In Western medical theory of plastic surgery, the birthplace of plastic surgery was in ancient India in 800 BC. At that time, a barefoot doctor named Sushruta helped him recreate the nose. Medical skills are recorded in the handbook “The Book of Knowing Life”. In ancient India, there was a punishment of cutting the nose on adulterers or prisoners of war. Therefore, the surgery of severed nose reconstruction became popular. But the rhinoplasty at that time was to dismantle the east and make up the west. A triangular opening was opened in the middle of the forehead, a flap was peeled off, the missing part was sutured, and herbs were applied. Therefore, the beginning of plastic surgery has nothing to do with beauty, it is entirely for the reconstruction of defective organs.
The earlier one can be traced back to ancient Egypt. In the 16th century BC, there was a kind of operation with pedicle and free flap tissue. The ears, nose and lips can be covered, but the nose is the most prominent part of the face, so make up Nasal cases are the most common.
During the Western colonial era in the early 19th century, the British learned this ancient medical skill by accident in the East India Company. In 1816, the British physician Joseph Carpue applied the ancient Indian medical technology to a missing nose of the emperor at that time. Guards, since then, a kind of “Carpue’s Operation” has swept all over Europe, and Su Xuruta, as the first ancestor who entered the historical records, was drowned in the smoke and dust by the capitalist discourse hegemony.
But at that time, the theoretical system of plastic surgery began to develop. In 1838, the German physician Eduard Zeis first used the term “Plastic Surgery” in his book “Handbuch der Plastischen Chirugie” published in Berlin. word. “plastic” comes from the Latin “plasticus” and the Greek “plastikos”, which means to shape or form, and Seth defines the word as “surgery focused on repairing and rebuilding the missing parts of the human body.” Later, in the West, plastic surgery gradually evolved into two branches: one is to change the residual limbs, broken arms, missing nose and ears into normal appearance and function in most cases, which is called plastic and reconstructive surgery; the other is to improve the human body. Normal structure and shape, called plastic and cosmetic surgery.
However, in the war-torn era, the former was mostly the former, while the latter was only the luxury of a few people in the upper class, and its technological development was also subject to the development of plastic surgery. What really promoted the development of plastic surgery was the war. In 1915, Harold Gillies, a British otolaryngologist who was later called the “father of plastic surgery”, built a makeshift operating table in the trenches. He was 27 years old. The Royal Navy heavy gunner Walter was badly disfigured in the Battle of Jutland, and Gillis had a piece of skin cut from his shoulder and transplanted into his bloody face. Later, the British Association of Plastic Surgeons (BAPRAS) archivist and surgeon Roger Green (Roger Green) defined the operation as the first plastic surgery in the modern medical sense.
Gillis invented a “tube pedicle” technique: a piece of skin is cut from a healthy body part (usually from the chest or forehead), then the skin is folded and sutured to the injured area, leaving the end of the skin still intact. Connect to the original skin extraction site. After the skin is folded, all living tissue and blood supply are closed, which reduces the risk of wound infection. The effect of this method is really ugly, but at that time it was mainly to save lives. During the Battle of the Somme two years later, this method treated more than 2,000 soldiers.
It should be said that the official establishment of plastic surgery in the medical field started from the “World War I”. The war made the medical community in the Western world gather on the battlefield to perform medical skills and consultations. Gillis’s tubular flap delay surgery was carried forward in the United States, which joined the war later. He set up an oral and trauma medical team to exchange with the United States, and the two sides conducted a consultation on maxillofacial surgery, a “Z” modification invented by Parisian physician Moristin to loosen scars and facial cartilage transplantation. , and also filled the gap in American maxillofacial surgery. At the same time, frequent interactions between international conferences and academic journals have contributed to this.
However, after the war, this medicine entered a period of silence. Although American general surgeons had some experience in repair and reconstruction, this was not a prominent study at the time. Academic institutions were more inclined to let young doctors choose traditional surgery. Instead of this kind of ingenious, cold-blooded borderline medical skills. But John Staige Davis of Johns Hopkins University devoted his life to it without funding, and in the “World War I” he was in the United States with Gillis of Britain Three maxillofacial surgery centers were established to receive the wounded transferred from the European battlefield. Since then, thanks to the efforts of this team, inventions such as rubber tubes, tubular flaps, and delayed transfer of long pedicle flaps have come out one after another.
In the late 1920s, Vilray Blaire in St. Louis re-studied the medium-thickness skin grafting technique and invented the dermatome, so that thicker sliced skin grafts could be used to replace the previous thin, small pieces of skin grafts, It will be firmer and less likely to form wrinkles and scars. The dermatome, the ancestor of today’s skin drum, made it possible to remove whole slices of skin…and this in turn was used in the more sophisticated operations of World War II. After the “World War II”, plastic and reconstructive surgery centers, hand surgery centers, burn centers, microsurgery centers, and maxillofacial surgery centers emerged in many university medical schools in Europe and the United States. These centers integrate teaching, scientific research and clinical functions. The invention of new materials has gradually caught up with the limelight of plastic surgery.
In 1968, according to a report by the Society of Plastic Surgery, the demand for plastic surgery residency positions increased exponentially within 10 years, with “an additional 200 formally trained plastic surgeons joining the clinic each year”. In the early 1970s, synthetic tissue substitutes represented by medical silicone came out, and plastic surgery and beauty began to become more powerful. At that time, silicone prosthesis for breast augmentation surgery became a fashion; after the 1980s, artificial synthesis or preparations extracted from biological materials were used. For tissue filling, facial contour improvement has become a new generation of gospel. However, what remains unchanged is that the exploration of free flap tissue in the field of plastic surgery, such as free flaps, musculocutaneous flaps, neurosensory flaps and other composite tissue free transplantation, has been continuously explored. These techniques seem to be used for organ reconstruction, but they are not. It provides uninterrupted technical nourishment for the branch of plastic surgery and beauty.
The difference is that people have begun to notice that plastic surgery is an art that combines technology and aesthetic concepts. In the mid-20th century, a Venus watermark was printed on the cover of the first issue of the American Journal of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, and its subsequent publications included the plastic and cosmetic surgery section, and gradually infused the concept of human aesthetics into it. Today, the popularity of plastic surgery is increasing exponentially, and it seems to be an accessory to the level of economic development. According to the release of the International Society of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, in 2014, 20 million plastic surgery operations were performed worldwide, among which, South Korea has 107,000 canthoplasty operations, Brazil has 50,000 buttocks, and the United States has 1.35 million breast implants…
Repairing the missing nose was once the origin of plastic surgery. Although the effect of tissue adhesion with skin flaps is conceivable, it is not aesthetically pleasing, but the ancients also tried their best to try techniques other than skin flap transplantation, and some of them still made people laugh. During the Renaissance, the prevalence of syphilis led to the emergence of many nose rotters in Italy. A physician named Gasparo Tagliacozzi had a whim and used the patient’s upper arm to reconstruct the nose. He fixed the patient’s nose with the inside of the upper arm, sewed it together with thread, let the nose grow naturally with the arm, then cut off the tissue from the upper arm that supplied the nose, and trimmed the new tissue on the nose to make it look like a nose. This clay fetus-like method is not reliable, but if the patient is not careful, the newly applied tissue may fall off…
Until the time of Joseph Karp in England, he could imitate the ancient Indian method and suture a nose in 15 minutes , but the origin of real rhinoplasty has nothing to do with these mason-like efforts. After the development of anesthesia and bacteria theory in the mid-19th century, by the 1890s, it was believed that placing a foreign body on the normal bridge of the nose could also play a cosmetic role. Those soft, easy-to-shape and easy-to-remove materials have attracted the attention of doctors, such as paraffin wax, turtle shells, fish bones, animal bones…
The fillers carved from these materials are called prostheses, but in the process of use, because Found rejection and discarded them one by one. Take paraffin as an example. It was invented by the Germans in 1830 and was first used in industry. However, in 1899, the Vienna doctor Robert Gersuny injected liquid paraffin into the human body and performed an injection operation on the testicles caused by tuberculosis. The first cosmetic surgery by injection was performed. Two years later, the world’s first complication occurred when paraffin wax was applied to the back of the nose, traveled across the cheeks, and formed paraffinomas (granulomas) on the entire face. In 1911, the doctor Kolle (Kolle) summarized the sequelae of paraffin, such as infection, inflammation, embolism, of course, as the earliest filling material, it was not only used in the nose.
Later, with the understanding of immunology, people used beeswax, lanolin, vegetable oil, petroleum jelly, etc., all of which were discarded for the same reason. Germany has also used ivory for rhinoplasty, but it was rejected due to its hard texture, time-consuming processing and difficult source. After “World War II”, chemical synthetic materials began to enter the field of vision, from industrial black silica gel to liquid silica gel. After people tried them one by one, they finally locked solid silica gel, a kind of polymer silicide, in 1972. This material is summed up as chemically inert, non-toxic and non-carcinogenic, and of course good flexibility.
For rhinoplasty doctors, the test is the craftsmanship when there are good materials in hand. Wang Youshan, a plastic surgeon at Peking Union Medical College Hospital, believes in “Essays on Plastic and Cosmetic Beauty – A Clinical Record of a Union Plastic Surgeon” that the artistry of rhinoplasty does not lie in the incision or separation of the cavity, but in the engraving of the prosthesis. A truly harmonious shape is impossible without a unique prosthetic engraving. He thinks rhinoplasty is a bit like a root carver. Humans have different shapes of the nose, so rhinoplasty seems to pay special attention to the harmony of the face and there is no uniform format.
In the 2002 edition of “Aesthetic Plastic Surgery” edited by Song Ruhui, it is particularly emphasized: “In order to ensure that the nose shape created by the operation can be coordinated with other organs, one model cannot be used for all the recipients. The real ideal beauty is that the operation should use the human body. The art of shaping is to preserve the original lines and contours of the recipient and add a little artificial embellishment to make the surgery have a beautiful and truly harmonious effect.”
It is generally first to measure the size of the nose and observe the curve of the back of the nose. Using impression glue or wax to make a model of the nose to carve a suitable prosthesis, people who have filled teeth should be able to imagine that this is similar to making a dental model. In some cases, the prosthesis is sculpted according to the patient’s lateral skull X-ray. “Before surgery, first shape a satisfactory image on the face or facial plaster mold according to wax or dental impression glue, and then carve the graft (silicon, ivory, foreign body cartilage) according to the filling shape, or choose the appropriate type according to the shape” Commercially shaped silicone nose bridge’ is slightly modified and used for later use.” The Complete Works of Surgery – Plastic and Burn Surgery Volume, published in 1996, wrote. In short, whether the prosthesis is properly carved directly determines the postoperative effect.
The old prosthetic rhinoplasty is far inferior to the current prosthesis in terms of humanized production. There are only two types of “L” shape and willow leaf shape, each of which is divided into three sizes, large, medium and small. There are various types of prostheses, some of which can be used directly without engraving; some still need to be matched according to the shape of the nose, and the combination of soft and hard is more and more, and more and more abandon the “L” that is not cut in the end shape, and softer materials are used below the nose tip, that is, artificial materials for the back of the nose and autologous tissue for the tip of the nose.
Plastic surgery has evolved into two branches: one is to change residual limbs, broken arms, missing nose and ears into normal appearance and function in most cases, which is called plastic and reconstructive surgery; the other is to improve the normal structure and shape of the human body, called plastic surgery.
In the book, Wang Youbin compares the nose to the A-shaped shack of a melon farmer, and the art of rhinoplasty makes a fuss on the beam of the house. “In the shack of the nose, the most important thing is the two steel plates of the nasal bone, and the others are the plates of the lateral nasal cartilage and the alar cartilage. If the plate is small, it will inevitably have the defect of being low and lying down. The only way is to put a plate on it. The bridge, that is, the implantation of the nasal prosthesis.” However, the most prone to problems in rhinoplasty is the tip of the nose, and some “L”-shaped prostheses, in order to highlight the three-dimensional effect, make the front end wide and long. As a result, the tip of the nose becomes the most affected area. The skin on the tip of the nose was pushed so hard that it was impossible to breathe, and the prosthesis was exposed due to decay. In the book, he introduced a case where the prosthesis was too large to even grow on the incision. In the end, he had to take out the prosthesis, but the skin on the tip of the nose festered. Once the defect was lost, there was almost no tissue to repair. It is to take a little flesh behind the ear to fill the depression to save the disfigurement crisis first.
Korean-style rhinoplasty abandons this “L”-shaped prosthesis and avoids the complications caused by the implantation of a single prosthesis. Symptoms are always there. For example, prosthesis deviation, foreign body reaction, local infection, people who use their own bone as a scaffold, the most fear is that the transplanted tissue will be absorbed, resulting in slow deformation. The prosthesis is generally placed under the periosteum, and there are dermis and epidermis on the periosteum. Because the fat is too thin, once the prosthesis is too large, the bridge of the nose will be supported by light. The paparazzi screen the stars for nose marks, and often detect autumn hairs from the light transmission of the bridge of the nose.
double eyelid surgery
In “McCarthy Plastic Surgery” edited by Richard J. Warren, a typical pair of Western-style beautiful eyes is described in this way: bright eyes and orbits of appropriate size, level inside and outside, usually the line connecting the inner and outer canthus is slightly upward warped. The horizontal length of the palpebral fissure is basically equal to the orbital rim. When looking straight ahead, the vertical height of the palpebral fissure should expose at least three-quarters of the cornea. ) to the eyelid margin when the eyes are opened and the width of the visible pretarsal skin (ie the height of the double eyelid) should not be less than 3:1.
Under normal circumstances, when the eye is relaxed, the pretarsal skin of Europeans is 3 to 6 mm, and the position of the double eyelid fold of Asians is two or three mm lower than that of Europeans… Therefore, double eyelid surgery under Western standards is in full swing in the East. The synonym for double eyelid surgery is Asian blepharoplasty. It is a must-have “treasure of the town shop” in almost every plastic surgery. Wang Wei from the plastic surgery department of Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital counted the outpatient surgeries in the second half of 2001, including 1598 double eyelid surgeries, accounting for 1598 cases of eye cosmetic surgery. 57.2% of the surgeries, he proposed that the research on orbital-zygomatic plastic surgery will be an important part of eye cosmetic surgery, “Using basic plastic surgery techniques, craniofacial surgery techniques and microsurgery techniques to carry out research on facial contour plastic surgery will be an important part of the 21st century. Important content in the development of plastic surgery”.
The world’s first double eyelid surgery was born in Japan. After all, Europeans rarely need this kind of surgery. In 1896, a Japanese doctor performed double eyelid surgery on a patient with a single eyelid on one side. Obviously, plastic surgery was more important than cosmetic surgery at that time. Asian eyes are often referred to by Europeans as swollen blisters, epicanthus, and lack of upper eyelid folds, which are found in about 50% of Asians, according to the McCarthy Plastic Surgery and Beauty Volume.
What plays an important role in the formation of the double eyelid is the fusion height of the orbital septum and the levator aponeurosis. “The junction position of Asians is usually lower or even absent. The presence of the pretarsal space and the preaponeurotic orbital fat affects the formation of the double eyelid.” From a common sense, the upper eyelid fold of Caucasians is shallow, so the upper eyelid fold The height of the folds is roughly the same as the height of the tarsal skin exposed when the eyes are open, and the latter is much less exposed in Asians than in Caucasians.
Epicanthus may be a common feature in the eyes of Asians, so many people don’t know what it is, but in the eyes of Westerners, it needs to be transformed. Usually in the place of the eye, the epidermis is like a curtain that has not been opened, covering the eye, so many years ago, the popular eye opening surgery is to pull that layer of skin fold and lift, so that the lacrimal caruncle is exposed. Therefore, it is a trend to perform epicanthal trimming at the same time as double eyelid surgery, which is a two-pronged approach to make the eyes bigger.
In 1960, American doctor Fernandez first proposed the concept of “Double Eyelid Operation” in the American Journal of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, and reported its surgical method: excision of part of the skin, orbicularis oculi muscle, The orbital septum and orbital fat are then secured to the dermis to the levator aponeurosis. After a series of invasive procedures, the 100-year-old suture technique has been embraced by clinicians in many countries in East Asia. The choice of double eyelid surgery options for Asian Asians has changed over time, from traditional double eyelids that pursue slight variations, to aggressive wide eyelids, and finally back to non-scarring, conservative double eyelid techniques. While the choice of suture material has not received much attention, physicians tend to use absorbable catgut, removable or permanent sutures.
Permanent sutures have become buried sutures, which is a common method at present. With single or multiple needles, the sutures are passed through the eyelid and the full thickness of the upper eyelid at the position of the designed crease, including the upper eyelid lift. Aponeurosis and tarsus, bury the knot in the tissue… It’s like making a split cross-section at a certain height of the eyelid with a line, and deliberately drawing a wrinkle out. But this method has a congenital defect: if it is shallow, it will be sutured in the levator aponeurosis, and the wrinkles will easily disappear; if it is deep, it will be sutured on the tarsal plate, which is equivalent to blocking the entire cross-section, although it may disappear. Sex was greatly reduced, but postoperative edema was severe.
Therefore, there is another method, that is, the incision method, which is regarded as a more thorough method. Make a few small incisions like dotted lines at the designed folds, take out the fat accumulated in front of the tarsal plate, and then use suture material to bury it. The thread method usually sutures the wound, but because the upper edge of the tarsal plate may also be involved, the doctor needs to turn the upper eyelid, otherwise the eye may be injured. In any case, the cross-section of the incision is a wedge-shaped shape, from the skin to the orbicularis muscle, orbital septum, and fat layer, “cut out” step by step, exposing the aponeurosis and tarsal plate… But because the surgical area is too small, the whole process Like a micro-sculpture, it is a kind of finesse that can’t wait to wear a magnifying glass. However, although the incision method is thorough, it is still unavoidable, that is, it is easy to leave scars…
The principle of the golden ratio has been used in the design and measurement of facial deformity correction surgery, drawing the golden section line on a mask to outline the ideal facial proportions. Although many people doubt whether this is too mechanically unified, the facial golden section mask is still an objective standard for facial analysis and has a certain relationship with facial attractiveness. The iron law of hundreds of years has not been challenged by the second mathematical segmentation model. . As far as “standards” are concerned, China also has a saying of “three courts and five eyes”.
In reality, the mixed use of the golden ratio and the crowd measurement coefficient is common. The doctor designs an accurate model in the computer, and then performs the operation according to the specific situation of the recipient. Cephalometric coefficients are derived from cephalometric analysis, which is a standard tool for analyzing facial growth and designing orthognathic surgeries, although it is also medically believed that cephalometrics cannot achieve perfect facial coordination. Behind the cephalometric measurement is a massive database. McNamara (McNamara, UK) reported the lateral appearance analysis of 60 cases of Koreans and 42 cases of Europeans and Americans under normal occlusal state. The study shows that Koreans have low nasal inclination angle , The upper lip has a high protrusion, the forehead has no inclination, and the prominent feature is the protrusion of the alveolar bone… Therefore, the Asian orthognathic surgery often performs the retreat of the alveolar complex and the mandibular complex.
The advantages of anthropometry are that it is easy to perform and inexpensive, but it must have a sufficiently large sample size, including results from different ethnic and social backgrounds, to be meaningful. Usually, there are strictly trained doctors who know how to use complex measurement tools and understand the cultural psychology of different ethnic societies. They can provide reference for patients according to the crowd measurement coefficient. Usually, the closer it is to the crowd measurement coefficient, the closer it is to the public’s aesthetics. .
Maxillofacial plastic surgery has almost developed together with rhinoplasty and double eyelid surgery. In order to create a three-dimensional face with prominent three-dimensional face in Western aesthetic standards, it is only when a perfect facial contour is obtained that it can be regarded as a successful end. Foreigners prefer faces with four distinct points, namely two cheekbones and two jaw lines, but their faces are narrower and more three-dimensional. Asians have wider middle and lower facial bones, and traditionally admire the oval face, so it is customary to sharpen and round the lower half of the face. In order to narrow the face, surgeries such as cheekbone reduction, mandibular angle reduction, and maxillary and mandibular osteotomy were all born on the operating table of Asian hospitals. face.
In 1983, the world’s first cheekbone reduction surgery was born. The cheekbone osteotomy and downward displacement were carried out through the intraoral approach. In the following years, various cheekbone sculpting procedures were invented. If the mandibular angle osteotomy corrects the excessively sharp mandibular angle shape, the laterally prominent mandibular angle can also be improved by the lateral cortical resection in frontal view.
The doctor will also recommend that if you have masseter hypertrophy at the same time, it should be combined with botulinum toxin injections to reduce it. But regulars of cosmetic surgery usually know that Botox has a lot of side effects, can atrophy muscles, and the injection effect is not long-lasting. Then the doctor will tell you that the masseter muscle can be removed at the same time… But that is a kind of traumatic operation, which does not damage the moving muscles and hinders the chewing function, so people think of laser lipolysis to shrink the cheek fat…
In “Breast Plastic and Cosmetic Surgery” edited by Professor Qiao Qun of Peking Union Medical College Hospital, a pair of classic breasts are described as follows: plump, straight, symmetrical, soft and elastic; located between the second and sixth ribs, with a base diameter of 10~ 12 cm, height 5 to 6 cm… There is even a saying about the diameter of the areola, “mostly circular, about 2.6 to 3.5 cm in diameter”.
In the ancient Greek reproductive worship system, breasts were an indispensable symbol. Take Zeus’ sister Demeter, the goddess of harvest, for example, with ears of wheat, sickles and grains in her head, and her plump breasts exposed. In this sense, the standard and definition of its beauty is more of a natural thing in a social sense. From its origin to the present, breast augmentation surgery has still achieved slow evolution around the improvement of fillers, but people have experienced too many setbacks in the understanding of fillers. The first modern breast augmentation operation took place in the United States. In 1889, the Vienna doctor Robert Gossuni used liquid paraffin to directly inject breast augmentation into the breast and reported it. Since then, the method of directly injecting sterile liquid paraffin into breast augmentation with a syringe has been very popular, and many doctors have continuously improved the injection methods and tools to obtain satisfactory results.
But in the 1930s, when it reached its peak, complications spread like the plague. Indurations, lumps, inflammatory reactions appeared, and paraffin spread down the body surface, causing paraffin embolism to cause blindness or death. After the 1940s, in Japan and the United States, a mixture of wax and honey and liquid silicone were injected into the breast for breast augmentation. Due to the simplicity of injection breast augmentation, it was unfortunately widely used by general practitioners and even non-medical personnel, but like liquid paraffin, The same complication occurred with liquid silicone.
In the late 1950s, the harm of liquid silicone injection for breast enlargement gradually emerged. At a time when nothing could be done, in 1959, Thomas Cronin and Frank Gerow, two other plastic surgeons in the United States, came to Silas with a whim. One night, resident doctor Jero was conducting blood separation research in the laboratory. While dozing off, he caught a soft, smooth, cool and elastic thing, only to find it was a blood bag. At that time, the use of special plastic bags to store blood was just beginning, but it inspired Jero that if a special container made of plastic or silicone, filled with normal saline and placed in the breast, might work. Silas did not refuse. He and the two visitors rushed to develop the world’s first pair of silicone breast implants, which were shaped like two flat cylinders, and performed the first operation in 1962.
The process of breast augmentation is not complicated. The basic principle is to implant or remove it like a rhinoplasty. Make an incision under the armpit, under the areola or under the breast to put the prosthesis in. Some doctors describe it as “it’s no different from changing tires on a bicycle.” . The real key is the prosthesis, or in other words, each prosthesis is basically the same shape, which is composed of a capsule cavity, a filler, and a silicone sheet that closes the gap of the strong capsule. The core of success or failure lies in the filler. Some prostheses are single-layer and single-capsule, and some are double-layered, with two cavities, a large sac over a small sac, and some fillings are fixed before operation, and some are injected during operation. The proportion and volume can be adjusted at any time. For example, some have double-layered double-capsules, the small capsule has a fixed amount of silica gel, and the large capsule has an adjustable amount of normal saline. It is indeed as much as possible to meet the different needs of women.
In 1964, Cronin and Jero officially advocated the use of silicone-gel-filled silicone-capsule-filled prostheses to fill the breasts, which were popularized because of their low response and unreal texture. But the unexpected disaster came again. In the late 1980s, there was a malignant event that the capsule ruptured and caused immune lesions, and the silica gel flowed into the body, which brought a heavy blow to the silicone gel capsule breast augmentation surgery. Since then, saline-filled prostheses have become popular.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has not stopped investigating breast implants. For example, a 2000 study of saline implants showed that the reoperation rate of the recipients was 13% to 21% within 3 years and 20% within 5 years. % to 26%, which is obviously nearly half the reoperation rate lower than other fillers. If it is a silicone-filled prosthesis, 33% of patients have experienced at least one prosthesis removal… In the United States in 2004 at a market access meeting for silicone-gel-infused prostheses, the most frequently used words were prosthesis rupture, re-implantation Surgery…
No matter how advanced the technology is, it seems that breast augmentation cannot be operated once and can be owned for life. Even the micro-plastic surgery that has gradually emerged since the 21st century – hyaluronic acid or autologous fat injection breast augmentation, is still groping in many failed cases. But women’s inexhaustible desire for beauty drives the appearance of various techniques, technology is always changing, and the impetuousness of the market is the same in every corner of the world. In 2005, the American Society of Plastic Surgeons convened a roundtable meeting on failed breast augmentation operations. One doctor said: “For patients who have had breast lifts, patients with barrel breasts, and patients with It will form deformities such as giant breasts. Instead of telling such patients, ‘Okay, you can achieve the results you want after a few operations’, it is better to directly say ‘You are not suitable for this type of surgery’.”