The Intricate Connection Between Gender and Cancer: Insights from Y Chromosome Research

  There seems to be some entanglement between gender and cancer. Generally speaking, men do not get cervical cancer, and women do not get prostate cancer.
  But the occurrence of some cancers is engraved in the genes of different genders.
  On June 22, Nature published two studies that further deepen the relationship between gender and cancer. Comparison of two studies found that the Y chromosome may be a key factor in the different incidence rates and treatment effects of some cancers.
  Ronald DePinho’s team from the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center conducted research on the relationship between the Y chromosome and colorectal cancer. The researchers used a mouse model in which the KRAS gene causes cancer to evaluate the differences in colorectal cancer between female and male mice.
  The researchers found that male mice were more likely to develop cancer metastases and had poorer survival rates, similar to gender differences observed in humans.
  In addition, KDM5D, a protein demethylase on the Y chromosome, plays an important role in driving tumor invasion and immune evasion.
  Dan Theodorescu’s team at the University of Colorado Denver analyzed the relationship between the Y chromosome and bladder cancer.
  The prevalence of Y chromosome loss (LOY) in bladder cancer is 10-40%. The research team collected clinical data from 300 male bladder cancer patients and found that Y chromosome loss is closely related to poor prognosis.
  Next, the researchers analyzed bladder cancer cells and found that bladder cancer with Y chromosome deletion is more aggressive and more likely to inhibit T cell-mediated immune responses, which means that Y chromosome deletion will make the immune system less effective. By identifying and eliminating tumor cells, patients are more likely to develop bladder cancer.
  The researchers also found that Y-chromosome deletions were associated with increased response to a viable treatment option, anti-PD1 checkpoint blockade therapy, suggesting that this type of bladder cancer may be treatable with a new treatment modality.
  Although the relationship between cancer and gender is not yet fully understood, decoding the Y chromosome is undoubtedly a good entry point into understanding the relationship between the two.
  It is worth mentioning that genes only play a small role in the differences between different cancers in men and women, and more importantly, differences in lifestyle.
  Generally speaking, men have a higher incidence of cancer than women because men are more likely to drink alcohol and smoke. Although we cannot change genes, we may try to change bad living habits to reduce the occurrence of cancer.

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