Symptoms and treatment of schizophrenia

  Schizophrenia is a common severe mental illness, which often occurs in youth or adulthood, and will bring varying degrees of adverse effects on oneself, family and society. The initial symptoms of schizophrenia are difficult to recognize and can easily be regarded as general behavior and habit problems, leading to the loss of the best treatment opportunity and irreversible serious consequences. In view of this, a simple science popularization is mainly carried out on the manifestations, etiology and treatment methods of schizophrenia.
  What is schizophrenia
  Schizophrenia is usually defined as a chronic mental disorder, mainly including abnormalities in personal perception, emotion, and behavior; or distortions, such as difficulty in distinguishing reality from imagination, slow response, behavior Excessive and difficult to socialize normally.
  The harm of schizophrenia When a
  schizophrenia patient develops a disease, he may cause different degrees of harm to himself or others; some schizophrenia patients cannot be cured and cannot carry out normal work and life; if the disease cannot be controlled in time and effectively, It may develop into mental disability, which brings great pressure to the patient’s family.
  The etiology of schizophrenia
  At present , the exact etiology, pathogenesis and influencing factors of schizophrenia are not yet very clear. According to previous studies, most patients with schizophrenia have subtle pathological changes in brain structure, and some patients also have some defects in neurological function. Therefore, abnormalities in brain structure and neurotransmitters are considered to be the basic etiology of schizophrenia. At the same time, heredity is also considered to be an important risk factor for schizophrenia, but the exact genetic pattern is not very clear. In addition, unemployment, divorce, lovelorn, and neuroactive drug abuse may also trigger schizophrenia or aggravate symptoms.
  Clinical manifestations of
  Hallucinations Schizophrenic patients will see, hear, and feel things that do not exist, and auditory hallucinations are the most common. Hallucinations are very real to people with schizophrenia, but they are not felt by others around them.
  Illusions generally refer to false perceptions of sensations. For example, when seeing a tree shadow, patients with schizophrenia will think it is a human figure, or have false associations related to human figures.
  Confused thinking When talking with schizophrenic patients, it is difficult for people
  around to capture their real thoughts and conversation content; at the same time, schizophrenic patients have difficulty concentrating during conversations, jumping suddenly from one thought to another , leading to confusion in speech and thought.
  Abnormal behaviors and thoughts Compared with other people, the behavior and appearance of patients
  with schizophrenia will appear unusual, such as extreme agitation, yelling for no reason, and thinking that someone is watching them.
  Anxiety and depression Patients with
  schizophrenia have obvious anxiety and depression in the early stage and remission stage. If they are not intervened in time, they may even commit suicide.
  Aggressive violence Aggressive violence is very likely in patients
  with schizophrenia , especially those who are male, have poor conduct, or have antisocial personality.
  Some patients with schizophrenia may attempt suicide during their illness, most likely due to symptoms such as depression and auditory hallucinations.

  How to effectively treat schizophrenia
  Drug treatment
  There are large individual differences in patients with schizophrenia, and there is no absolute best and most effective medication. In addition to using commonly used over-the-counter drugs, in most cases it is necessary to choose the most reasonable drug under the guidance of a doctor and fully combined with the actual situation of the patient.
  At the beginning of the initial treatment, we generally try to use different drugs, doses, or combined drug methods according to the actual situation of the patient, and observe the patient’s response after treatment, symptom improvement, etc., and finally determine which drug is the most effective and safe.
  The first-generation antipsychotic drugs are traditional drugs, including chlorpromazine, haloperidol, etc., which are usually relatively cheap, and have obvious adverse reactions and side effects after medication, such as affecting prolactin levels, patients’ sexual desire, and menstrual cycle. The second-generation antipsychotics are atypical antipsychotics, such as clozapine, risperidone, amisulpride, and quetiapine.
  Currently, the newer second-generation antipsychotics are the first choice for the clinical treatment of schizophrenia because of their low drug-like adverse effects. In particular, clozapine can not only reduce the suicidal behavior of patients, but also treat patients who are resistant and drug-resistant to other therapies.
  Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
  First of all , it is necessary to combine the patient’s understanding ability, education level and cognition of the disease, etc., and use various forms such as face-to-face explanations, short video broadcasts or health manuals to popularize disease knowledge, medication methods, etc., so that they understand that as long as they actively With treatment and care, generally good results can be achieved.
  Secondly, according to the actual situation of patients, singing, playing chess, watching movies, etc. can improve their interest in life, relax their physical and mental state, or guide patients to perform social skill training such as watering flowers and cleaning, so as to stimulate them to realize their self-worth.
  Thirdly, regular patient exchange meetings can be organized in hospitals or communities to encourage patients to meet and make new friends, so that they can fully feel the joy and meaning of life, and guide them to get along with friends in a friendly way and respect others while respecting themselves.
  Finally, guidance should be combined with the patient’s identity, such as making it correctly recognize the roles of being a father, a mother, and a child, so as to stimulate a sense of responsibility.
  Psychosocial support treatment
  Psychologists should maintain a kind attitude and friendly demeanor when seeing patients for the first time, closely observe the patient’s psychological and emotional changes, understand their doubts and confusion, find out the relevant root causes, and provide targeted counseling; And guide patients to do a good job in psychological construction, relieve and eliminate patients’ psychological pressure and negative emotions, and then improve the overall treatment level.
  During the treatment process, the family members of the patients need to give the patients more care, help and support to eliminate their sense of stigma; at the same time, urge the patients to work and rest regularly, such as getting up on time, participating in family affairs, and doing outdoor sports regularly, etc. life habits and help them develop social adaptability.
  High-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation therapy
  High-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation is a non-invasive physical therapy method that is gradually rising at home and abroad. The magnetic stimulation process can promote blood circulation in the local area of ​​the brain and improve neuronal metabolism, thereby helping patients improve anxiety, depression and other symptoms, and improve social function. At the same time, high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation can also stimulate the peripheral muscles to a certain extent, and the magnetic field signal can penetrate the skull well, effectively stimulate the brain nerves to promote the synthesis and release of serotonin and dopamine, and repair the damaged hippocampal white matter. Improve patient cognitive function.
  How to prevent the recurrence of schizophrenia
  (1) The family members of the patient take the patient to the hospital for reexamination regularly. Under normal circumstances, it should be reviewed once every 3 months. If you encounter special circumstances, you should see a doctor at any time.
  (2) Help patients quit drinking. Alcohol can cause depression, psychiatric problems, and mixing antipsychotics and alcohol can lead to adverse reactions.
  (3) Prevent heatstroke. Antipsychotics can interfere with the way a person regulates their body temperature, especially in summer when temperatures are too high, and heatstroke and psychotic symptoms may occur at the same time. Therefore, patients with schizophrenia need to take measures to prevent heatstroke in the hot summer.
  (4) Guide patients to learn self-monitoring. Medical staff teach patients or their family members how to monitor residual symptoms, such as suspicion, difficulty in concentrating when hearing abnormal sounds, etc., so as to identify early signs of schizophrenia and prevent it in advance.

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