The biggest difference between the world’s top psychologists and ordinary people lies in their cognitive thinking abilities.
So what do top psychologists think about life?
the meaning of life
The first is Freud.
Freud proposed that people have two instincts, one is the life instinct and the other is the death instinct.
The life instinct manifests itself as self-instinct and sexual instinct, while the death instinct manifests as destruction and desire for destruction. All human behaviors are driven by these two instincts.
Freud’s views on the meaning of life are not straightforward enough. Schopenhauer and Nietzsche’s views on the meaning of life are very similar and more straightforward.
Schopenhauer proposed that people and society are driven by the “will to survive”.
The will to live refers to blind and unconscious power. Schopenhauer spent a lot of money to demonstrate the rationality of the existence of the will to live.
Nietzsche was greatly influenced by Schopenhauer and proposed the “will to power”, believing that everything is a disguised product of the will to power.
Freud, the founder of the school of psychoanalysis, believed that people are driven by the life instinct and death instinct, and follow the pleasure principle and the compulsive repetition principle.
Irving Yaron is a leading contemporary psychologist. His views on the meaning of life are influenced by existential philosophy.
He believes that life has no obvious meaning. This is part of the anxiety of human existence and is inevitable.
To solve the problem of life without obvious meaning, we must distinguish between universal meaning and personal meaning. Universal meaning refers to the fact that human existence itself is meaningless, and personal meaning refers to the sense of meaning created by an individual’s unique experience.
As Schopenhauer said in “The Wisdom of Life”, there is essentially no difference between people.
But in fact, Schopenhauer chose to become a philosopher.
This is the difference between universal meaning and personal meaning. Ordinary people are incapable of distinguishing between ordinary meaning and personal meaning, and they do not even ask the question what the meaning of life is.
The value of human life
Psychologist Maslow proposed the concept of “self-actualizer” and made 16 descriptive psychological portraits for self-actualizers. Self-actualization is also the top of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory.
In “The Crowd”, Le Pen emphasized that groups are driven by unconscious forces, which also showed the importance of firm individual consciousness.
In the stage of thinking upgrading, self-mission is placed at the highest stage.
In his later years, Irving Yaron wrote a book, “Becoming Myself,” which emphasized the importance of a person becoming his being.
The reason why top psychologists emphasize becoming oneself is because most people have no way to be themselves. They are driven by the concept of the group and the human instinct to follow pleasure.
what is love?
Fromm wrote “The Art of Loving” to emphasize that love is a kind of ability, and he distinguished two different kinds of love.
One is “I need you, so I love you” and the other is “I love you, so I need you” .
If the meaning of life to them is to become their own existence, then the meaning of love to them is to see the existence of others.
In life, most people choose to love others because they “need others.” They do not have the ability to see the true existence of the other person. What they actually see is their own needs.
Human beings have “self-knowledge anxiety”. In order to eliminate self-knowledge anxiety, they will choose to fall in love. The two parties in love do not have “self-problems” because “I” is melted by “we”.
Both Fromm and Owen Yaron emphasized that mature love is based on becoming a complete self and then “seeing the existence of others.”
In other words, top psychologists attach great importance to “self” issues and do not attempt to use love or other means to solve problems belonging to the self.
freedom and responsibility
Among the four ultimate concerns of life proposed by Owen Yaron, he talked about the ultimate freedom of human beings.
Freedom means that the universe is not planned, but disordered. Our freedom means we have self-power, and it also means we shoulder responsibilities.
Ordinary people don’t like freedom. They look for religion, drama, groups, etc., all to avoid freedom.
Most ordinary people don’t like to take responsibility for their own affairs. They like to look for external causes and believe that their misfortunes are caused by others or the environment. In this way, they avoid taking responsibility and lose their own power.
Top psychologists have an objective attitude towards ultimate freedom. On the one hand, they believe that freedom means that human beings have the power to change themselves. On the other hand, they believe that responsibility is an active choice.
As a top contemporary psychologist, Owen Yaron was not born very lucky. He lived in a poor black community during his childhood, his parents were illiterate and could not read, and his relationship with his mother was not good.
But he is a person who likes reading very much. His gradual growth into a top psychologist is based on his step-by-step understanding of knowledge.
Schopenhauer’s “will to power” and the four major issues of existential philosophy are different explanations of the meaning of life, but they are all describing the same issues in life.
Each of us will face problems in life, such as what is our own value and how to treat death. Ordinary people are unwilling to think about these issues and are only willing to be driven by instinct. Top psychologists will “look directly into the bright sun.”