Reading

Ricardo Palma and the Immortal “Legends of Peru”: Crafting a Literary Genre Through Wit and Storytelling

  Ricardo Palma (1833-1919) completed the ten-volume “Peruvian Legend” through forty years of tireless work. This also established his immortal status as the father of modern Peruvian literature. People revered him and praised him as a worthy representative of American culture.
  ”Legends of Peru” tells the story of Peruvian people and the vicissitudes of the world during the three hundred years from the Inca Kingdom, the Viceroyalty (i.e. colonial period), the independence period to the republic period. There are 453 legends in total (9 series and 1 appendix), of which 6 are about the Inca Empire, 339 are about the Governor-General period, that is, the colonial period, 43 are about the War of Independence, and 9 are about the Republic. , the time and place of the remaining 56 articles are difficult to determine. Works describing the Governor-General’s period occupy most of the space. Some critics believe that “his sarcasm smilingly gnawed at the prestige of the Governor-General’s jurisdiction and the nobility.” Yes, his narrative tone contains calm and sharp cynicism. There is a kind of good-natured and objective meanness hidden in the tolerant and generous eyes.
  It can be said that only in Palma’s writing can “legend” be called a literary genre. It has become a Peruvian literary text that integrates historical chronicles, anecdotes, customs scrolls, folklore essays and life details. It blends reality and imagination, interweaves reality and fiction, and fills the grand branches with vivid, rich and vital branches and leaves. More often than not, they are like humorous and humorous mirrors that can reflect all kinds of beings. Palma said it well: “A legend is both fiction and non-fiction, history and not history. The form must be lively and compact; the narrative must be quick and witty.” Critic Arturo Torres Rioseco summed up the writing of “Legends of Peru” Prescription: “Legends are folktales but not folktales, history but not history. Its form is relaxed and pleasant, and the narrative is quick and humorous. It is like making sugar-coated pills and distributing them to the public. You don’t have to worry about it. A dash of lies, a dose of the ever-so-slight truth, and a lot of writing both elegant and vulgar, this is the recipe for “Legend.”” One of the chapters in the book is “Bolívar’s “The Last Word”, the great hero said to the doctor before he died: “Doctor, do you know what caused me pain when I felt that I was about to enter the grave?” The doctor said: “I don’t know.” He said “I just thought that I might build a tower on quicksand and work in the sea.” He asked again: “Can’t you guess who the three biggest fools in the world are?” The doctor couldn’t guess, so he said: “Doctor, Come here…I’ll tell you by your ears…the three biggest fools are Christ Jesus, Don Quixote…and me.” Speed ​​and humor are two obvious features of the “Legend of Parma”. Palma is a master of language arts. His narratives are concise, lively, and lively. The characters in the “Legend” emerge one after another, with full three-dimensionality and vivid flesh and blood.
  How did Palma begin his work? Where is the starting point of each “legend”? How was the narrative ferry of “Legend” discovered by him intentionally or accidentally? Palma is eclectic and adapts to the shape of things. He combines a historical event blown by the wind, an unconfirmed rumor, an oral folk legend, a gossip spread in the air, a legend about a legend, and a pile of old papers. An anecdote that vaguely appears in it, a sigh of a historical figure (it can be a big person or a small person), a widely circulated proverb, and a Peruvian idiom serve as the ferry to reach his “legend”, and use this as the core of the narrative, using his An almost magical imagination, a plot with noses and eyes, a serious dialogue, a description of real or imaginary beings, and a “legend” that exudes brilliance and literary significance. For example, perfunctory “legends” based on Lima proverbs include “I am from Camana and I will never change my words”, “Speaking of his only son”, “He even has no face to cross himself”, “As useful as Benito”, ” The Preaching of the Samaritans”, “Only in the Our Father”, etc. As Palma revealed in “The Beauty of Beauty”: “My friend, you say that I made up a legend out of four essays, two lies and one truth.” Indeed!
  Over the course of Palma’s long writing career, “Legend” also developed a growth model. There are often a few opening sentences at the beginning of the chapter, using clever and joking short words to explain how the author obtained the inspiration from Yoshimitsu Kataha to write this “legend”. Then comes the main part of the “legend”, which vividly describes the main events and story conflicts, and also inserts digressions (voice-over) from time to time. The changing scenes, the continuous words and deeds of the characters, and the steep changes in the plot finally complete each complete story. story. Of course, sometimes the author cannot help but make jokes or make some witty jokes in a serious manner, say a few words about life philosophy, and point out some morals, which are often the finishing touch. This is somewhat like the ending of “Strange Stories from a Chinese Studio” that often contains “Yi Shi said”.
  History is like a little girl who can be dressed up by anyone. It all declares the value judgment of the writer. The vagueness in the language more or less hides the true intention of the historian. History seems rigorous, using research and investigation as a guise, but it inadvertently hides the truth that it does not want readers to see. The creation of “legends” can penetrate the mists of history and directly penetrate the dark, ugly, sad, self-pitying or absurd aspects of human nature, presenting the masks and shackles of people scattered in the torrent of history. “Legends of Peru” is not the history of Peru, but it is the secret history of the Peruvian spirit and a picture of the hidden humanity of the Peruvians. Thanks to creation, Palma gained a kind of freedom, freely traveling between history and legend, reality and fiction.
  It is not easy to inherit the “legendary” skills of Parma. From a broad perspective, Juan Rulfo, Jorge Luis Borges and García Márquez are the true heirs of Latin American “legends”.
  Of course, Uruguay’s Eduardo Galeano should also be counted. He learned from Parma so religiously. In “Memory of Fire: Genesis”, he wrote about the picture of the Inca Empire, which seems to have a kind of kinship resemblance:
  amidst slashing with axes and flying arrows, he became the new master of the mountains, plains and deserts. There is no one in the kingdom who does not miss him, and there is no one who does not fear him. Today his kingdom is larger than Europe. The pastures, the rivers and the people all depend on Huayna Capac. Because of his will, mountains moved and people migrated. In this empire that did not understand the use of wheels, he ordered stones to be transported from Cusco to build houses, so that future generations would understand his greatness, and so that people would believe his words.
  However, the writing intention of Galeano, the author of “Memory of Fire”, is obviously to write a chronicle of Latin America with historical accuracy and obvious political tendency. And Palma is a master who truly transcends the times and travels through time. In “Legends of Peru”, you can hardly see the author’s political stance. He clearly understands the mission of a writer. A good writer is to objectively and artistically present people’s life and death, the greatness and insignificance of people in the great river of the times, and the darkness and light of human nature. The unique political tendency will bring a unique political tendency to the work. Unforeseen hazards may arise. As a writer, he became a person who simply narrated stories, rather than a fighter against colonization, secretary to the president, senator of Loreto province, director of the National Library, and academician of the Royal Spanish Academy of Philology. For Palma, there is no absolute order at all. He boldly and unbridledly wrote various anecdotes from the time of the Viceroy of Peru. Each character used his infinite passion and imagination to go his own way and act on his own. His writing “gives We bring the most beautiful order of disorder.”
  The Unicorn’s Notebook
  - Areola’s Animal Fantasy
  The somewhat narcissistic García Márquez once told Fidel Castro about Juan Jose Areola ( 1918-2001), his favorite author besides himself.
  Areola built a sarcastic zoo. On the one hand, he mocked humans and laughed at himself. On the other hand, Areola was also full of compassion. Like God, he deeply sympathized with the people living in the depths of the dust. He was slightly sarcastic. He said, “Love those like pigs and chickens, even though they are running merrily to the greasy paradise occupied by animals.” He used a simple fable that was different from George Orwell’s (“Animal Farm”) Peering into the similarities and differences between humans and animals, he projects his love and compassion for humans in a sharp way that is different from William Faulkner.
  Areola loves unicorns and rhinos. He is the unicorn in the world of fantasy literature. He is lonely and surging, sad and vigorous, complex yet simple. Please open his notebook! He wrote on the first page (“Animal Collection: Rhinoceros”): “(The big rhinoceros) wears the horn of an armored, short-sighted, angry bull, with a surging belief that belongs entirely to a positivist philosopher, like a charging bull. Attack like a car.” “When enclosed, the rhinoceros is a sad and rusty beast.” “On both sides of its skinny body, like water gushing out of the cracks of the rugged rocks, there are raging and powerful muscles. The great organ of life, on the animal horns that appear repeatedly at the top, from time to time changes into orchids, javelins and halberds.” He is so accurate and vivid, cheerful and fast, like a dream, these words have texture, power, and… It hits instantly, like a white horse galloping in the endless dark night. On his tree of language, imagination spurs flowers to bloom in an instant. “The aggressive but dull horn turned into a long ivory-like sadness in front of the girl.” Written by a surrealist poet, you will inadvertently think of Meng Jinghui’s drama “The Rhinoceros in Love”. After reading such heartfelt words, as a reader, I feel like “like a rhinoceros horn, wandering alone in the wilderness” (Buddhist classic Sutra).
  The second page of the unicorn notebook – “Toad”, “It woke up in the spring and knew that it had not experienced the process of metamorphosis. In the deep dryness, it became more of a toad than before. … One day, It emerges from the ooze, laden with moisture and filled with the juice of resentment, like a heart thrown to the ground. Its sphinx-like attitude hides the secret exchange proposition, the ugly appearance of the toad In front of us, it is as oppressive as a mirror.” The toad is a heart, containing the mystery of the Sphinx. It is ugly and resentful of the world. It is also the deformation of human beings and the face in the mirror. Each text in the notebook is short. Areola confessed: “I cherish words like gold, and I speak with a solemn attitude when speaking every sentence.” He mysteriously explained the reason why he wrote about genetics—— Coming from his mother’s blacksmith family and his father’s carpenter family, he is a craftsman who forges language and shapes things.
  On the page of “Birds of Prey”, you will read the humble and shameful mirror image of human beings – “These birds of prey, loyal to the dogmatic hierarchy, abide by the etiquette in the cage from top to bottom. On the perch at night, each of them Each one chooses its position strictly based on its status. The big bird on top in turn violates the dignity of the little bird below.” In the animal world, it is also the human world. Areola ruthlessly mocked the law of the jungle. Hierarchical dogma, the cage of loss of freedom, and ubiquitous order, he quietly placed human freedom and dignity as the most fundamental cornerstone in his open notebook.
  What is the relationship between us humans and monkeys? Just a distant cousin in evolution? Areola reflected on this matter from the perspective of monkeys. He wrote in “Monkeys”: “The monkeys decided to refuse temptation and opposed becoming humans. … They are like caricatures, promiscuous and doing whatever they want. Now we see it in the zoo We see them like a humiliating mirror: they look at us mockingly and pity us because we are still observing their animal behavior.” We see humiliatingly our relatives who are opposed to becoming human. It is really sad and pitiful. , and it’s ridiculous.
  Areola’s text is a strange beast, a unicorn that takes on the guise of novel (fiction), prose, and poetry. Borges praised Areola, saying that he has a kind of “freedom” – the freedom of unlimited imagination guided by clear wisdom. Kirin has wings, and we are attracted by his “freedom of imagination”. He brings us into an animal world where images and thoughts can fly freely.
  Areola is a master of allegory. He can always carve out rich and profound woodcut images with just a few strokes, and dig deep wells of allegory. He is good at using metaphors. His metaphors are direct and straightforward, never meandering or muddled, and are often even defining. When Spanish critic Gasset explained the importance of metaphor, he said that through metaphor, “we can discover a correspondence between two things that is deeper and more decisive than other similarities.” Areola’s metaphors are written for these decisive moments. They are casual and apt, but also profound and genius.
  Arreola is an alchemist of language. In his autobiography, we can see Arreola’s passionate love for language. He said: “I love language more than anything else in the world, and I love those who pass through it.” People whose language and words reveal their souls are respected, whether it is Isaiah or Franz Kafka.” (“Memory and Forgetting”) His works are not many, mainly including “The Silence of God” and “With the Devil” “Signed Contract”, “Animals”, “Fables” and “The Bazaar”, and the text is not long, but the impact it has is like a hydrogen bomb – with a small and large nuclear explosion effect, it is like a mushroom cloud rising in Latin America. An extremely brilliant literary starry sky. So much so that his colleague, the great Julio Cortázar, also said jealously: “Arreola is the tree of words.” Yes, on his tree of words, dazzling strange fruits were born. The fruit.
  Becoming a Goose
  As a writer, Alemon Carpentier stated bluntly: In Latin America, novels are a need. He said: “Latin America presents to civilization a completely new content, a completely new reality (contradictions, problems, values), which awaits the arrival of novelists. Today I can say that I was not wrong. I continue to firmly believe that in Latin America novels are A need – to show a world.” The magical reality of Latin America needs novels to express it. In a sense, novels have the ability to show this bizarre world. Hermann Bloch said, “Discovering things that only novels can discover is the only reason for the existence of novels.” This is especially true for the existence of Latin American novels, which have become the most effective expression of naked reality.
  When we talk about Latin American literature, the first thing that comes to mind is magical realism, García Márquez and his “One Hundred Years of Solitude”, Juan Rulfo and his “Pedro Páramo”. The originators of magical realism, which originated in the 1930s, were the Cuban Carpentier and the Guatemalan Asturian.
  When Carpentier’s literary career began, he felt “a strong desire to express the American continent, although he did not yet know how to do it.” However, this clear literary mission inspired him. He said: “I I did nothing except read all the materials I could get about the Americas. The America before me was like a cloud of smoke, and I was eager to understand it because I had a belief that my work would be based on it and would have a strong The American color.” The most iconic and indigenous Indian culture in Latin America brought great inspiration to Carpentier. He realized that his “subconscious” was deeply buried in the shadow of Western civilization. , once you dive into the bottom of your heart, you will find the endless flow of Indian blood. Asturias said that what seems to us to be a magical reality is a real existence in the eyes of the Indians. He would describe how he saw a colorful cloud or a boulder transform into a man or a giant. People’s ability to hallucinate the things around them gradually turns into reality. The Indians will believe that: when he breaks his head, it is the stone calling to him, and when he is washed away by the river, it is the river that gives him death waving to him…
  Carpentier was influenced by Surrealism at an early age, but he knew that his creations must be rooted in his Latin American continent. The literary equation of Surrealism inspired Carpentier, who re-examined and re-examined the details of Latin American life that he had not noticed before. This magical land brought him a new literary structure and literary temperament. The Latin American elements in him gradually fermented and became the most reliable and familiar source of his creations. He discovered a “magical reality”. Knowing that he was trapped in the depths of a “magical reality,” he would draw the magic of his imagination from here to express the truth about Latin America. He did it, and Kingdom on Earth was born. Magic, he explains, is a special manifestation of reality, an extraordinary and ingenious revelation of its richness, an expansion of its state and scale.
  “Magical reality” includes not only the materially visible reality, such as the transformation of people in “The Earthly Kingdom”, when McConnell begins to metamorphose while being rounded up by those in power: a green iguana climbs onto the roof of a tobacco-drying shed to keep warm; Someone saw butterflies that only fly out at night at noon; a big dog quickly passed through the house with a deer leg in its mouth; a boobies far away from the sea, shaking off the lice on its body… These animals are McConnell Changed. This will remind us of the seventy-two transformations of Sun Wukong, which is well-known in China. This “reality” also includes the reality of people’s thoughts and dreams. When Carpentier talked about the origin of the creation of “The Earthly Kingdom”, he believed that the “magical reality” of Haiti could be touched: “There are thousands of people who long for freedom living on that land, and they believe that McCone Dahl has the ability to shape-shift, and on the day McConnell was executed, this collective belief actually created a miracle.” “The
  Human Kingdom” is not very long. Counting the preface, it is translated into Chinese for 60,000 yuan. Multiple words. However, its structure is exquisite and its implications are far-reaching, including Haiti’s troubled history, mysterious customs and culture, people’s ignorance and yearning for freedom, the formation and cycle of autocracy, and many other themes. The novel consists of four parts, with Ty Noel, a black Haitian, as the character throughout the book. The first part is an event that appeared in Ty Noel’s stream of consciousness. It narrates how the black leader McCondar escaped from the manor owner’s house in the 18th century, possessed the miraculous ability to make drugs, led the blacks to launch an armed uprising, and invaded France. The authorities openly declared war. It is said by word of mouth that McCondar was summoned by the true god several times and endowed with strange magical powers as a result of becoming the priest of Lada. Whites and the mission to build a great empire of free blacks on the island of Santo Domingo”. The uprising was eventually suppressed, and McConnell was taken prisoner and burned to death. The second part narrates the second uprising of Haitian blacks, led by the black leader Bouquemont. In the end, Napoleon’s sister Paulina Napoleon led hundreds of police dogs to suppress the uprising and regained the lost territory. The uprising failed again. The third part writes about the abolition of slavery after the French Revolution, and the transformation of the black leader Henry Christophe into a totalitarian ruler with great power. Dictatorship is a tradition in Latin American politics, and the narrative of dictatorship has also become a tradition in Latin American literature. In addition to “Kingdom of the Earth”, there are also famous works such as “Mr. President” by Asturias and “The Autumn of the Patriarch” by Marquez. As a one-man thief, Christophe carried out extensive construction projects in the island country and built Sanssouci Palace for himself. He used power more skillfully than previous governments and implemented autocratic rule. In the last moments, “the Hall of Mirrors only reflected the image of the king. This image was reflected repeatedly and always appeared in the farthest mirror.” He betrayed his relatives and committed suicide in his palace amidst the condemnation of the people across the country. , lying in a pool of blood, his body was stirred into mortar, mixed with the building materials of the castle, and injected into the masonry of the castle. The entire Bishop’s Hat Hill was turned into the tomb of the first king of Haiti. The fourth part is about Ti Noel’s observation, observation and reflection, and finally he took the initiative to become a goose. He realized, “In the face of this endless cycle of chains, these shackles that are destroyed and reborn, and the misery that keeps multiplying, they begin to despair (those who are the most resigned eventually accept all this, thinking that it is proof that all resistance is ultimately ineffective. )”. He tried to escape this cycle. He transformed and became a goose. But as a goose, he was still an outsider. The geese despised him and attacked him. He thought this was a sign of cowardice. punish. This is an unsolvable Latin American puzzle.
  Carpentier’s language is gorgeous and exaggerated, vivid and poetic, but it is never vain. The reader seems to be sitting on a high-speed train, rushing at lightning speed, as he unfolds the wonderful picture scroll and quickly enters the deep tunnel of the Haitian spirit. When he wrote about religious sacrifices, he wrote: “When the climax occurred, a man inspired by the gods rode on the back of a centaur composed of two people stacked on top of each other, and then screamed all the way. Then he ran towards the sea: on the other side of the night, on the other side of many dark nights, the sea was gently washing away the boundaries of the world governed by the gods.” His imaginative and picturesque narration made people laugh. People are dizzy, intoxicated, and even “so intoxicated that they don’t know the way back.” I thought that his “neo-baroque” style was particularly suitable for describing the “magical reality” of Latin America. Carlos Fuentes paid high tribute to Carpentier. He said: “Carpentier changed the form of Latin American novels. He transcended naturalism and created magical realism. We are all grateful to him for staying A legacy of language and imagination. We are all his descendants.”
  Instructions to readers
  - Cortázar and his short stories
  As a novelist, Julio Cortázar would quietly and slyly Observe our world and the people who move around it. In “The Story of Crolopio and Fama”, he wrote about an animal called Casual, “The first thing Casual does is to stare at people, with a haughty and suspicious attitude.” Just watching at every turn, the way of watching is so powerful and lasting, as if it is inventing us, as if it takes a lot of effort to make us emerge from nothingness, from the world of Casual, and make us appear in front of it. It all happens in the mysterious act of seeing it.” Cortázar’s writing is a kind of “seeing.”
  We all need to read Cortázar, and the poet Pablo Neruda warned his readers with almost Lee Taibai-like rhetoric: “The fate of anyone who does not read Cortázar is doomed. That is An invisible, serious illness that has dire consequences over time. In a way, it’s like never having tasted peaches. The person will silently become gloomier, paler, and more likely to All my hair is falling out little by little.” I think my hair hasn’t fallen out yet, probably because I read Cortázar’s blessings from time to time!
  Reading Cortázar, we will inexplicably enter the world of “Casual”, and then unconsciously “watch” the novelist’s “mysterious behavior” – he looks at all living beings in the world with arrogance and suspicion. He said, “Life should be a miracle day after day,” and he indulged in “watching” and creating miracles. We seem to be able to see the scene that the writer is “watching”. In “The Argentinian Everyone Likes”, García Márquez vividly describes the situation when Cortázar was writing: “In the desolate late autumn of 1956, from the beginning, he often used English names in a Parisian house. writing on a table in the corner of the cafe, just as Jean-Paul Sartre was doing 300 meters away, writing in his student notebook with a real fountain pen, the ink flowing His fingers were all stained… When I was in Paris I was told that he often wrote in the Café Auldère Navigation on the rue Saint-Germain. I waited there for several weeks and finally saw him like a ghost. Walking in. He was taller than people expected, with a particularly naughty child’s face, wearing a black coat that looked more like a widower’s clerical uniform, and his eyes were far apart, much like a calf’s eyes. And it is so slanted and transparent, if it were not for the control of the heart, it might be the eyes of the devil.”
  Fiction is an art about narrative. Any novelist must face issues such as narrator setting, narrative perspective, and narrator’s person. Cortázar directly raises this question in the novel “The Devil’s Saliva”: “How should this story be told? I really have no clue. Should I use the first person, or the second person? Or the third person plural? Or just make up a steady stream of things? A meaningless narrative method?” The author is deeply trapped in the narrator’s confusion: “I finally understand that the most difficult thing is which person to tell this story, and I will say this again without hesitation. The difficulty is difficult. No one knows who is telling this story, me, what happened, or what is in front of me?” In this novel, the narrator constantly switches freely between the first person and the third person. . It seems that we can regard the narrator “I” (subjective perspective) and the protagonist Michelle or the camera (objective perspective) as the subjects of the story. It can also be said that the implied narrator is “time” flowing forward, and the author claims that “Michelle is obsessed with literary creation and making up unrealistic stories.” The objectification of the narrator reminds us of Robbe Griet’s “Last Year in Marienba”. Everything unfolds under an objective and calm lens. The work shows a purely spiritual time and space, and people are objectified. “Devil’s Saliva” uses a materialized narrator to describe possible affairs between men and women, human fireworks, and a fantasy of a scene. In “Miss Cora”, the entire text seems to be controlled by the first person, but the main characters participate in the narrative. “I” becomes multiple people, including the 15-year-old young patient Pablo and Pablo. The mother and Cora, the little nurse in the hospital, seamlessly intertwined their narrations. The timeline is concise and clear. The scenes in the ward, the characters’ expressions and movements, and complex psychological activities are all described in detail, and the montage is played in a short space. With ease. The protagonist Pablo is as sensitive and fragile as the narrator Marcel in “Reminiscences of Lost Time”. He appears artificial because of his “nobleness”. He tries hard to pretend to be a “little adult” but peeks into the little book and seems powerless. When he sees science The ambiguous feelings of adolescence sprouted due to the attraction of the young lady.
  When you ask for the truth in Cortázar’s novels, you will inevitably encounter multiple choices of paths, paradoxical endings, and metaphors between the possible and the impossible. Borges said of Cortázar: “No one can give a brief summary of Cortázar’s work. When we try to summarize, the wonderful elements will slip away.” In the ending of “Miss Cora”, “(They) will put everything Take care of everything until this ward is vacated again”, which seems to indicate that the protagonist Pablo is about to die. Did the flight attendant in “Island at Noon” really get off the flight and start his longed-for life on the dreamy island of Hilos? At the end, a corpse drifts to the island. Does this mean that the plot of the entire novel is just the fantasy of the protagonist Malini before the flight crashed? As for these open-ended plots, I think it is impossible to explore the truth, because Cortázar himself did not want to give the truth. We may understand “The Island at Noon” as a view of the other shore – an out-of-body experience. time. Will the seeds that sprouted in the congested space in “Southern Highway” develop further? After the highway becomes normal, will there still be an explicit or implicit connection between them? What is the relationship between the two men and women whose ages are quite different from each other in “The Devil’s Saliva”? Is there a physical relationship, is there love? None of this can be known, and Cortázar has no intention of telling readers a huge secret using such secretive techniques as clues and clues. The white clouds have been empty for thousands of years, and “Devil’s Saliva” finally writes: “I opened my eyes, wiped away my tears with my hands, and saw this scene: the clear sky, a cloud drifting in from the left, slowly and gracefully It floated slowly to the right and disappeared, and then another one floated by.” The author tells us in an understatement that the thrilling things in life may be just accidental.
  With the eyes of a poet, Cortázar discovers the throbbing and yearning in lonely existence, the absurdity in the unchanging order, the surprises and perspectives in daily dogma and rules, the wonder and warmth in the ordinary… Wandering in reality Between fantasy, laziness and freedom, all of this can start from Cortázar’s Crolopio, which contains Cortázar’s innocent voice. In “Instructions to John Howell”, Rice, as an audience member, was forced to play the role of “Howell” on stage. When the play ended, Rice ran away, seemingly to escape the unchangeable ending. But then the original actor of “Howell” appears, and they all seem to be evading some kind of pursuit. Before fleeing separately, Howell said to Rice: “Amateurs are like this. They always think they can perform better than others, but in the end, nothing works.” The instructions given to “Howell” did not explanation, but the absurd fate has been doomed. Faced with the ambiguous instructions given by Cortázar to readers, we only need to calmly accept the absurdity and humor of the unknown destiny and the charm and magic of the novel monsters, because we are all amateurs…   I am
  the priest of Uqbal.
When I finished reading the collection of Borges’ novels for the first time, I thought to myself that this guy Bioy Casares must be a friend created by Borges, and he is probably also a fictional character in the novel!
  In Borges’s most famous novel “Tron, Uqbal, Orbis Thetius”, he writes at the beginning: “I relied on a mirror and an encyclopedia combined. , discovered Uqbar.” The article said that “I” and Bioy Casares had dinner together and “discussed at length the problem of writing a novel,” and at this time Casares thought : “A priest in Uqbar once said: Mirrors and sexual intercourse are unclean, because they both increase the population.” Of course, “I” was also dubious: “This baseless country and this nameless priest, They are all temporary fictions created by Bioy in order to confirm his words.” In another Borges novel “The Man on the Threshold”, there is also Casares’s “first scene in literature” Report”: “Bioy Casares brought a strange dagger from London…”
  I must admit that when I read Casares, I got the information from Borges’s book. He is As a good friend of a great writer, he came into our reading horizons. A writer will always show his “circle of friends” to his readers, and those readers who like to explore the hidden world will always find a wider world – there are the writer’s friends, pioneers and beloved writers. writer. This is a reading circle developed out of trust.
  In Borges’s essay “My Life”, he regarded the encounter and forging a deep friendship with Casares as the most important event in his life. Borges humbly claimed that Casares, although more than ten years younger than him, actually became his “mentor” when they worked together. Together, they compiled and selected collections of Argentine poetry, fantasy novels, and detective literature, collaborated on writing reviews and novels, translated works by Kipling and others, and founded the literary magazine “Untimely”… Borges commented on their style. Difference: “I like melancholy, aphorisms and the Baroque style, Bioy likes calmness and solemnity.” And Casares said in his diary about the differences between the two: “Borges At that time, those who advocated thoughtful art sided with Horace and the professors who opposed the flashy avant-garde poets and painters, and opposed my heroes. In this way, we each had our own opinions, and each of us did not ask the other’s questions. thing.”
  One night in 1937, three friends, Jorge Luis Borges, Adolfo Bioy Casares and Silvia Ocampo, were sitting around the fire in Buenos Aires. During the night, they “talked about fantasy literature and the best stories in our hearts” (according to Casares’s diary). Later, they compiled these stories into a book called “The Book of Fantasy,” also known as “Selected Fantasy Literature.” This selection of “Book of Fantasy” undoubtedly had some unspeakable influence on the parties involved, Borges and Casares – they also wanted to write a model work of “fantasy literature” that could be selected into it.
  Subsequently, Borges created “Tron, Uqbar, Orbis Thetius”, “The Circular Ruins” and “The Library of Babel”, and Casares created “The Invention of Morel”. ”, obviously they have become iconic works of “fantasy literature”.
  Borges was not stingy with his praise. He said: “The Invention of Morel has brought new hope to our continent, our language and literature. After discussing all the details with the author of the book, I I don’t think it’s too much to use the word “perfect” to evaluate this work.”
  This is a diary novel without any date. In order to avoid being chased by the police, the protagonist “I” fled to a mysterious island in the Pacific alone. The background setting of this story is somewhat similar to Daniel Defoe’s “Robinson Crusoe”. In addition to trees, shrubs, wild grasses and flowers blooming all year round, the island also has three modern buildings: a museum, a chapel and a swimming pool. As time goes by, the diary continues to grow thicker. “The past years and the shadows of the past are gradually blurred, deformed, and disappeared in the smoke and dust of forgetfulness.” “I” sometimes hide in the swamp, sometimes slip into the museum, “I” “I discovered a beautiful woman who sat on a rock watching the sunset every day…and fell hopelessly in love with this beauty.
  However, in this incredible time and space, two suns and two moons appeared on the island, and a group of people appeared repeatedly, including the beautiful Faustini. They started over and over again, saying the same words, walking the same way, and doing the same things every day. thing. From today’s perspective, they seem to be holographic images, but this novel is not a science fiction literature. It is also difficult for “I” to figure out whether this is reality, my imagination, a dream, or is he and his island just part of someone else’s dream? “I” discovered that all this was due to the invention of the scientist Morel. His life replicator achieved immortality by taking pictures, storing them in a storage disk that can be repeated continuously, and showing them in a loop. And Morel also loves the beautiful Faustini. He wants to make his emotions an eternal reality. He wants to copy the past world and control the future world. This is not creation, because creation belongs to the future and cannot stick to the eternal emotions of the past. Morel tried to inject soul into the characters so that these images would not be “ghosts” but become immortal people. The “I” on the island is both illusory and real, and so is Morel’s invention. “I” thought sadly: “I have no next time, no chance to repeat. In fact, there is no next time for these images, because each time is the previous and the next time, that is, the same time. … Our lives are like these images , repeated in the future world, we repeat our fathers, and our fathers repeat the fathers of our fathers…” “I” realize that Faustini is just a repetition of a certain image, but I still love her deeply. , “I” want to change the content of the shooting and erase Morel… “I”‘s last hope is to “invent a machine that can recover lost things and reunite after separation” and find “I” and Faustini, Let “me” enter the paradise of her consciousness. Uncertainty is the only certainty in The Invention of Morel.
  What kind of book is “The Invention of Morel”? In the words of Borges, Casares “composed a new Odyssey full of miracles using hallucinations, fantasies and symbols (rather than surreal assumptions).” It is one of the sacrifices of Uqbar Dream, and we also know: Only Casares knows which mysterious book Uqbal is in.
  Borges, his novel Utopia
  When you finish reading Borges, you will understand that he only belongs to literature. He lives in seclusion, living purely in literature and only for literature. He is a writer of infinite knowledge, and in terms of extensive reading, all writers are inferior to him. “First,” he said, “I consider myself a reader, secondly a poet, and finally a writer.” He read voraciously and aimlessly, and before he became completely blind in his sixties, he watched other people’s stories for several lifetimes. Unfinished books. He was able to draw literary material for his own use from all his readings, was able to write freely after he lost his sight, and became indisputably one of the most eloquent writers of all time.
  He has a dazzling “Borges” aura in the fields of poetry, literary theory and novels. His works are the crystallization of high-concentration literature, and they need us to read them again and again. In terms of literary influence, when we talk about the styles of great writers of the twentieth century, the first thing that comes to mind is “Kafka style” or “Borges style”… Literary youth or a certain writer read the blog After Borges, I am always ready to write something, even make up a story… Borges will activate our literary consciousness. In this aspect, no writer can compare with him. He is better than anyone else. Go deep and far. Borges not only changed the way people write novels, but also changed the content of novels and our understanding of novels.
  On August 24, 1899, Jorge Luis Borges was born in Buenos Aires, the capital of Argentina, into a lawyer family with ancient British and Argentine ancestry. According to his own research, his ancestors were Portuguese. In his poem “The Borges”, he wrote that they “continue dimly in my body, their habits, disciplines and anxieties”. My grandmother is British and my father loves literature. Borges has been learning English since he was a child. He is proficient in English, well versed in English literature, and has read a large number of European and American literary masterpieces. The English literary tradition has become part of his literary blood. He claimed: “If someone asked me what had the greatest influence on me in my life, I would say my father’s library. In fact I sometimes think I never left that study.” Borges early on His writing career began at the age of 7: he abbreviated a Greek myth in English. When he was 8 years old, he wrote a story in Spanish called “The Deadly Blindfold” based on “Don Quixote”. When he was 10 years old, he published a translation of the fairy tale “The Happy Prince” by British writer Oscar Wilde in “The Nation”, signed by Jorge Borges. His translation was so mature that he was actually considered to be his father.
  In 1914, Borges moved with his family to settle in Geneva, Switzerland, where he spent the most important years of his youth. His life is dominated by reading. In 1919, he moved to Spain with his family and had close contacts with Spain’s extremist literary and artistic circles. In 1921, after returning to Buenos Aires, Borges entered the library work and continued to do so throughout his life. He served successively as a clerk and director of various public libraries in Buenos Aires, and at the same time he continued to work in libraries. Literary creation, magazine creation, literary lectures and other activities. In 1923, he published his first collection of poems, “The Passion of Buenos Aires” (first published at his own expense in 1922), and two later collections of poems, “The Moon in Front of Me” (1925) and “Notes of Saint Martin” (1925). 1929). During the Peron administration from 1946 to 1955, he signed a manifesto against Peron, was dismissed from his position as director of the municipal library, and was humiliatingly ordered to work as a market poultry inspector. Some people say that Borges is just a study writer, an alien writer, completely aloof from worldly affairs and far away from politics. In fact, this is not the case. His expression is so sharp that Octavio Paz commented Said: “He is an extremely strong condemnation of the Latin American continent, which is full of shadows and violence. What amazed us about the writer is his perseverance and noble character as clear as water.” In 1950, due to the contributions of many writers, Supported, Borges was elected president of the Argentine Writers Association. This is tantamount to a slap in the face to the Peron government. After Perón stepped down, on October 17, 1955, he was appointed director of the National Library of Argentina. He mocked himself and said: “Fate gave me 800,000 books, which I control, but at the same time it gave me darkness.” He wrote in the poem: “I always imagine that heaven/is a type of library .” His “Poetry of Genius” expresses this paradoxical life situation. As the banner of the literary world, Borges was unwilling to make peace with politics until his death. The most pointed thing is that he did not want to die in Argentina, but chose Geneva.
  As for the image and character of Borges, the consensus among friends is that he is talkative, sociable, shy, studious, etc. In short, he is an elegant intellectual image, but lacks the thrilling legends of big shots. He “never read newspapers, claiming they would be forgotten the next day. He hated mirrors, the reproduction of life, and his own body, and dreamed constantly of labyrinths, masks, and mirrors.”
  In 1935 he published a collection of stories, “Scandals of the World,” which can be regarded as his first collection of novels. The early “Borges” style was nurtured here. The most famous works include “The Man on the Rose-Colored Street Corner”, “The Story of Two People Dreaming” and “The Wizard Who Failed to Achieve His Purpose”. “The Man on the Rose-Colored Corner” was Borges’s gift to the Palermo villains he envied. It is a gangster story. It is vivid and lively, and seems to have been written specifically for fellow Argentines – all Argentines are proud of an imaginary, heroic and mysterious glorious past dedicated to quarrels and troublemakers. As he said in the preface to the first edition of this book, he was passionate about compiling rosters, obsessed with condensing life into a sentence or a landscape, and despised psychology. He thought over and over every sentence in order to express it clearly and accurately. The poet Pound said that accurate statement is the first element of writing. The accuracy of statements is the only morality in writing. As a poet, Borges completely regarded this moral code as his writing imperative.
  Between 1936 and 1939, he wrote 208 book reviews for Home magazine. As a handy review writer, he does a lot of reading. Borges sometimes got tired of this, and he suddenly thought that writing was the greatest revenge for reading. Before engaging in novel writing, Borges was already a well-known poet and critic in Argentina, but he was not confident in writing novels. In his own words: “I know that the most immortal of my literary products is narrative, yet for many years I did not dare to write a novel. I thought that the paradise of stories was my forbidden zone.” At the end of
  1938, Borges suffered a terrible accident. At the same time, I tend to believe that it was this accident that greatly changed the face and pattern of world literature. As familial blindness approached Borges step by step, his eyesight became worse and worse. That day, as he walked quickly upstairs, he bumped into a window. He described in “Essays”: “I felt like something had scratched my head.” In fact, the impact was quite serious, the glass shattered and the fragments were embedded in his scalp. Subsequently, he was taken to the hospital and lay in bed for more than a month. He had doubts about his sanity, and his mother read Lewis’s fantasy novel “Out of the Silent Planet” to him, and he cried while listening to it. When his mother asked him why he was crying, he said he understood. As a writer who was confident enough in his own intelligence, Borges had to prove whether his intelligence and writing ability were affected. At the age of 39, he began to try to write stories to confirm himself. He tried to use all his literary resources and at the same time unleash his imagination, using concise and witty language, irony and parody, which he is best at, to create. Yes, his self-innovation also brought new values ​​​​to future novels. This close encounter with death inspired Borges to write his own great works. As Hadro Brom said, if Borges had died at that time, he might have died. Nothing anymore. In order to recreate this accident, Borges later wrote the novel “South”, and of course he also gave the novel a richer and deeper meaning. The character Dahlmann in the novel ran upstairs quickly in order to see a rare edition of “The Arabian Nights”. At this time, he was scratched by the newly painted window… After that, he searched for romanticism. Method of Death, Borges distorted his own experiences to satisfy his fascination with masculinity, reading, time, eternity, and heroism.
  He wrote “Pierre Maynard, Author of Quixote”, which was a watershed in Borges’s writing career, expressing a certain sense of fatigue and doubt, “in a long literary history The feeling that comes after the period. This novel is a joke and a self-mockery. Maynard was too philosophical to be a poet, and too poetic to be a philosopher. He was more learned than most poets and philosophers. Oh, what’s even more fatal is that he also has a heart that is rich and tired of inspiration. He can’t find a way to express his talent fully. He will live up to the talent given by God… In fact, Maynard is the comic book Edition of Borges. When Maynard rewrote “Don Quixote”, the novel became ridiculous, and what he wrote was exactly the same as what Cervantes had written. His efforts are meaningless, merely an act of reading and translating. As a literary creation, “He did not want to write another Quixote – which is easy to do – but just write Quixote.” All creation is rewriting! The end of the novel is even more ironic: “To attribute The Imitation of Christ to Celina or James Joyce is not a revival of this feeble spiritual vigilance?” We know that “The Imitation of Christ” It is a theological work by the German theologian Kempis, while Celina is the author of “The Long Night” and Joyce is the author of “Ulysses”.
  ”Pierre Maynard, the author of “Quixote”” also started his “Tron, Uqbal, Orbis Thetius” and other outstanding works, forming the most outstanding works of the twentieth century. The great literary brand – Borges. When it comes to clear expression, the novelist Llosa believes: “Borges’s prose is unusual. He spares his ink like gold and never adds a word, which completely violates the natural tendency of Spanish to go too far…” Coetzee believes: “He, More than anyone else, he revolutionized the language of the novel and paved the way for a whole generation of great Latin American novelists.” His concepts were clear and pure, yet at the same time unconventional, never taking a back seat, but speaking with great directness and simplicity. Express it with restrained words. He quietly created a completely new world with concise and fast text, and his narrative demonstrates the powerful power of literary language.
  Borges examines the existing world and criticizes reality by creating another world – Tron. Tron’s science, its mathematics, geography, and language are all fictional, but the entire novel is still “Borgesian”: rigorous in structure, concise in form, and in the style of Aesop’s fables. Is Tron a scam? Borges built a brand new world system that does not rely on matter for its existence, but relies entirely on knowledge and ideas. There are geometry, mathematics, philosophy and a whole set of thought and survival structures that support it. Finally, he uses a clever method to ask his readers – people in the “known world” outside the text – to consider their own acceptance of “Tron” Authenticity. He emphasized: “Tron is of course a labyrinth, a labyrinth designed by people and destined to be recognized by people.” There are real-life writers and friends in Tron who talked with Borges about Tron. , comments Tron, the boundaries between real time and fictional space have been blurred and merged into one.
  In 1941, the collection of novels “The Garden of Crossed Paths” was published, which included “Pierre Maynard, the author of “Quixote””, “Tron, Uqbar, Orbis Thetius” , as well as famous chapters such as “The Circular Ruins”, “The Library of Babel”, and “The Garden of Crossing Paths”. In this novel, Borges found an original form for his future novels: it was a seamless combination of novel and essay – two genres that were traditionally kept separate, but in Borges In Hess’s eyes, they are all expressions of human existence and belong to some higher spiritual law. The format often begins with a “hoax,” falsely claiming that a certain book exists somewhere, and Borges goes directly to the review, omitting the retelling. The narrative is submerged, fiction becomes reality, and the creation is not about a story that may happen (this is the usual practice of novels), but about a novel that already exists. By “lying”, Borges showed readers that he was just a reader, not an author.
  In 1944, he published the collection of novels “Handicrafts”, including such famous works as “Death and the Compass”, “The Secret Miracle” and “The South”. In 1949, the collection of novels “Aleph” was published, including such famous works as “Emma Zunz”, “Another Death” and “Aleph”. “The Learned Funes”, “The Gospel of Mark”, “Other Me”, “Mirror and Mask” and “Ulric” have come out one after another… Borges is becoming “Borges” forcefully, In the field of world literature, he has won widespread respect and his influence is endless. He is called “the writer’s writer”.
  In the 1960s, fame and blindness gradually entered Borges’ life. He transformed from a Latin American writer into a global writer. His brilliance and brilliance are unparalleled. From John Updike to George Steiner, from Octavio Paz to Michel Foucault, these top intellectuals and writers in the world have I have great admiration for him. Susan Sontag praised him and said: “If any of his contemporaries are worthy of literary immortality, that person must be Borges. He is a product of his time and culture, but he An uncanny way of knowing how to transcend his time and culture. He is the most transparent and most artistic of writers. He has always been a great resource for other writers.” I thought, this is not for Pass.
  Borges was modest, and he grew tired of fame after enjoying it for a little while. Like Pessoa, he loved wandering around the city, wandering around Buenos Aires studying maps or sipping coffee… He loved the simple things in life. Another blind man, Borges, who was wearing a cane, was often stopped in the street by people to congratulate him on being Borges. It’s a national icon beloved on stamps and travel brochures. Borges ends this fable about “Borges” with a riddle about the author: “I don’t know which of the two wrote this page.”
  Borges likes Chinese culture; A walking stick from China, in works such as “The Great Wall and Books”, “Kafka and His Precursors”, “The Garden of Crossing Paths”, the atmosphere of Chinese culture is everywhere. He loves the Chinese fantasy literature “Strange Stories from a Chinese Studio”. But unfortunately, throughout his life, he never set foot on the land of ancient China.
  Finally, a superfluous word. If you want to read the novelist Borges in Chinese, I recommend the translations of Mr. Wang Yangle and Mr. Wang Yongnian. Both of them have their own merits.
  Let the Wolves Pass
  - Juan Rulfo and “Pedro Páramo”
  Whenever I open “Pedro Páramo”, the first thing that catches my eye is the folded page. And the sentence heavily underlined in pencil: “Father Redria will recall the scene of that night many years later.” Yes, we seem to know each other, it is almost exactly the same as the famous and exciting beginning: “Many years Later, facing the firing squad, Colonel Aureliano Buendía will remember the afternoon when his father took him to see the ice.” Yes, many years later, “Pedro Páramo” directly led to Marquez begins his journey in One Hundred Years of Solitude.
  García Márquez openly admitted that Juan Rulfo was his master and believed that Rulfo played a decisive role in his literary career: “Discovering Juan Rulfo was like discovering Fran Like Kafka, it is undoubtedly an important chapter in my memory.” said the 32-year-old Marquez modestly. He had written five books but was still basically an unknown writer. He published ” “Dead Branches”, “The Colonel to whom No one wrote”, “Evil Hours”, “Aunt Grande’s Funeral”. He clearly realized: “The biggest problem as a writer is that after writing those books, I felt that I had entered a dead end, looking for a gap to escape from. I am very familiar with those who might have shown me the way or Good or bad writer, but I feel like I’m circling around the same point.” He had to find a way to write that was both persuasive and poetic. At this time, Juan Rulfo and his “Pedro Páramo” appeared.
  Facing “Pedro Páramo”, Marquez was completely dizzy, addicted to it and unable to extricate himself. He could almost recite it backwards: “When someone told Carlos Vero that I could recite the entire paragraph of “Pedro Páramo” I haven’t fully recovered from the dizziness when I read “Lo Parramo”. In fact, it’s more than that: I can recite the entire book backwards and forwards without making any big mistakes. And I can also tell each story when I read it. There is not a character on any page of that book that I am not familiar with.”
  In addition to writing “Pedro Páramo”, the author Juan Rulfo also has a short story collection “Burning” “The Wilderness”, there are still a few scripts. Obviously, he is not one of those writers whose works are of a lifetime, but the pinnacle of a very small family of writers. As the greatest master of short stories in the 20th century, he became a “shadow writer” who deeply entered the inner world of many writers. He silently conquered countless writers.
  In 1918, Juan Rulfo was born in a rural village in Mexico called Sayola. Unfortunately, his father died when he was 6 years old, and his mother passed away soon after. He grew up in an orphanage and received extremely limited education. He did not receive formal higher education. He only attended literature courses at the university while working in the Immigration Bureau of the Mexican Interior Ministry. During this period, he took advantage of his position to travel all over the country. At the same time, he also read a large number of domestic and foreign literary masterpieces.
  Rulfo, who reads and writes in Spanish, realized as early as his youth that the traditional Spanish literary works were decorated with over-worked decorations that were dry, boring, and feeble due to various rules and regulations. . This is absurd and he must deny this literature. He began his writing career with straightforward, to-the-point narratives.
  In order to resist the paleness and boringness of the original Spanish literature, Rulfo chose the world he was familiar with-the naked and open countryside of Mexico, where there are “simple characters, characters in villages and towns, characters in the country, not characters in the city.”
  Childhood memories and experiences gave Rulfo confidence. His characters are unpretentious, and his expressions equally plain and simple.
  When he returned to his hometown again, Rulfo came up with the idea of ​​​​writing “Pedro Páramo”. He said: “When I returned to the village of my childhood, what I saw was an abandoned village, a village of ghosts. There are many abandoned villages in Mexico. So the idea of ​​”Pepa” came into my mind. The idea of ​​”Dero Páramo”. It was a village like this that gave me the idea of ​​describing the dead, where people could be said to be about to die.” The
  novel is about a village called “Comala”. The people who speak, live, and move there are all dead. The truth is, dead people don’t live in our time and space. The problem in life is time. Rulfo believes: “Life is not a chronological process. Our lives are divided into fragments. There are some moments, some days, which are blank. Life is not wonderful, but it is full of wonderful things.” “When describing, just narrate the facts, and when nothing happens, remain silent, just like in life.” This concept led Rulfo to completely adopt “fragment writing” and “silent” time concepts , breaking the linear time of traditional novels and the normal logical sequence of cause and effect, allowing the narrative text to fly freely between the past, present and future, and at the same time fixing the real world and characters in the “present tense”, making the connection between the past and the future “Now” becomes an eternal existence.
  After finishing the first draft, he deleted a lot of his manuscript, “I realized a mistake, a mistake that all writers usually make. I thought that I was an essay writer, and expressing opinions was the most important, and novels should naturally contain those comments. , there were redundant interruptions and explanations. When I changed the structure, I eliminated all of them. Considering the cooperation with readers, I only kept one hundred and fifty pages…” Rulfo killed him and deleted it. All unnecessary explanations and discussions were eliminated, leaving only the most realistic image of the world, and as the creator – the “God Author” was completely invisible. He knew what he was doing: “”Pedro Páramo” is a novel full of silence. Only those facts are narrated. I tried my best not to digress or talk about philosophy, so there are those dangling clues and Readers can fill in the gaps and interpret according to their own wishes. I really hope there are many interpretations, and it is myself who does not have any opinions.” The text and narrative have returned to their simplest and original state – concise, clear and direct. People’s hearts.
  ”Pedro Páramo” tells the story of a manor owner’s fortune, cruelty, and treacherous life, a picture of a life of love, hate, and mental and physical exhaustion. The story takes place in the village of Komala. Gebitana grass grows wildly along the ruins. Time has lost its support and has collapsed. The dead gather and talk in the wind. The river of memory suddenly opens up. The darkness of fate and the times The sadness gradually unfolds. The eponymous protagonist is a three-dimensional figure who has occupied the village of Comala for many years. His father was assassinated at the wedding and his family fell into ruin. He was full of hatred and began to take revenge on a large scale. After his father’s death, he took charge of the household and was scheming and unscrupulous. In order to revive the family business, he married Preciado and seized her property. Throughout his life, Pedro was cunning and cunning, bullying men and women, disregarding human life and abandoning God. Under his debauched rule, some people in the village died tragically, and some fled to other places. Comala Village became a gradually dead place, full of undead and ghosts. Like all cruel tyrants, the law is only a toy in his hands. He said: “What is the law? Fulgor! From now on, we should make the law.” He and Susanna were childhood sweethearts. Later, after Susanna moved to another place, he still loved her deeply. Na. Thirty years later, he killed Susanna’s father in order to get Susanna, but at this time Susanna was crazy and old. Pedro still loved her deeply, but he could not understand it. The pain that filled her heart, not to mention the lack of love from her. The deaths of his son Miguel Páramo and his wife Susana dealt Pedro a heavy blow, and he has been unable to recover since then. In order to retaliate that the people of Comala did not share his grief, he let go of Comala, which he had taken full control of. As a result, the manor fell into ruin, the land was deserted, and Comala became a deserted village and a place where ghosts of wronged souls gathered. In the end, Pedro was killed because he refused Avendio’s request for alms to bury his wife. And Avendio was also one of his abandoned sons.
  In addition to Pedro Páramo, the novel also involves the following characters: Juan Preciado, Mrs. Eduwehays, Damiana Cisneros, Dorothea, Miguel ·Paramo, Father Redria, Susanna, Fulgor, Donis and his sister, etc. Some of these characters are distinct, some are vague, and they all bear their own destiny.
  The work is roughly divided into two clues. One is that a man named Juan Preciado came to Comala to look for his father Pedro Páramo, and dealt with many ghosts. In the process, Pedro ·The image of Páramo gradually emerged; first, through other people’s narratives, the direct tracing of Pedro Páramo’s life picture, layer by layer, mapping a complete three-dimensional Pedro from different sides. ·Paramo. The two are intertwined and intertwined, making Pedro’s image vivid and complex, with a sense of layering and three-dimensionality vividly on the page. The cunning and cruel man, faced with the loss of love and the call of death, had to “fall heavily to the ground, and his body slowly stiffened like a stone.” The dead villages where ghosts roam and the cruel and desperate daily life solidly constitute the loneliness of Latin America and form its unique and secret human fable.
  ”Pedro Páramo” combines various narrative techniques such as stream of consciousness and dreams, dialogue and monologue, narration and reminiscence, free switching of time and space, and natural transition between life and death. The novel exudes a confusing and strange atmosphere. At the same time, the novel has also become an exquisite work of art. The unparalleled skills of “Pedro Páramo” and the ingenious combination of the magic and absurdity of Latin American culture itself make the novel generate huge magic and ferment at a geometric level. At the same time, it is so natural that it can be said that “although it was made by man, it seems to have been created by heaven.”
  When I saw some of the photos taken by Rulfo, the image of “Comala” in “Pedro Páramo” was immediately established: decadence, decay, decline, growth… Poetry remains in despair, Vitality emerges from ruins. Between 1945 and 1955, Rulfo returned to rural Mexico and took a large number of photos: the remains of archaeological buildings, dilapidated houses, colonial buildings and vacant towns, documenting the real life of the Mexican people after the revolution. It wasn’t until six years before Rulfo’s death that he began releasing the photos publicly – he never intended to become a photographer.
  Marquez prophetically commented on Rulfo: “His work is only three hundred pages, but it is almost as vast as the work of Sophocles we know, and I believe it will be as enduring.” This is also true. In this way, Rulfo was once full of confidence in his writing. He said: “As people say, throughout this group of ant-like writers, people are waiting to let the wolf pass, let the wolf pack pass.” Rulf Fu, it is the lone wolf on the map of Latin American literature – a “wolf pack” of one person, a grand sight, indeed!

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