1964, the Beatles’ student head, characterized by round bangs, also set off a wave of imitation among young men in Britain and the United States. After 1963, the development of the women’s movement led to the rise of a new “genderless” movement in the West. Women’s hair was cut shorter and shorter, similar to boys’.
In the 1970s, women abandoned the complicated hairstyles. At that time, the main popular hairstyle was to cut the hair layer by layer, pile it up slightly according to the shape of the head, blow some waves, and comb it to the back of the neck. Men’s attention to hairstyles reached its peak in the 1970s. In the first half of the 1970s, long hair became popular among men. Later, even men in more conservative occupations also kept long hair. In the late 1970s, the “punk” style was popular among some lower-class youth, with extremely short hair, sometimes almost shaved, leaving only a bunch on one side or the middle of the head, combed from front to back. , Use hair gel to make the hair stand upright like a cockscomb: or keep a pinch on the temples of the forehead, and often dye the hair into different colors such as red, blue, black, and green.
In the 1980s, people began to pay attention to the exquisiteness of hairstyles. In addition to cutting, trimming, combing and other means, people began to use hairdressing tools and various styling agents a lot. The most fashionable hairstyle during this period was the short ear-length hairstyle of Princess Diana of England, which was trimmed in distinct layers, with natural ripples and easy combing.
In the 1990s, a “natural” style was popular, and French avant-garde hair stylists created “bald heads”. In the past, the bald head was considered a symbol of lesbians in Western society, but at this time it has been transformed into a fashion statement, and the fashion trend from the 1990s to the present is no exception.
Classical period to Renaissance period