Hatch, nurture, protect

  Daddy Seahorse has a genuine pouch that resembles a mammal’s uterus. Small seahorses are fertilized, grown and born here.
  Emperor penguin fathers and emu fathers have a lot in common. First, they are big flightless birds; second, they are responsible for hatching the eggs and babies in the family; third, they have to bring their babies.
  It is said that frogs are cold-blooded animals, but the most beautiful glass frog father is the most warm-hearted. It will guard next to its frog eggs and fight against predators.
  Under normal circumstances, in the animal kingdom, most of the responsibilities of production and child rearing are shouldered by females. Through the observational studies of zoologists, we have learned that many male animals also take up these important tasks and do them well.
  Sea dragons are currently the only group in the animal kingdom that “brings offspring by males”, and seahorses are among the best. The male seahorse, who receives the egg, becomes pregnant and gives birth, is the gold medal “male mother” on the planet. Emperor penguins in Antarctica and emu in Australia, although they can’t fly, are good fathers of birds that not only hatch eggs, but also bring babies. The glass frog in the tropical rain forest is a small but brave father. In the face of predators, he stretches his “fist and feet” and bravely protects his baby, subverting the traditional perception that amphibian males do not protect their eggs.
  Live animal examples show us that female breeding is not an iron law that cannot be broken. Existence is reasonable. The life forms on the earth are very different, and the different breeding methods of animals are all for the better survival and development of the species.
The parenting routine of a male seahorse of being a “dad” and a “mother”

  To say the “daddy” in the animal kingdom, the hippocampus is definitely the most famous.
  The hippocampus, belonging to the Chordate phylum, the Hyacinthidae, the hippocampus, to be precise, the hippocampus is a special type of fish. Its distribution is extremely wide, and it can be seen in sea areas all over the world, so they are also “monitoring tables” of the marine environment. There are many magical things about the seahorse, the most special of which is the characteristic of “male breeding offspring”. In fact, the sea dragon family, to which the seahorse belongs, is the only known “male-breeding” group in the animal kingdom. Among them, the hippocampus is the best-evolved in the sea dragon family, and it has derived a complete pouch. This “bag” has significant homology in key gene structures with the mammalian uterus.
  Male seahorses are very good “male mothers”, they are both sperm producers and pregnant women. At the end of the anal fin of the male hippocampus, there is an abdominal sac similar to the kangaroo’s “breeding bag”, which is formed by folding two layers of skin, and the bag wall is covered with a large number of blood vessels that provide sufficient nutrition for the “fetus”. The breeding season of the hippocampus is from May to August every year. When the hippocampus reaches the breeding season, the female hippocampus will transfer thousands of her eggs to the male hippocampus’ abdominal sac, and fertilize it there. Next is mainly the work of the male hippocampus. The “pregnant dad” will choose a place with less interference to raise the fetus quietly. Female seahorses also visit occasionally to make sure the males are breeding well.
  Under normal circumstances, the baby seahorse will stay in the father’s “bring bag” for a full one to two months. Just as a pregnant woman’s belly grows larger as the embryo grows, the pouch of the male hippocampus also becomes bulging as the baby hippocampus grows.
  After the development of the baby hippocampus is completed, the male hippocampus also arrives the day of childbirth. At dawn, there is a seahorse father who is hiding in the seabed covered with algae. At this time, it looks a little uneasy. When the baby is finally about to come out, it will hook the seaweed with its tail and straighten it repeatedly. and flexing their bodies, squeezing the hundreds or thousands of tiny seahorses out of their pouches through muscle contractions. Newborn baby seahorses are usually only a few millimeters long, but they can already swim alone in seawater.
  Marine biologists describe this as a “quality wins” breeding strategy. Living in the water, most fish are oviparous. Their eggs and sperm are fertilized in the water, and the fertilized eggs are also developed outside the body. billions of eggs. Sea dragons, represented by seahorses, go through the process of pregnancy and childbirth. Although the offspring of one reproduction are relatively few, compared with other fish, the survival rate of offspring is greatly improved.

Seahorses are the only known creatures in nature where males conceive and give birth, and they are of great interest to oceanographers. The large image on the left page shows a potbellied male seahorse motionless, with life in its belly. In the small picture on the right page, each seahorse wraps its tail around the coral, like a “fruit” growing on it.

  Because under natural conditions, the distribution of seahorses is relatively sparse, and the seahorses themselves are not very good at swimming, so during the breeding season, once a male seahorse finds a female seahorse, he will “pull” the other side to ensure that his genes are continued. . This behavior has been excessively interpreted by many people as the seahorse possessing beautiful qualities such as “loyalty” and “monogamy”. But in fact, people think too much. Because in the absence of the opposite sex, the hippocampus even produces “homosexuality”: some male hippocampal individuals will appear pseudo-mating. In sea areas where there are many mates, seahorses are not loyal at all, and can even mate with multiple same-sex or opposite-sex at the same time.
Emperor penguins, do not eat or drink to protect the baby from the wind and snow, emu hatch eggs, not just their own children

  Many people learned about the largest penguin on earth, the emperor penguin, through the French documentary “Diary of the Emperor Penguin”. Through the lens, we can see the survival and reproduction of emperor penguins: in the cold wind of the Antarctic, they line up in long queues with snow-white belly, swaying to the bay – that is their long march.
  Emperor penguins commute resolutely between the bay and their breeding grounds because they have to complete the most important part of their lives – feeding their offspring. Emperor penguins are faithfully “monogamous” during each breeding season until this breeding is complete. In the next breeding season, emperor penguins will most likely change their partners. It is not a question of “loyalty”, but a question of efficiency. The short breeding window does not allow them to spend a lot of time searching for last year’s one among countless opposite sexes. partner.
  But in a breeding season, the emperor penguin couple is definitely a model couple. At the end of the Antarctic summer in February every year, emperor penguins walk into the depths of the ice sheet in groups, returning to the breeding grounds of the colony to mate and build nests. By around May, the female has laid an egg. At this point, its body weight will be reduced to a quarter of its original weight, and in order to survive, it must immediately return to the ocean for food. Before this, the female will carefully hand over the eggs to her mate. For the next few months, the burden of caring for the baby falls on Dad’s shoulders.
  Emperor penguin fathers will lay their eggs on the insteps and cover them with belly fat. Daddy penguins have a piece of featherless skin between their legs and belly, which provides enough temperature for the eggs. Emperor penguin fathers do not eat or drink during the incubation period, and severe cold and hunger are their biggest tests. The Antarctic continent was roaring with gusty winds, followed by a blizzard. In order to maintain body temperature, emperor penguin fathers had to bring their eggs, carefully move them together, huddle together for warmth, and take turns crowding into the warmest group center to warm up for a while. During the four-month incubation period, the emperor penguin father can survive with the eggs at minus 57 ℃, it is this kind of collective warmth. Most emperor penguin mothers will return in the days when the little penguins break out of their shells. If the mate has not returned, the emperor penguin father will secrete milk through the glands in the esophagus to nurse the little penguins. By the end of the incubation period, the emperor penguin father will also lose more than half of his body weight.

After the female emperor penguin lays an egg, she will leave her child and go to the seaside to fish and replenish her strength. At this time, it is the male emperor penguin who protects the fragile penguin eggs. They do not eat or drink to shelter their children from the wind and rain. The big picture on the left page is an emperor penguin chick that looks like a kiwi. In the picture on the right page, two emperor penguins are rubbing their ears and whispering. Male emus have a lot of fatherhood, even if they are not their own children, they will take care of them in every possible way. The bottom picture on the right page, Emu father is taking the baby emu across the grassland.

  The little emus who also live in the southern hemisphere can also feel the strong father’s love. They are not only hatched by their father, but also brought up by their father. The emu lives in Oceania and is Australia’s national bird. It looks like an ostrich and is good at running, with a speed of up to 69 kilometers per hour. In order to produce more offspring, emus are “polyandry” during the breeding season. The female emu will find multiple males to mate during the breeding season, lay as many eggs as possible, and the task of hatching is left to the male bird guarding the nest. Emu fathers need to eat and drink for a month and a half, relying only on body fat to sustain life until the chicks break out of their shells. After the baby emu is born, the male bird will take good care of them, and the baby emu will follow his father for 2 to 6 months until he can live independently.
  Half of the chicks hatched by father emu are not their own children. In addition, male emus will also adopt those chicks who have no parental care. Scientists have found that a male emu takes care of 40 young emu. These young emu are not all its children. total group number.
Little Glass Frog’s Shadowless Leggings in the Rainforest

  In the tropical rain forests of South America, there is a special kind of frog. Their body is tender green, with a body length of 2 to 3 cm. The skin on the abdomen is transparent, and organs such as the heart and liver can be seen clearly. They are “glass frogs”. No one knows why glass frogs have nearly transparent belly, but this transparent skin allows them to effectively blend in with their surroundings, for example, they look like leaves when the sun shines on them through leaves Flash in itself. This makes it difficult for predators to spot them.
  Glass frogs are native to Venezuela and are now widely distributed in the tropical rain forests of South America. Although they are small, they are small and powerful predators. However, the tropical rain forest is surrounded by crises, and it is very difficult to survive. In order to protect future generations, the glass frog father can be said to be desperate.
  After the amphibians have copulated, the male usually slips away. But glass frogs are similar to emus in that after female glass frogs lay their eggs, they leave without care. If these eggs are left to nature’s disposal and do not get enough moisture, they will soon be exposed to the sun and die. Even if they escaped the fate of being exposed to the sun, the natural enemies that feed on frog eggs began to covet. The important task of protecting offspring is done by male glass frogs.
  They stay next to the frog eggs almost 24 hours a day, never leaving. To prevent the eggs from dying from drying out, male glass frogs moisten the eggs with their own skin and carefully apply a layer of mucus to protect the eggs from fungal or parasite infection.

The glass frog has transparent skin on its abdomen and looks like it can be broken by blowing bullets. It is also a brave father. The female glass frog lays eggs and disappears, and the male glass frog shoulders the responsibility of protecting the child. , they will guard the frog eggs 24 hours a day, hoping that these little guys can survive in the dangerous jungle.

  There is a carnivorous wasp living in the rainforest. They feed on frog eggs and naturally like the eggs of glass frogs. For small glass frogs, the wasps are fierce and huge, and they are very difficult opponents. In order to protect their children, male glass frogs rise to the challenge. It guards the frog eggs and does everything it can to kick the wasps that come to attack. Although sometimes there is a situation where “a frog can’t defeat a swarm of bees”, it is worth it to be able to fight for a chance for the children to survive.
  The behavior of “egg protection” by male glass frogs is very rare even among higher-level mammals, and more animal fathers ignore their “wives and children”. The behavior of male glass frogs to defend their children to the death also subverts the traditional perception that amphibian males do not protect their eggs.
  From the ocean to the snowy wasteland to the tropical rainforest, the “male mothers” of the animal kingdom do everything they can to protect their children. The behaviors of hatching and parenting have long been imprinted in their genes, and these “male mothers” are well-deserved super dads.