A Journey Through the Diverse Landscapes and Rich Heritage of Azerbaijan – Traversing Mountains, Forests and Historic Cities from Baku to Sheki

  If you spread out the world map, you will find that Azerbaijan is like a big bird plunging towards the Caspian Sea. The beak of the bird is the Absheron Peninsula extending into the Caspian Sea. tail feathers. This country in the Transcaucasus region with an area of ​​86,600 square kilometers benefits from the blessing of the vertical climate zone of the Caucasus Mountains, and has nine types of climate landscapes from subtropical to frigid.
  Let’s zoom in on the map of Azerbaijan, stretch out your right hand, palm down, the heel of the palm is placed on the Absheron Peninsula, and the five fingers represent the five lines radiating from Baku.
  The thumb corresponds to the direction of Lianlanke in the south. This is the place with the most rainfall in Azerbaijan. It is mainly agricultural and rich in tea and citrus. Most of the fertile soil that filled the trenches in the inner city of Baku was transported from here. The index points to the southwest, corresponding to Nakhichevan and Naka. Nakhichevan is the region with the longest history in the Transcaucasus. There is Noah’s tomb and the remains of the earliest human habitation in the Transcaucasus; the middle finger points to the due west, corresponding to The most important are Ganja and Naftalan, the second largest city in Azerbaijan. Naftalan is famous for its oil baths and sanatoriums. You must know that not all oils can be used to treat diseases; the ring finger corresponds to Shamaki, Gabe Lai and Sheki, these three cities were the capitals of the ancient kingdom of Shirvan, the Kingdom of Caucasus Albania, and the Sheki Khanate respectively. Both Islamic and Christian civilizations have left many monuments here. At the same time, this route is located in The Great Caucasus Mountains, with obvious mountainous vertical climate zones, rich vegetation, and especially beautiful scenery, is one of the most classic tourist routes; while Little Thumb faces north, corresponding to Kuba, and the scenery is also good. The Sholal water transport built in 1917 The water source of the pipeline is near Kuba.
  During the hot weather in July, the subtropical semi-desert scene of the Apsheron Peninsula becomes more and more obvious. Without the nourishment of rainwater, the area of ​​grassland scattered in the semi-desert is reduced, and the grass becomes thin and yellow. Herdsmen drove their cattle and sheep to pastures in the cool summer Caucasus mountains one after another. It’s a holiday, and I made an appointment with a few friends that we will go to the Great Caucasus Mountains in the northwest of Baku to enjoy the cool air following the footsteps of the cattle, and then follow the most classic tourist routes to visit the lingering Shamakhi, Gabala and Sheki.
  It is agreed to depart from the residence at 7:40 in the morning. When I went out, I saw the rented Mercedes-Benz seven-seater bread parked quietly at the door. The driver is a local named Rajaf. Because he has been to Mecca, he likes to be called Haji. Rajaf is 50 years old, slightly stooped, and of medium build. His hair and beard are grizzled, and he looks slightly older than his actual age. He speaks good Russian and English, has a deep voice, speaks slowly, and behaves in a low-key and down-to-earth way.
  We set off from the vicinity of the ancient city of Baku, heading northwest, and started a three-day tour of the Caucasus. In 3 days we will drive across the Apsheron Peninsula, into the Greater Caucasus Mountains, and return to Baku.

The Juma Mosque in Shamakhi, built in 743, is one of the earliest mosques built in the Caucasus. Juma means “Friday”, and Muslims gather together to pray on Friday.

The interior of the Juma Mosque uses gray stone for the walls, and the painting style is beautiful and modern.

Shamakhi is famous for its wine production. The range of mountains and hills allows local winemakers to plant famous grape varieties such as Chardonnay and Cabernet Sauvignon, as well as local varieties such as Madrassa and Messari.

The Diri Baba Mausoleum is a two-story mausoleum built in 1402. It was built on the hillside. The Sufi elder Bill Muhammad practiced in the cave above the mausoleum for 40 days. Shirvan Shah ordered the construction of a mosque to commemorate it. .

In the center of the tower of Shamakhi Castle, there is the sign of “Shamakhi City” in Azerbaijani language.
Shamakhi: Diri Baba Tomb, Juma Mosque, Shirvan Winery

  After leaving the bustling and modern Baku, the vehicles on the road gradually became scarce. In summer, the Apsheron Peninsula is an endless grayish yellow, with few green plants and occasional gentle low hills on the horizon, but it also has a magnificent beauty. The overall road conditions are okay, but there are no isolation belts on both sides of the road, and occasionally cattle and sheep on the road.
  After driving for an hour and a half, Rajaf turned off the main road and entered the mountains. After driving for about 4 kilometers, we entered a low mountain and arrived at our first stop, Diri Baba Mausoleum.
  Like all monuments and ruins, earthquakes and wars have caused the main body of the building to collapse, and over thousands of years, weathered rocks and soil have formed new strata, thus covering the wall foundation and ruins. Archaeological experts found this place based on historical materials and the descriptions of the shepherds, conducted excavations, and then dated it. During the process of excavation and restoration, a large deep pit is often formed around the monument. Diri Baba Mausoleum is also like this. To enter Diri Baba Mausoleum, you have to go down the escalator, pass through a square, and then climb up the stairs. Due to occasional rockfall, the park puts helmets at the entrance of the Diri Baba Mausoleum for tourists to take by themselves.
  The Diri Baba Mausoleum was built on the mountainside, and its facade is still made of khaki Apsheron limestone. Diri Baba means “living old man”. This is a two-story mausoleum, built in 1402, built on the hillside, similar to the Hanging Temple in China, and the scale is not large. Sufi Elder Bill Muhammad practiced in the cave above the mausoleum for 40 days. After 40 days, his disciples found that he had passed away, but his body was incorruptible and had a fragrance, so they called him “the immortal old man”. Shirvan Shah ordered the construction of a mosque to commemorate it. It is more appropriate to call Sufis “ism” instead of “pai”. It is not a unified religious group, nor does it have unified teachings and rituals. Practitioners advocate frugality, abstinence and asceticism, and try to achieve epiphany through meditation and reach the state of “selflessness”. After the 11th century, the influence of Sufism in the Islamic sect expanded day by day.

  Above the mausoleum is the cave where Bill Muhammad used to give lectures and retreat at that time. When the staff of the park learned that we were going to visit, they brought a few pages of accident waiver and asked to sign. The steps are steep and there are no handrails on both sides. Whether it is a lecture cave or a retreat cave, the area is very small, it can be seen that Pierre. Muhammad practiced abstinence and austerity himself.

Azerbaijanis generally drink tea mainly black tea, which must be served with desserts and jams.

  Get out of Diri Baba Mausoleum, drive on the highway, drive for about 10 minutes, and you will see the newly built Shamakhi Castle. The castle wall is not high, but the scale is large. The outer wall is carefully carved with patterns and statues. The south wall faces the direction of the road. There are two towers. The center of the tower is marked “Shamaki City” in Azerbaijani. On the low mountain in the distance west of the road, there is a map of Azerbaijan made of stones, and the national flag of Azerbaijan stands on the top of the mountain, fluttering in the wind. After passing the Shamakhi Castle, you have entered the boundary of Shamakhi City, the former capital of the Shirvan Kingdom.
  Shamakhi is the birthplace of Queen Shamakhi in Pushkin’s fairy tales. Pushkin once mentioned Queen Shamakhi in the folk tale narrative poem “Golden Rooster”, to the effect that: King Dorton fought for years and destroyed the Eastern Shamakhi Kingdom. Later, he met an old man who gave him a golden rooster. The golden rooster can predict where there will be wars, and the Dorton kingdom has become stronger and stronger since then. The golden rooster predicted that there would be war in the east, and the king sent his two sons to investigate, but there was no news of it. The king went with his army and found his two sons dead. From a nearby silk tent came out the beautiful Queen Shamakhi, who the king planned to marry as his wife. It so happened that the old man appeared at this time and asked to take the Shamakhi woman away. The two had a dispute, the king killed the old man, and the old man’s golden rooster flew down and killed the king. Queen Shamakhi took revenge on her beauty.
  In 2010, Russia produced the cartoon “Three Warriors and Queen Shamakhi”. The plot is similar to the domestic cartoon “Gourd Brothers”. Women’s tears to restore youth.
  The second stop in Shamakhi is the Juma Mosque, which was built in 743 and is one of the earliest mosques built in the Caucasus. Juma means “Friday”, and Muslims gather together to pray on Friday. The ancient mosque has suffered through earthquakes and tumultuous years, and was last restored between 2010 and 2013.
  The Zhuma Mosque occupies a large area, and its layout is similar to the Kutuzov Church in St. Petersburg. In the middle is the worship hall and the minaret, with a loggia with a high outer height protruding from each side. In front of the loggia and the chapel is a wide square. The eastern part of the square is the excavated ancient foundation of the mosque, which is exquisite and harmonious with fountains, green plants, and unearthed pottery and stone tools. White magnolias are planted in the west, and the bowl-sized flowers bloom warmly and peacefully. The chapel uses gray stone for the walls, the interior of the vault is painted, and the huge chandelier brings a modern feeling. Men and women pray separately in mosques. When men pray, women are absolutely not allowed to enter.
  After a short stop in the mosque, we told Rajaf that we wanted to visit the winery. Rajaf took us through the urban area of ​​Shamakhi to the Shamakhi Shirvan Winery.
  Shamakhi is famous for its wine production. The range of mountains and hills allows local winemakers to plant famous grape varieties such as Chardonnay and Cabernet Sauvignon, as well as local varieties such as Madrassa and Messari. The bare mountains are covered with vineyards, creating the impression of Caucasian Provence.
  Shirvan Winery is located in a valley where stretches of grapes are planted. Transcaucasus was one of the first regions in the world to produce wine, dating back 8,000 years. A large number of wine storage pottery has been unearthed in Shamaki, and the total capacity of these pottery has reached an astonishing 10,000 tons. After the Islamization of the Caucasus, wine production came to a standstill. In recent years, Azerbaijan has vigorously developed tourism, and the grape planting area has been restored. The winery has been carefully planned and arranged, which is far more refined and warm than ordinary parks.
  When we left the winery, it was already 12 noon. I planned to go to the Nasreddin Tusi Observatory and the Gulistan Fortress, but I had to go to Gabala to spend the night at night. There were other monuments waiting for us along the way, so I had to give up. Just like life, with a little regret, maybe more aftertaste and thoughts.
  Drive through the Shamakhi Pass and enter the Caucasus Mountains. On both sides of the mountain road are dense primitive broad-leaved forests, as if walking in an arched green corridor. The mottled sunlight shines on the road through the leaves, and the nearby mountains appear and disappear in the fog. Missed to see the beauty of Queen Shamakhi, but Shamakhi Yamaguchi made up for it with a smile. In retrospect, Pushkin was able to describe the peerless face of Queen Shamakhi through his friend’s narration of the Caucasus mountain scenery.
Scenery along the way: Rajzi town, “Seven Beauties” waterfall

  The next stop is the small town of Rajzi and Gabala. The two sides are picturesque, and there will be several restaurants with unique decorations every time you open a section. Rajaf didn’t stop, saying that it’s good to just look at the scenery. Some restaurants are specially for rich Arab businessmen, and they won’t be too happy when they check out.
  The closer you get to the small town of Rajci, the more dangerous the road is. The light in the mountains is dim, and there are many sharp bends. The road only allows two cars to pass. On the left is the Grand Canyon, and on the right is a steep cliff. During the journey, rocks may fall from the mountains. Occasionally, rocks that have just fallen are piled up under the cliff, and only one car can pass through. I sat in the front with a handful of sweat in my hands and was worried. Rajaf told me that the road leading to the small town of Rajzi will be blocked by ice and snow in winter, and the mudslides caused by landslides caused by heavy rains and flash floods in summer will also block the road.
  Fortunately, between talking and laughing, the front suddenly became clear. Along the wide riverbed, the small town of Rajzi has appeared. The town does not allow vehicles to enter, so I had to park the car outside the town and explore on foot.
  The town is small, with cobblestone streets and two-story houses stretching along the banks of the Gildiman River. The streets are narrow, allowing only one car to pass through, and it seems that you have come to the ancient town of Sichuan and Tibet in a trance. The houses on the main street and adjacent streets have been converted into tourist shops and coppersmith shops. Most tourist handicrafts are made in China. The local handicrafts are mainly wooden boxes and copperware, which are a little rough and not cheap.
  Rajaf was friends with the owner of a coppersmith’s shop. The owner’s ancestors have been in this town for 150 years, and he is already the seventh generation descendant here. The host was very enthusiastic, and led us to visit the century-old workshop, the ancient furnaces and bellows, the walls were full of tools, the lights were dim, and we barely took a few photos. After exiting the copper work workshop, we turned around along the small street. There are local spices and saffron on both sides, and the price is moderate.
  What impressed me the most was the beauty of the scenery and the danger of the road leading to the small town of Rajci. On the contrary, my impression of the town was mediocre. It was like a failed love affair. The ending was not good, but the process was unforgettable.
  When we approached Gabala, it began to rain lightly again. After discussing it, we decided to visit the “Seven Beauties” waterfall on a rainy night. The “Seven Beauties” Waterfall is located in Wandham Village not far from Gabala City. It consists of 7 waterfalls of different heights. The name of the waterfall comes from the poem of the same name written by the famous Azerbaijani poet Nizami.

  The real beauty is something that is accidental or has been tempered. There are stone stairs leading to the 7th floor platform. The road is very steep. There are many strange rocks on both sides of the mountain. The waterfall flows down from both sides of the stone ladder like a silver chain, forming several small green pools and then continues downward. Every tens of meters, there will be a platform for tourists to rest in a slightly wider valley. The restaurants on the platform are also exquisitely and harmoniously arranged. Looking at the beauty under the lamp, there is a special charm. Before you know it, you have reached the fourth floor platform. Everyone is excited to keep going. Rajaf said that the road further up is steeper and narrower, and there are no handrails, and the road is slippery when it rains, which is too dangerous.
  Had to come down and go straight to Gabala. We booked a villa in Gabala, and when we arrived at the villa, it was already 8 o’clock at night.
Gabala: Mount Tufan, Uddin Village

  Gabala is the capital of ancient Albania, the word Albania comes from the Greek, meaning mountain. Albania in the Caucasus has nothing to do with Albania in Europe. In order to distinguish it, the academic circles call the ancient country of Albania here Caucasus Albania. Caucasus Albania lasted from the 1st century BC to the 8th century AD.
  The majestic Caucasus Mountains separate the Eastern European Plain in Europe from the Iranian Plateau in West Asia. The insurmountable mountains gave birth to many ancient countries. The dangerous terrain and barren land protected these ancient countries, but also restricted the development of the ancient countries themselves, and this place has also become an arena for various civilizations. Persians, Greeks, Romans, Arabs, Turks, Mongols and Russians all left their mark here.
  In addition to being the ancient capital of Caucasus Albania, Gabala is also known as “Oriental Switzerland”, which is a gift from the Caucasus Mountains. The Caucasus Mountains stretches for 1,200 kilometers from the east coast of the Black Sea to the west coast of the Caspian Sea. The widest point is about 180 kilometers, with an average height of more than 2,000 meters. Its main peak, Mount Elbrus, is 5,642 meters above sea level. The Alps are majestic.
  Mount Tufan is located in the eastern section of the Greater Caucasus Mountains, near Gabala. The beauty of Mount Tufan lies in its danger and denseness, the beauty of the valley, and the heavy fog that covers the main peak of Mount Tufan, Bazarduzu Mountain, with a layer of mysterious veil. At 10 o’clock, the Tufan mountain cable car has already opened. Take the cable car to see the mountain scenery in summer and go skiing in winter. If you only talk about the scenery, the trip to Mount Tufan is the most worthwhile place to visit in the Caucasus.
  When Tufan Mountain came down, we went to check in the resort Nohura Lake and the Caspian Sea Fish House. Lake Nohura used to be a riverbed full of reeds, but later a dam was built downstream and became a green lake; the Caspian Sea Fish House is a Mediterranean blue and white restaurant built on the water, which can be regarded as the ultimate artificially achieved, check in The effect is very good, but compared to nature’s supernatural workmanship, it is somewhat delicate.
  The next stop is the village of Udin, inhabited by a special ethnic group, the Azerbaijani ethnic group of Udin, one of the oldest Caucasian ethnic groups. In terms of religion, the Udin people are Christians whose faith dates back to ancient Caucasus Albania.
  The Elisha Church in Udin Village is one of the oldest Christian sites in Azerbaijan. It was built in the 1st century and rebuilt on the site in the 17th and 18th centuries. Elisha was a Caucasian Albanian Christian apostle who received this place from Jerusalem as his parish. There are very few people visiting, and it is a bit quiet and lonely. The interior decoration of the church is more simple, far less magnificent than the Orthodox church.
  Passing by a high courtyard wall, I knocked on the door for a long time, and finally entered. This is the Udin Village Museum and Resort. Rather than talking about the Udin Museum, it is better to say that it is a time relic of the Soviet farm, which retains the original Soviet style. For those who miss the 1960s and 1970s, this is the best place to go. Had a big meal at the Udin Museum, the price is not too expensive. One of the dishes is a specialty of Azerbaijan, called Saz, which is very similar to the one-pot dish in the Northeast. An iron pot is served directly, and the baked potato chips, green peppers and persimmons are arranged along the side of the pot, and the fried meat is placed in the middle of the pot. For Chinese people who are accustomed to vegetarian dishes, they can find some comfort in this dish. Azerbaijanis also have special characteristics in drinking tea, mainly black tea, which must be served with desserts and jams. Please pay attention when you want to refill the water after drinking tea. In most cases, there will be an additional charge.
  Ancient Gabala was completely destroyed in the 18th century by Safi general Nadir Shah, the “Sword of Persia”. My idea of ​​going to the ruins to pay homage was rejected by everyone collectively. Another Messach waterfall had to be given up because it was not open to traffic.
Sheki: Fortress, Kish Village, Sheki Khan Palace, Caravan Station

  From the village of Udin, go straight to the last stop, Sheki. The scenery is as usual good. Arrived at Sheki, about 5:00 pm, the sky was still very bright, and went directly to the Galerson-Gellersen Fortress.
  In the 18th century, the Safi general Nadir Shah rose up suddenly, expelled the Afghans who invaded Persia, regained the Persian territory occupied by the Turkish Seljuks, and sacked the Indian capital Delhi, forcing the Russian army to withdraw from the previously occupied south bank of the Caspian Sea area. For a time Persia was restored to its former glory.
  After Nadir Shah captured Shamaki and Gabala, he wrote to ask Sheki Khan where the Hajiqiel people were and asked Sheki Khan to surrender. When Sheki Khan wrote back, he said, “Gellerson-Gellerson”, this is a group of homonyms, which means “you come here, you will know when you come here”. Translated into Northeast dialect, it means “Don’t make it useless, come here and let’s knock it first.” Nadir Shah’s troops came to Sheki and destroyed the city and orchards. Sheki Khan fled into the fortress for the last tenacious resistance. Nadir Shah surrounded the fortress for 4 months and finally withdrew. Later the fort was named after Gellerson-Gellerson.

Mount Tufan is located in the eastern section of the Greater Caucasus Mountains, near Gabala. Bazar Duzu Mountain is the main peak of Tufan Mountain, with an altitude of 4466 meters.

Lake Nohura. Lake Nohura used to be a riverbed full of reeds, but later it became a green lake due to the dam repair downstream.

  Rajaf insisted on driving the Mercedes-Benz commercial vehicle to the middle of the mountain full of gravel. The gravel road only allowed one car to pass through, and it was rough. Later, there was no way to find a slightly wider intersection, turned around, and a group of people climbed up. Climb about 500 meters, surrounded by weather stations and deserted restaurants. Rajaf explained that the bears infested the area and hurt people, so the restaurant was deserted. The road became narrower and narrower, and Rajaf was in front. We walked and rested, and Rajaf disappeared after a while. I also tried to keep up, but the trail only allowed one person to pass, and it was covered with thorns, and I didn’t know how far I had to climb, so I had to give up. The mountain is so steep, and there are deep valleys on both sides, heavy artillery can’t drag it up at all, and the road is narrow, so the large corps can’t use their skills. I think of Li Bai’s “The Road to Shu is Difficult”: One man is in charge of the gate, and ten thousand men are not allowed to open it.

  Fortunately and regretfully, I went down the mountain at the same time, and met the patrolling border guards. The two little soldiers looked childish and friendly. They said that after climbing over this mountain, and 2 kilometers away, there is Dagestan in the Russian Federation. The legendary Dagestan and Chechnya are so close.
  Rajaf suggested going directly to the Albanian church in the village of Kish in order to allow enough time to prepare for the return journey tomorrow. The church in the village of Kish dates back to the 1st century AD and was also founded by the apostle Elisha who brought Christianity to Caucasus Albania.
  I took a picture on the bridge at the mountain pass of Kish Village. The Soviet movie “Don’t Be Afraid, We Are With You” was taken here and Kish Village. Kish Village is also an ancient village. The stone road only allows one car to pass and circles up. I asked Rajaf what to do if there is a car coming from the opposite side. Rajaf shrugged and said he didn’t know, Gellerson-Gellerson.
  When we arrived at the ancient Albanian church, the church was already locked. From a distance, the thick walls of the church are decorated with small windows, and the bright red spiers are shining golden in the sun. In the previous guide, there is an ancient tomb in the church courtyard, covered with a transparent plastic dome, and the body of the buried remains is at least 2 meters high. There is an account that part of the Caucasian Albanians migrated to what is today Scandinavia.
  On the morning of the third day, a group of people came to the Sheki Khan Palace early. The Sheki Khan Palace was included in the UNESCO World Cultural Heritage List very early, and it is a must-see when you come to Sheki.

Gellerson-Gellerson Fort is steep and narrow, and some sections of the road can only be passed by one person.

The Albanian church in the village of Kish, dating back to the 1st century AD, was founded by the apostle Elisha, who brought Christianity to Caucasian Albania.

Sheki’s second-story caravanserai. Sheki has the largest caravanserai complex in Azerbaijan.

The Sheki Khan Palace is a must-see when you come to Sheki. It has exquisite carvings and murals, and exquisite mosaic windows inlaid with stained glass, showing a unique charm of light and shadow.

  One of the most valuable architectural monuments of the 18th century, the palace was once part of the palace complex and was the residence of the Sheki Khan, a two-story building built in 1797. There used to be 40 similar buildings near the Khan Palace, all of which were destroyed by war. On the walls of the palace, there are several flower windows made of multi-color round glass, which are inlaid in detachable lattices. The weight of the flower windows per square meter is 42 kilograms. When you need to cool off, you can raise these flower windows, and the palace becomes a loggia. The colorful patterns of the flower windows echo the murals on the walls of the palace.
  On the first floor of the palace, there are indoor fountains and a ventilation system to cool off the heat. The central and west sides are reception rooms and meeting rooms. The floor between the first and second floors on the west side is extremely thick, resulting in a lower height of the meeting room on the west side of the first floor. The reason is that the visitors cannot hear the voices of the female relatives, and the second is to keep the content of the meeting confidential. The ceiling murals on the west side of the second floor are consistent with the pattern of the carpet, and the murals are mainly flowers. The ceiling murals on the east side of the second floor are mainly various animals, which have rich meanings and embody Sheki Khan’s philosophy of governing the country.
  The history of world civilization is vast, and the ancient kingdoms of Transgauge, such as Medes, Caucasus Albania, and Sheki Khanate, are rarely mentioned. Seeing the remains of monuments and buildings restored by later generations, the history of these ancient countries is vivid, as if it is within reach.
  Out of the Sheki Khan Palace, nearby is another landmark of Sheki – the caravan station. Sheki has the largest caravan station complex in Azerbaijan, which are called “Yukhary” and “Xiaguan” respectively. (Ashagy).
  The “Xiaguan” is rectangular, with an area of ​​about 8,000 square meters and 242 rooms. Since 1988, “Xiaguan” has been changed to a hotel. The “Upper Pavilion” is currently open for visitors to visit. Its layout is trapezoidal, with an area of ​​6,000 square meters and 300 rooms. There is a large pool in the courtyard. Due to the large number of rooms, each of the four corners of the “Shangguan” courtyard has a separate entrance and exit. The first floor of the “Shangguan” is shops and warehouses, and the second floor is rented accommodation. In order to facilitate customers to check the goods in the warehouse at any time, each room has a special hatch, from which you can enter the shops and warehouses on the lower floor through ladders.
  The grand scale, the polished stone floor, and the maze-like layout of the accommodation area record the prosperity of that year. The mottled vaulted roof, the slightly dark room, the moss by the pool, and the peeling paint leather on the loggia handrails reveal a little loneliness and tranquility.
  ”Caravanserai” is almost a proper noun, of Persian origin, literally meaning “caravanserai’s palace”. Caravan inns are quite safe, often built in the form of castles, with only one door that can be closed in case of danger. The outer wall is solid and thick, with almost no through holes, which can resist the attack and looting of robbers. Of course, an inn is no match for a well-organized army. Although the exterior of the caravanserai resembles a real palace, the interior decoration is quite plain. Some don’t even have beds for guests, and guests must bring their own bedding. Caravan inns in big cities are characterized by high comfort, often equipped with bathhouses, pools, teahouses, and merchants can exchange currency.
  In the 19th century, with the construction and popularization of railways, caravans with pack animals as the main means of transportation were gradually eliminated, and the role of caravan inns gradually disappeared. Remote inns were often dilapidated or reduced to relics. Caravan inns in big cities They are usually rebuilt and turned into restaurants, hotels or museums.

  At 12 noon, drive back from Sheki to Baku. It was already the third day after coming out, and Rajaf couldn’t stand it any longer, and started blinking and yawning. I sat in the passenger seat and chatted with him. Rajaf said that he used to do auto repair and parts business, with a monthly income of 3,000-6,000 US dollars. At that time, relatives and friends kept in touch. Recently, he changed his career to become a driver, and his income dropped sharply. Almost all his friends disappeared. I said it’s the same everywhere, there are ups and downs in life, and there are fates, so be calm and calm.
  A person, a family, or even a nation may be nothing more than a grain of sand in the long river of history. Rajaf’s difficulties, Sheki Khan’s choices, and Udin’s migration, most of their joys, sorrows, sorrows and joys are not for future generations. See what you know.
  In fact, the world is not like this. Mesopotamia, the Arabian region, and the Caucasus region have all had moments of prosperity and prosperity, as well as years of turmoil. Which nation has not experienced its own joys and sorrows. The prosperous dynasty is recorded by historians, and the fleeting civilization is rarely visited by anyone.
  Earthquakes, mudslides, and tenacious plants are always quietly erasing the relics of history, while archaeologists are constantly searching the land, trying to restore the scene of the year. As for us, we try our best to spy and pay homage in the manuscripts of archaeologists and the legends of our grandparents.
  After 6 hours of driving, I finally returned to the lively and bustling Baku. The forests and gorges of the Caucasus and their legends can only be found in memory.

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