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This black technology product is a voice for the heavens

  In order to be able to have a “classy” meal, the ancient nobles can be said to “make troubles” as much as possible, and even spent a lot of money to build a complete set of luxurious tableware. Do you think this is enough to have a sense of ritual? No, they also want some music.
  If we go back to the Warring States Period, in the court of Zeng State, there might be such a prince named Yi who ordered at the banquet: “Come on, play music and dance.”
  So in the next second, Zeng Hou Yi The chime of gold and stone resounded throughout the palace.
  It is said that this sound is played to the heavens. Some people even say that if music has a chain of contempt, chime bells should be at the top of the chain of contempt. If this statement is true, then the Zenghouyi Chime Bell is the top of the top, and it is a unparalleled musical instrument in China and even the world.
  The more than 2,400-year-old Chime Bell of Marquis Yi of Zeng weighs 5 tons and is as big as two walls. Among the chime bells unearthed in China so far, it is the holder of many records – the largest number, the heaviest weight, the most complete rhythm, the widest range, the best preservation, the highest sound quality, and the most exquisite workmanship… At the same time, the chime bell of Marquis Yi of Zeng It is also known as the “artifact of the town”.
  Its appearance directly rewrote the history of world music.
  Because in the past, the entire academic circle believed that China’s twelve equal temperaments, that is, C major, were passed down from the West, but the unearthed chime bells of Marquis Yi of Zeng told the world that as early as the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period, our China already had He developed his own twelve equal laws, more than 2,000 years earlier than the West.
  There are as many as 65 bells in the whole set of Marquis Yi of Zeng, which are divided into 3 layers and 8 groups and hung on the bell frame of copper and wood structure.
  Even today, it is not a small project to complete such a large number of chime bells. It requires producers to have top-notch knowledge in subjects including music, chemistry, physics, casting, mathematics, etc., as well as aesthetic and artistic qualities.
  Because the craftsmanship is so exquisite, some people even have doubts about the Zeng Houyi Chime Bell: Could it be that modern scientists traveled back to make it? Otherwise, based on the production conditions at that time, how could it be possible to produce such a magnificent chime?
  That’s right, how did the Zenghouyi chime bells be made?
  First of all, it is a group of bronzes. When we talked about bronze ritual vessels, we mentioned that bronze vessels are very particular about the chemical composition of the bronze alloy, and the production is very complicated. As for Zenghouyi chime bells as musical instruments, the design and arrangement of each bell’s configuration, geometric dimensions, musical performance, etc. have very high requirements on casting technology.
  Among them, the height of the larger chime is more than 1.5 meters. Just to make such a big bell, it is necessary to use 136 ceramic molds to form a casting mold, and then pour copper water at a temperature of nearly 1000 ℃ inside. It takes so much effort for a clock, not to mention how many years it will take to complete the whole set.
  The key point is that the chime bell of Marquis Yi of Zeng is not an ordinary bronze ware, it is different from other bronze ware, as a musical instrument it has to make music. Therefore, in the casting process, craftsmen need to strictly control the ratio of copper, tin, and lead to make them reach a golden ratio.
  After repeated experiments, scientists of later generations found that when the tin content is 13% to 16% and the lead content is 1.2% to 3%, the chime bells will sound round and full, and the bell can decay quickly, and the sound and sound will not Mixed together, it is the most suitable for playing.
  Imagine that the ancients more than 2,400 years ago did not have precision instruments. To make each bell of different sizes reach the golden ratio of performance, the only thing you can rely on is your own practice and experience.
  And that’s not enough. Why is it said that the chime bell of Zeng Houyi is so great?
  According to historical records, the other three ancient civilizations in the world, ancient Egypt, ancient Babylon, and ancient India, actually had the practice of casting bells, but the bells they cast were all round. No matter how you strike it, the bell can only produce one sound, and the sustain is so long that it cannot be made into a musical instrument at all.
  However, the ancient Chinese managed to make the bell a musical instrument. If you observe carefully, you will find that there are some raised “pimples” on the surface of Zenghouyi chimes. The exact name of these “pimples” is actually “Zhong Mei”. Its purpose is to reduce the spread of the sound, prevent the chime from being amplified for too long, and produce a more vigorous bass. In this way, we can use the clock as a musical instrument.
  This is not the most powerful place. Not only have we turned a bell into a musical instrument, but we can also make a bell sound two tones.
  The ancients cleverly made the chime bell into a “composite tile shape”, and put the bell into two tile-shaped boards and put them together, so that when the front and the side are struck, it is equivalent to striking different boards. Moreover, in order to better distinguish the two tones of a bell, the craftsmen who cast the bell separated the vibrating block of the chime and dug a tunnel inside the bell body for sound insulation.
  One bell with two tones is a unique skill of chime bells in the pre-Qin period of China.
  These are just the most basic steps in making a chime an instrument. You think, to make each bell emit different high and low sounds, the key depends on the tuning.
  How difficult is it to tune a chime?
  Until today, 2400 years later, technology has been so developed, and we have no better way, but like the ancients, slowly polishing the clock wall by hand, and tuning the chime bit by bit. Because of the characteristic of “one bell and two tones”, the craftsmen have polished more than one place, and need to adjust the front drum sound and side drum sound to within the error range of 5 cents.
  The most difficult part of this technology is that it is irreversible. Once you accidentally grind too much, the wall of the clock will be too thin, and the ground bronze will not stick back, and the whole clock will be useless. Everything has to start all over again.
  Whether it is the golden ratio of the material ratio or the tuning of each bell, the Chinese ancestors 2400 years ago relied on countless practices and experience summaries, and the accumulation of time to finally put a whole set of Zeng Hou B chime is finished.
  When 65 chimes were hung on the tall bell stand, 6 bronze sword warriors and 8 columns supported the whole set of chimes firmly. Even today we can still see the ancients on these beams and bronze warriors Painted traces. The pedestal of the warrior is inlaid with turquoise, and the waiting tiger is no more than a ring decoration on the chime.
  Not only are the details exquisite, but the 3,775-character gold inscription on the Zenghou Yi chime is also an important information about the rhythm of the pre-Qin period. It tells us that at that time, the same sound was called differently in different princes, so that anyone who read it would know how to play it. Every time the chime bell of Marquis Yi of Zeng is rung, it is telling the world that the earliest history of music rhythm in China is here.
  In fact, to be precise, there are 64 chime bells of Zeng Hou Yi, and the extra chime bell is called the Bo bell. It has not been tuned and cannot be played, but because of the existence of wrong gold inscriptions on it, we know that this is the 56th year of the reign of King Xiongzhang of Chu Hui, and because he received the obituary of Zeng Houyi, he made it for him. A set of Zongyi ritual utensils, I hope that even in another world, Zeng Houyi can continue to enjoy it.
  It is no exaggeration to say that the Chime Bell of Marquis Yi of Zeng can be regarded as a work of art integrating music, aesthetics and technology. The difficulty of making chime bells at that time was far beyond our imagination today. Even in 1979 after the chime bell of Marquis Yi of Zeng was unearthed, many experts in archaeology, music, machinery and other fields in my country worked together to study and engrave the chime bell of Marquis Yi of Zeng, which cost millions and took 5 years to succeed.
  ”The music in the hall is the most important thing.” Imagine that in the sacrificial ceremony on the top of the mountains, at the scene of the expedition of the gold and iron horses, and in the hall where the king entertains the envoys, the musicians are holding the bell in their hands. The mallet struck the chime. All of a sudden, the bells and drums rang together, “so the drums are like the sky, the bells are like the earth, the chimes are like water, and the yu, shengxiao, and pipe keys are like the stars, the sun, and the moon.” Heaven, earth, and people are all integrated at this moment, and this voice seems to be unnatural…

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