Russia’s Silver Age “untimely genius poetess” Marina Tsvetaeva is a woman who has been in love all her life. She has a husband who has been with her all her life, but she has never stopped chasing love. On her “Peachy List”, there are poets, scholars, dukes, Red Army soldiers, and actors. Every time she loves fiercely, every time She was hurt to the bone. She longs to be a poet “chosen by fate” and lives in a high place, but the longing for love always pulls her back to the world and makes her a mortal woman, so she is always contradicting: being a poet means forever loneliness, and becoming a worldly woman will forever lose her “self”. Her thoughts turn into a series of poems, and she herself is like her heroine in love – lonely and proud, painful and decisive. The long poem “Song of the Mountain” is such a work.
”Song of the Mountain” was created by the poet in his prime. It includes quotations, dedications, ten short lyric poems and an epilogue. It took a whole month from January 1, 1924 to completion on February 1. In Death in Poetry, Tsvetaeva biographer Lilly Feller has called “Song of the Mountain” a brilliant example of the poet’s “very peculiar fusion of solid authenticity and her personal world of poetry.” “. This poem originates from the end of a poet’s love affair: Tsvetaeva and her husband Sergey, Efron’s friend and Rozevic, who is three years younger than him, are in contact. “Rapidly tired of her constant and intense demands”, she just wanted to find quiet and sanctuary “in a marriage that is common.” Perhaps relying on biographical textual research will destroy the understanding of poetry itself, but it does not prevent us from understanding the poet’s life experience integrated into poetry.
The arrogant “mountain”, the arrogant “I”
At the beginning of the poem, the poet first quotes the German poet Hölderlin: “Ah, my dear! Do these words / do you wonder / All who are separated speak like drunkards, / And like to say it solemnly…” In this way, it announces the object of this “song of pain” – “Dear” you who has been “separated” from “I”. It is like the nonsense of a “drunk”, but it is revealed in the feigned madness A sincere and heartfelt confession. In “Dedication”, “I” decided to stop suppressing my pain, and tried to free myself in “Solo”, “From now on, I will not go / Block the dark hole. / Let me stand on the top of the mountain / Put the pain away singing”.
In the ten short lyrical poems, the image of “mountain peak” runs through. The poem is presented on three levels: first, it is an ordinary hill where “I” live, it looks “like the chest of a recruit who was knocked down by a cannonball”, “you remember the end of the gate/that The last house on the mountain?” “It’s not Parnassus, nor Sinai, /…why do my eyes… think that mountain is heaven?” “I” live here, and here too Meet “you”. Therefore, although this hill is neither Parnassus, where the god of poetry lives; nor Sinai, where Moses received God’s “Ten Commandments”, this hill makes “I” respect it. and feel happy. Secondly, it is “pain”, not only because of the similar pronunciation of “mountain ropa” and “pain rope” in Russian, but also because the overwhelming image of “mountain” itself makes the overwhelming force of “pain” to find A metaphor for sustenance. “It’s far from a real paradise: / The whistling wind meets the whistling wind! / The mountain pushes me on my back, always compulsively saying: ‘Lie down F!'” It’s been in “me” mind “chasing” , fighting”, and finally turned into a victory cheer “break into” the “ear drum” of “me”. Finally, the “mountain peak” is also a symbol of “I” standing high in the mundane life. The mountain “overlooks the city” and is far away from the fireworks in the world. It is lonely, but also arrogant – just like “I”. The opposition stems from the fact that “I” always wants to escape the fetters of the world, but it is difficult to get rid of the desire for the love of the world. Therefore, the love of “I” is fruitless, and the transcendence of “I” is in vain – “Shanfeng” ” became “a tombstone on my body,” covered with houses built by “husbands” and “wives.” The mundane life occupied it, and everything was placed in hopeless material, shrouded in a dejected atmosphere. But – “I” do not accept such failure, “I” despise and curse those who long for earthly life: “Those who build villas on the cracks of stubbornness, / When they begin to wake up, it is too late, / Not covered with The hill of the family, / But the crater of the near cycle!”
In the rectified and looped words, the image of “mountain” is personified through metaphors and anthropomorphic rhetoric. It is like an old friend of “us” and knows “us” and “that dove-like tenderness”; like a silent wise man , and contemplate the mediocrity of mundane life: “Life has become/barracks, life is going to the market!” Sometimes it becomes the defender of “I”: “Shanfeng said: It will not let us go, / It will not let you go with others A woman!” But it ultimately serves as a helpless witness to “us” toward “a life that everyone knows: / hordes of hooligans-markets-infectious wards”. In this way, through the image of “mountain peaks”, the whole picture of poetry is outlined: from the earth to the sky, from the mundane to the transcendence. “Mountain Peak” connects the two with its unique vertical image, and with a lonely and decisive gesture, it coincides with the development track of the lyrical protagonist’s emotion and spiritual change, and becomes the embodiment of highly consistent spirit and form.
Use of Myths and the Bible
Tsvetaeva once wrote in her memoirs: “It’s all mythology, so there’s nothing that’s not mythology, it’s impossible to live outside mythology, everything comes from mythology , it can be said that mythology anticipated everything, and carved it out once and for all…” In the long poem “Song of the Mountain”, it is not difficult to find many factors from ancient Greek myths and legends and “Bible” stories, Such as Mount Parnassus, Persephone, “Gordi’s Knot”, Mount Sinai, Hagar, and the translation of the biblical phrase: “Everyone will be rewarded according to his tears”, And the “Seventh Commandment” given by God to Moses mentioned in the tenth short psalm. The characters in it are even more infused with the poet’s spiritual qualities and transformed into her spokesmen. Like Persephone and Hagar in “Song of the Mountain”.
The fourth short poem describes Persephone like this: “Pomegranate seeds of Persephone / How can I forget you in the cold winter? / I remember the two-shelled lips / Slightly open to mine Lips / Persephone, ruined by pomegranate seeds! / Lips are stubbornly crimson, / Your eyelashes are wispy, / Like the golden light of the stars.” In Greek mythology, Persephone was Zeus and The daughter of the grain goddess Methes, this beautiful blond woman was kidnapped by Hades, the king of Hades. In order to return to the ground, she must not eat any food, but she couldn’t help the temptation to swallow six pomegranate seeds, so she has to go to Hades every year. After spending six months with Hades, her mother, the goddess of grain, Methes, left Mount Olympus in search of her daughter, and everything on the earth fell into a depression. In the “cold winter,” the heroine recalls Persephone, who is living with Hades, and laments that she has been “broken” by marriage and has been seduced by the yoke of worldly love. But her “lips” were still “stubbornly crimson”, as if she had never regretted her choice-the enthusiasm of this worldly love broke free from the shackles and came to her face, deeply bewitching the heart of “my”. At this moment, the protagonist hopes to be “resurrected as a woman rather than as a great poet” – even if love makes “me” low in the dust of the world, let “me” put on the shackles with a “stubborn” attitude.
In the sixth short poem, the image of Hagar crossed “I”‘s mind: “The mountain still mourns: life has become a military camp, and life is a fair! / The mountain still mourns: Although he has a son, / Hagar is still expelled !” She made “me” realize that worldly love is still mediocre and limited, and that a woman’s life is even more hypocritical – she satisfies a man’s desires, takes care of his housework, and becomes a reproductive tool attached to him, but Sometimes even if the “task” imposed on him is completed, he cannot get the corresponding return to maintain his life. “I” not only suffers from the inability of “woman” to transcend itself, but also suffers from the fact that if “I” becomes a “woman”, it will never be able to transcend the lies promised by the world. Worldly love and “I”‘s desire for transcendence can never be compatible, which is bound to be tragic – so, even though “I” has a constant attachment to “you”, it can only pass “you” indifferently. “Besides, with a desolate gesture to say goodbye to “you” – “our destiny / is to step on such filth, separate from east to west”. Perhaps, “I” is destined to be unable to obtain the simple happiness of worldly life, and can only look back at “you” and the world of “you” in pain, but “I” is even more disdainful to let mediocre life soak the proud skirt corners of “me” , will not surrender “self” to the world. So, goodbye, “I” lover, “I” cannot stop.
In “Song of the Mountain”, the images of Persephone and Hagar are reshaped according to the wishes of “I”: Persephone is still robbed, but no longer expecting love, but because of love for love Bold choices are admired by “I”; Hagar is still expelled, but no longer condemned for her conceit, but rather her tragic fate triggers “I”‘s pity. Through them, the protagonist feels the loneliness of existence while thinking about the nature of “woman” life. However, this loneliness is not shameful, it is the inevitable choice for “I” to stick to “myself” and resist the secular world. “I” is still proud and determined.
In the poem’s “End”, the faces of the lovers are blurred: “In place of your face is a pale gap”, “I” love “you”, but “you” is both “you” and not “you”, “Perhaps, the individual is the whole.” – What “I” fell in love with was just love. In the end, in the mundane, “beggar-like hard life”, neither “I” nor “we” can only struggle for life as a mortal – “‘Life, life is like this’.” What “you” brings to “me” is no longer pain, but a memory of “love” that transcends trivial life. The whole poem ends abruptly here.
We see that the lyrical hero in the poem is completely identical to Tsvetaeva herself. She who hopes to surpass, “love”, is always high above, so she is more eager to get the warmth of the flesh and the enthusiasm of the world as a woman. The desire for love and freedom makes her repeat the pattern of “despair-passion-love-indulgence-despair”, and in the extraordinary combination with others, she finds the inspiration of poetry, so she yearns for detachment even more – the fiery contradiction The burning exacerbated her loneliness. If she can’t love, she longs for pain – just to feel it. She is a born poet, and her identity as a woman makes her feel the world more sensitively, and as an unloved daughter struggling to survive in the world, an unaccepted author, a mother who struggles to raise her children, an expat waiting to be helped, A desperate suicide victim, her poetry is nourished by profound life experiences, giving her a wealth of pain and a unique throat. Therefore, she never regretted it, as she once said: “Between full of hope and fulfillment of hope, between full of pain and empty happiness, the choice I made was innate and even in my lifetime.” Her loneliness is hopeless, as is her pride.