In the context of accelerating the construction of a new development pattern with the domestic cycle as the main body and the domestic and international dual cycles promoting each other, we must adhere to the important strategic basis of expanding domestic demand. The “Strategic Planning Outline for Expansion of Domestic Demand (2022-2035)” issued by the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the State Council in 2022 clearly states: “Organically combine the implementation of the strategy of expanding domestic demand with the deepening of supply-side structural reforms…to cultivate the economy by improving supply quality, optimizing Distribution pattern, a sound circulation system, comprehensive promotion of consumption, expansion of investment space and other complete domestic demand system.” Industry 5.0 proposed by the European Commission, while emphasizing the resilience of industry at the economic-technical level and the goals of employment and growth, puts more emphasis on social -The value of the humanistic level and the natural-ecological level, emphasizing the respect and protection of the earth’s ecology, emphasizing the interests of producers, and regarding it as the cornerstone of social stability and prosperity. This is similar to the organic combination of my country’s implementation of the strategy of expanding domestic demand and the deepening of supply-side structural reforms, and it also has certain reference significance for cultivating a complete domestic demand system.
From Industry 4.0 to Industry 5.0
Since the occurrence of the first industrial revolution, human beings have experienced many industrial revolutions so far. In the face of a new round of industrial revolution, Germany proposed Industry 4.0, emphasizing that through the wide application of the Internet of Things (IoT), Big Data Analysis (BDA), Artificial Intelligence (AI), cloud computing and additive Modern information technology, including manufacturing, digitalizes and intelligentizes supply, manufacturing, and sales information in production to achieve fast, effective, and personalized product supply, and ultimately realizes the so-called “future-oriented intelligent manufacturing.” Industry 4.0 generally still focuses on the economic-technical dimension, or in other words, considers the sustainability of economic interests more, but largely ignores the overall sustainability, especially the natural-ecological dimension and social-humanistic dimension. the value of. Industry 4.0 puts more emphasis on improving production efficiency and flexibility through technologies such as digitalization and artificial intelligence. It tends to reduce jobs and expand social inequality, and the risk of personal privacy leakage may increase.
Based on the above defects of Industry 4.0, in order to promote the healthy development of smart manufacturing, digital economy, and green economy, especially the sustainable development of economy, society, and ecology, the “Industry 5.0: Towards Sustainability” issued by the European Commission in 2021 The report “Industry 5.0: Towards a sustainable, human-centric and resilient European industry” (Industry 5.0: Towards a sustainable, human-centric and resilient European industry) is an important symbol, and the European academic circles, industry and political circles have officially proposed Industry 5.0, emphasizing that production must respect the “boundaries of the earth” ”, must put the well-being of employees at the center of the production process, and place more emphasis on social goals beyond employment and growth. In the face of the continuous impact of the epidemic, Industry 5.0 also puts forward clear requirements for “resilience” or “elasticity”.
The basic connotation of Industry 5.0
The basic content of Industry 5.0 officially proposed by the European Union can be roughly divided into three dimensions: society-humanity, nature-ecology and economy-technology, that is, attaching great importance to “people-oriented”, attaching great importance to protecting the ecological environment and attaching great importance to economic resilience.
Social-human dimension: attach great importance to “people-oriented”
Industry 5.0 attaches great importance to “people-oriented”. As pointed out earlier, while Industry 4.0 improves production efficiency and flexibility, it may lead to a series of social and economic problems such as job loss, inequality expansion and personal privacy leakage. Industry 5.0 emphasizes “people-oriented”, and strives to alleviate the above problems by better handling human-computer interaction problems and improving corresponding welfare policies. In other words, in the context of Industry 5.0, human interests and needs are clearly placed first. All new technologies, including artificial intelligence and digitization, serve to improve the quality of human life, especially to improve the well-being of producers. This is reflected in at least the following three aspects: First, the core of the application of new technologies is to serve people and meet the diverse needs of workers, rather than staying at a purely technical level such as digital transformation, let alone simply “replacing people with machines”. Workers should be regarded as the most important investment of enterprises and have the right to participate in the design and deployment of smart manufacturing technologies including robotics and artificial intelligence. The second is to make full use of artificial intelligence and other technologies to create a safer and more inclusive working environment for employees. Jobs that are repetitive, simple, or have potential safety hazards should be handed over to machines as much as possible. Information technologies such as artificial intelligence are used to help workers complete more complex professional tasks, and innovative jobs that require careful judgment are left to humans. In addition, new technologies adopted by enterprises should be as intuitive and easy to use as possible. Third, enterprises should pay close attention to the continuous improvement of workers’ skills. Emphasize strengthening in-depth cooperation between enterprises and training institutions, especially to accelerate the development of workers’ digital skills to better adapt to the complex needs of the labor market in the context of increasing automation and digitalization. This is also the background in which the European Union has successively issued the “White Paper on Artificial Intelligence”, “European Skills Agenda” and “Digital Education Action Plan” since 2018, all of which emphasize the mastery of new digital skills.
Natural-ecological dimension: attach great importance to the protection of the ecological environment
Industry 5.0 emphasizes “sustainability”, especially the protection of the ecological environment and green development. Technological advances, including artificial intelligence, help companies optimize resource utilization efficiency and reduce resource waste, while also deepening the risk of environmental damage. Therefore, the ecological and environmental costs behind the appearance of economic prosperity cannot be ignored, and a dynamic balance between economic and social development and the ecological environment must be achieved. In recent years, in response to global warming, many countries have begun to implement the “Green New Deal”, striving to promote carbon peaking and carbon neutrality in climate, ocean, energy, transportation, manufacturing, agriculture, and regional development; enterprises Economists no longer only focus on economic benefits, and sustainability and green development have become increasingly urgent issues. The European Union is the region that attaches the most importance to sustainable development in the world. As early as 2001, the European Union began to promote the spread of the concept of sustainable development among enterprises; in 2009, the “Ecodesign Directive” (Ecodesign Directive) was issued to regulate the sustainable development technical standards of production; in 2017, the “Energy Labeling Directive” ( Energy Labeling Regulation) to promote regulatory enforcement. The new circular economy plan adopted in 2020 also demonstrates the EU’s efforts to achieve “carbon neutrality” and thus promote sustainable development. The Industry 5.0 strategy fully respects the “boundary” of the earth, emphasizing that the adoption of digital technology should try to improve the utilization rate of energy resources, including promoting the deep integration of green technology innovation and digitalization, as well as business model innovation, and striving to promote clean and low-carbon manufacturing, green production and resource utilization. Reuse and reuse can improve the efficiency of enterprise resource allocation, reduce waste of resources, and promote energy conservation and emission reduction.
Economic-Technological Dimension: Highly Emphasize Economic Resilience
Industry 5.0 emphasizes resilience or elasticity (resilient European industry), which can be understood as the adaptability and flexibility of production, that is, it requires higher robustness of the supply chain and industrial chain, in the face of continuous impact of “force majeure” external factors Under this circumstance, the smooth operation of the supply chain can still be guaranteed. Over the past few decades, the comprehensive advancement of economic globalization has enabled different economies to make better use of the global market to allocate resources more efficiently. However, economic globalization is a typical “double-edged sword”. While accelerating the economic growth of various countries, it also leads to the vulnerability of the supply chain industry chain to varying degrees. In recent years, affected by factors such as geopolitics and the new crown epidemic, the fragility of global supply chains and industrial chains has become increasingly prominent. More and more countries and companies have begun to realize the instability of production methods under the background of economic globalization. The EU’s Industry 5.0 strategy will improve the resilience of supply chains and industrial chains through measures such as improving the risk prevention investment mechanism, improving the level of self-control and promoting the construction of smart factories.