The next five to 10 years will see significant changes in agricultural technology
The technology of large-scale discovery of biological germplasm resources and utilization in plants will be developed rapidly.
Main features of scientific and technological development: The collection and utilization of biological germplasm resources will be further accelerated, and systems biology will provide systematic theoretical and technical basis for large-scale gene resources exploration and utilization. Through genotype analysis, the comprehensive application of cell engineering, chromosome engineering, molecular marker-assisted selection, gene cloning and transgenic technologies become the main ideas of efficient germplasm innovation.
Possible breakthroughs in photosynthesis research will speed up the great revolution in modern plant breeding in the future.
The main features of scientific and technological development are as follows: to accelerate the exploration of genetic control rules of carbon cycle regulation, to generate new ideas and means in improving photosynthetic efficiency, and to provide theoretical basis and possible ways for improving light energy utilization efficiency and increasing crop yield; The new concept of “design crops” was born and began to show a leading role in the agricultural industry.
Systems biology will provide systematic theoretical and technical basis for large-scale gene resource discovery and utilization.
Main features of science and technology development: Systems biology research will carry out functional studies on multiple genes and their interaction networks that affect one or more complex biological processes at three main levels: transcription level (transcriptomics), protein level (proteomics) and metabolism level (metabolomics), and form high-throughput, supporting research technologies. Systems biology will provide a systematic theoretical and technical basis for large-scale study of gene function, so as to significantly improve human understanding of the molecular mechanism of complex traits, and accelerate the practice of improving biological traits and species characteristics.
Molecular design breeding will provide a large number of breakthrough varieties and lead to the birth of intelligent plant varieties.
The main features of the development of science and technology are as follows: molecular marker localization and marker-assisted selection of plant quality traits will be mature in theory and widely used in technology. Functional genomics and systems biology research will generate a large number of gene resources and advances in the functional analysis of key genes, and provide materials and rapid development of transgenic breeding of crops; By 2020, innovative technologies for gene transfer and superior germplasm of major grain and oil crops will be nearly complete.
The second generation of biomass raw material production will become an important part of large agriculture.
Main features of scientific and technological development: as the development of the first generation of grain-based biomass energy poses a threat to global food security, the second generation of biomass production technology and raw material production technology with agricultural and forestry wastes and energy-specific plants as raw materials will be rapidly developed; Advances in genomics will have a major impact on the rate of development of energy plants.
Development of animal germplasm resources and modern breeding technology
The large-scale discovery of biological germplasm resources and its utilization in animals will be developed rapidly.
The main characteristics of the development of science and technology: animal genetic diversity, molecular and cellular technologies for the evaluation, discovery, preservation and utilization of germplasm resources, as well as supporting technical systems will be rapidly developed; Systems biology will provide a systematic theoretical and technical basis for the discovery and utilization of large-scale animal gene resources. The development of biological germplasm resources with market value will be preliminarily applied to economic animals.
The development direction of animal genetic breeding is to combine traditional breeding and genetic engineering to breed new animal strains.
The main characteristics of science and technology development: The combination of traditional breeding methods to expand high-quality populations and genetic engineering methods to breed new animal strains will be an important development direction in animal genetic breeding in the next 5 to 10 years. Molecular design breeding of livestock, poultry and aquatic animals is still in its infancy, but molecular design breeding will rely on the knowledge of systems biology, bioinformatics and genetics, and will be significantly developed. Basic research on functional genome and molecular design and breeding of major economic traits of important livestock, poultry and aquatic animals has been paid attention to in developed countries.
Further breakthroughs will be made in animal cloning and genetically modified animals.
Main features of scientific and technological development: animal cloning technology will be developed in more countries and on a larger scale; Important breakthroughs will be made in new techniques to improve the success rate of animal cloning; Cloning transgenic animals will be preliminarily applied in the pharmaceutical industry and will show great development and market potential.
New breakthroughs will be made in the development of quality economic animal breeding and healthy breeding technology.
The main characteristics of science and technology development: low fat, high protein quality livestock and aquatic products technology will become an important research and development direction of animal breeding; The potential technologies for genetic improvement of economic traits such as growth rate, disease resistance and yield of aquaculture organisms, especially mariculture organisms, will be concerned. Ecological management of animal breeding, healthy breeding and scientific and technological development of resource and environment improvement Accelerate the development of modern agricultural science and technology, and realize the goals of scientific breeding layout, high quality and high efficiency, energy saving and emission reduction.
Development of resource-saving agricultural science and technology
Resource-saving agriculture mainly includes land-saving, water-saving and energy-saving agriculture. The new trend of its scientific and technological development is mainly reflected in the following aspects:
The research and development system of intensive utilization of cultivated land resources and oriented cultivation of cultivated land quality is constantly strengthened.
Main features of scientific and technological development: Based on the development of information technology such as satellite remote sensing and automatic monitoring technology, the construction of intelligent wireless network monitoring system and distributed data acquisition and management platform; Study on soil fertility evaluation and soil fertility evolution; Cultivation technology of soil environmental quality and health quality, technical system of soil quality restoration and reconstruction, biological, tillage and chemical amendment technology that hinder soil improvement.
We will develop a water-saving technology system for farmland ecosystems and a water resource security system for river basins.
The main characteristics of the development of science and technology: through engineering technology, the establishment of water transmission system with minimum water consumption; An integrated system of automatic control systems for water distribution, moisture forecasting, field irrigation, and comprehensive agricultural technology measures; Comprehensive technology system of dry land water-saving agriculture development; The closed farmland climate engineering was used to inhibit soil evaporation between plants. The development of anti-evaporation chemicals to inhibit soil evaporation and reduce crop transpiration; Development of real agricultural water-saving technology based on ET management; Agricultural water-saving society technology and policy based on watershed knowledge management.
Development of efficient new fertilizers and technology development of efficient utilization of nutrients and energy in integrated farmland ecosystems.
The main characteristics of the development of science and technology: fertilizer technology is developing in multiple directions, such as compound high efficiency, slow release/controlled release and environmental friendly, especially the innovation of the research and development technology of controlled release fertilizer (such as the slow release fertilizer with biochemical inhibition dosage form, low water soluble inorganic or organic synthetic fertilizer, etc.); The adhesive fertilizer technology using hydrophilic polymer material as nutrient controlled release carrier represents a new development direction of new controlled release fertilizers. Efficient utilization of fertilizer nutrients and organic waste nutrients; Measures and techniques for reducing energy consumption and increasing water and soil conservation.
Development of agricultural production and food safety technology
The production technology that supports food safety will become the important technology of food safety. The main characteristics of science and technology development: pay attention to organic food and natural food science and technology support system; Making environment and health a priority area of development, focusing on the development of agricultural biotechnology, biofertilizers and pesticides as alternatives to chemicals; Accelerating the development of integrated biological control technologies and new pesticide research and development; Emphasis should be placed on the development of plant resistance inducers and their application in plant disease control. It will continue to be the core content of international animal science research, focusing on nutrition metabolism and regulation of livestock and aquatic products, animal environmental control and feeding technology, research on harmless value-added treatment methods of animal excreta, disease control in animal breeding process and formulation of healthy breeding standards. More attention will be paid to the science and technology of ecological environment quality and safety, especially the bioremediation technology of soil pollution and water pollution.
Based on the perfect agricultural information service network, the establishment of simulation and control model, intelligent agricultural decision support system and intelligent machinery precision operation and other scientific and technological development.
Nutrition and health functional food technology will receive greater attention.
The main features of science and technology development: increasing the content of essential amino acids (lysine, tryptophan), vitamins (A, E), trace elements (iron, calcium, zinc, selenium, etc.), antioxidant substances (polyphenols, flavonoids, carotene, anthocyanin), unsaturated fatty acids (omega-3), etc.; The production of characteristic foods rich in certain nutrients through biological technologies (e.g. “biofortification” breeding techniques for animals and plants) and non-biological technologies (e.g. fertilization, irrigation and feeding management); With the development of genomics and proteomics, food science and technology with health function will become a new development direction of agricultural science and technology, and play an important role in the pretreatment of anemia, lowering blood pressure, lowering blood lipids, pretreatment of diabetes and coronary heart disease.
Food safety monitoring technology system research and development will be rapid development.
Main features of scientific and technological development: Research and development of agricultural product quality and safety process control technology system, realize the whole process management from “farmland to table”, establish a monitoring system from the source control to the final consumption; Accelerate research and development of key detection technologies for food safety innovation and application; Establish a rapid risk assessment technology system.
Development of agricultural informatization and precision agriculture technology
Agricultural information service network technology will accelerate development.
The main characteristics of the development of science and technology: agricultural resources survey, information collection system in the process of animal and plant production; Management and sharing mechanism of agricultural data resources and scientific research equipment resources; Construction of agricultural virtualization research network platform; Research, development and application of networked system technologies for information services such as agricultural production, resources, meteorology, transportation, storage, processing and market; Research and development of agricultural information, expert systems, market prediction models and key technologies based on space technology, remote sensing technology, sensing technology, GPS, GIS, intelligent technology and their applications in agriculture.
Development of information technology in planting and breeding management.
The main characteristics of the development of science and technology: seed enterprise management information technology, seed users and retailers oriented information service technology, seed industry supervision information technology; Planting industry production and resource information management system technology; The environmental and biological information monitoring in agricultural production process is non-destructive, real-time and functional compound. The development trend of agricultural and livestock models and decision-making systems is from local to systematic, digital and intelligent, and from empirical to universal.
Precision agriculture technology has entered a new stage of development.
Main features of science and technology development: Based on the perfect agricultural information service network, the establishment of simulation and control model, intelligent agricultural decision support system and intelligent machinery precision operation of science and technology development; The development and application of morphological evolution model, ecological physiological model and computer visualization model of crop growth process; Agricultural machinery and intelligent equipment key theoretical technology and related products; Agricultural equipment manufacturing technology to large – scale, high – speed, compound operation direction.