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Confronting history and oblivion with poetic nature

  As the most important and influential German-language poet after Rilke, Paul Celan created the most beautiful German-language poetry with his unique expression. It is precisely because of his outstanding achievements in poetry creation that the Bremen Literary Award and the Bichner Literary Award, which have a great influence in the German literary world, were awarded to the ill-fated poet in 1958 and 1960 respectively. Paul Celan lived only a short fifty years, but his spirit of writing against death and violence is amazing enough. He lived on poetry all his life, and confronted history and forgetting with the nature of a poet. He is immortal because of his poetry, and the poetic world also adds infinite brilliance because of him.
  Paul Celan was born in 1920 in the city of Zenowitz in what is today Eastern Europe Ukraine. This city has been a transportation hub between East and West for six centuries from 299 AD to 922 AD, including Jewish, Semitic peoples, including Arabs, Akkadians, and Phoenicians, were active in this linguistically mixed, Germanic, Jewish, and Bohemian region. Therefore, until now, Celan’s identities are still multiple, Romanian Jews, Austrian poets, Ukrainian writers, but these multiple identities also make the poet a bit dazed and overwhelmed, and he has become a poet who lives in exile everywhere. . Celan began to write poetry at the age of fourteen, and gradually came into contact with German classical literature and modern literature. Goethe, Heine, Schiller, Nietzsche, Kafka, and Rilke all became his literary guides. It laid a solid foundation for Celan’s later literary creation. After graduating from high school, in order to make a living, Celan obeyed his father’s order and went to France to study medicine. Later, because of the outbreak of “World War II”, Celan had to return to his birthplace of Zenowice and transfer to the university there to study Roman language and literature.
  However, fate was cruel to Gyran. In 1942, when the German fascists occupied Zenowice, Celan was forced to hide in the factory of a Romanian factory owner, while his parents were dragged from their home to a concentration camp by the German army. In July of the same year, Celan was also sent to a labor camp. Three months later, my father died of typhoid fever in a concentration camp, and soon my mother was beaten to death by the Nazis because she could not work. Celan survived the disaster under the cover of a friend, and was forced to build a road as a coolie. Celan’s death was a heavy blow and permanent trauma. Since then, his style of poetry has changed dramatically, and almost all of his works are based on mourning. Although this mourning was impossible at the time, Celan still wrote those tragic past events with great courage and creativity. Celan’s “Death Fugue”, published in 1945 which shocked the poetic world, is a faithful account of this tragic life.
  ”Dawn’s black milk we drink it in the evening
  we drink it at noon and in the morning we drink it at night
  we drink it we drink it
  we dig a grave in the air so you can lie down without
  being too crowded” Known as “the most indelible poem of the 20th century”, it still deeply moves readers because of its strong, pathetic and enduring artistic power. Celan himself said that his poems are “dialogistic in nature, and can also be seen as a dialogue between himself and death”. Throughout all of Celan’s poems, they seem to be the poet’s call to stand on the wilderness, facing the sad reality, looking for the truth of life and art in the sad emotional world. The poet seems to hand a lamp to passers-by in the dark, illuminating the unpredictable road ahead.
  In 1944, the labor camp was disbanded, and Celan was able to return to Zenowitz, temporarily staying with his first girlfriend, Oditi. In April of this year, the former Soviet Red Army was stationed in Zenowitz again, and the survivors were allowed to return to their hometowns. Celan got his parents’ house and went to the Russian University of Ukraine to study English language and literature. During this period, Celan translated Romanian literature and poems by Yesenin and Verlaine for local Ukrainian newspapers. A year later, Celan came to Bucharest, the capital of Romania. It was also at this time that “Celan” became his own pseudonym. He started with Ancel as a pseudonym, and later reversed its syllables into “Celan”, which means “Celan” in Latin. Or keep something secret.” This change is decisive for the future fate of “Celan”: not only his life experience, his slightly “obscure” poems, his tragic heart, and even his death will all be placed in this painful and confusing background. However, what Celan is trying to hide or keep secret, no one knows, it can only become a huge riddle for people to guess. Celan had seen this time in Bucharest as a transitional period, meaning that after the scarcity of the war years, the time had finally come to release emotions and that life could finally go on.
  In December 1947, the Romanian People’s Republic was established, and the country began to purge political dissidents. The literary world also lacked freedom. Many people risked their lives to flee to Austria via Hungary, including Celan. At the end of the year, Celan came to Vienna, the capital of Austria, from Romania via Hungary. In Vienna, Celan met the Austrian writer Bachmann. Celan was six years older than Bachmann, and their romance developed during their two months in Vienna. Their love affair was heavily depicted in Bachmann’s later novels. Two months, for Bachmann and Celan, is eternity. Although two months later, Celan left Vienna for Paris. These short but crucial two months became the poppies and roses of their lives. It is a pity that later Bachmann felt that there was always a lingering estrangement between her and Celan, and the love between the two was fruitless, which was a pity. The lovers could not be made, but the two became close friends, and they have maintained a deep friendship in the future. Celan’s first collection of poems, Poppies and Memory, is said to have been dedicated to Bachmann.
  Celan met Kiseler, who would later become his wife, while in Paris. Kiseler is not only an independent woman who is not influenced by prejudice, but also a sensitive artist who appreciates Celan’s poetry and draws inspiration for her artistic creation from their love. Soon, Celan and Keisele entered the palace of marriage. In the autumn of 1952, Celan published his first collection of poems, Poppies and Memory. This collection of poems collects Celan’s poetry collection “Sand of the Urn” and other poems from Zenowitz to the early stage of Paris, showing the development and change of his poetic creation style. Lan’s place in the history of poetry. Three years later, Celan published his second collection of poems, From Threshold to Threshold. The publication of the two collections of poetry earned Celan a high reputation. In 1958, Celan won the Bremen Literature Prize, which is very influential in German literature. Two years later, Celan was awarded the Bichner Prize for Literature. The award is awarded to writers and poets who have written and performed outstandingly in German. The winners themselves have played a huge role in promoting the development of German-language literature today. For Ceran, this is undoubtedly a huge honor. Celan quoted the last sentence of Bichner’s novel “Lenz” in his acceptance speech: “He felt that his existence was an unavoidable burden. – He lived like this.” It can be seen that Celan has long been Aware of his own future destiny, and determined to bear the “inevitable burden” in the form of poetry, in order to settle the tired soul. In fact, Celan, like his spiritual idols Hölderlin and Rilke, took poetry as a way of life and devoted himself to it willingly. For Celan, without poetry, life is meaningless.
  In 1968, when the famous “May Storm” broke out in France, Celan also participated in student parades and barricade battles, and actively collected flyers and slogans. It can be seen that Celan, as a poet, is not passively avoiding the world, but actively participating in social activities. In the same year, Celan published his sixth collection of poems, Line Sun Group. A year later, he traveled to Israel, spoke at the Hebrew Writers’ Association, and identified with his ancestors. Because Celan, like his predecessors Kafka and Zweig, also has Jewish blood flowing in his body. Recognizing one’s ancestors and returning to one’s ancestry only hopes to end the wandering state of the soul as soon as possible and find a habitat for the restless soul.
  With the passage of time, Celan’s understanding of the external world has gradually changed, and the style of poetry has become more obscure, so that at the annual meeting of the Holderlin Society held in Stuttgart in March 1970, Celan When he recited his poems in public, the audience was silent and did not understand his poems, which made Celan feel very disappointed. At this time, Paul and Celan have become suspicious, manic, silent, restless, and vulnerable because of various external factors. It seems that no one can understand the poet’s inner calling and singing. He has a terrible despair about life. . Finally, on April 29 of the same year, Paul and Celan chose to come alone to the banks of the Seine in Paris on a spring day. A life full of suffering. Before Celan’s death, there was a copy of “Holderlin’s Biography” on his desk, and on an open page there was a sentence drawn by Celan: “Sometimes, this genius buries deeply into the bitterness of his soul. in the spring.” Could this be the poet’s final confession to the world? The German-speaking Jewish poet, who carried Auschwitz to find Jerusalem, was surrounded by an inescapable pain and sentimentality all his life. Is this tragic jump to get rid of this state? No one can know now, only heavy sighs and deep remembrance remain. The little poem called “Death” may reveal the poet’s cognition and understanding of “death”. “Death is a flower, it blooms only once. It blooms like this, it doesn’t bloom like itself. It blooms, it blooms when you think about it, it doesn’t bloom in time. Here comes it, a huge butterfly, adorning the slender reed stems , so robust that it loves it.” Extremely lyrical language, so intimate and charming. Yes, this is Celan, and his grief is better than all griefs. He endured pain and eliminated pain. Although he could not find the exit of his soul from beginning to end, he purifies the ugliness and sin in the dark depths with weak power.
  Celan washed and saved the world with poetry in the midst of pain and suffering. Although the power of the individual is small, the shimmer of light can pass through the haze of history and time to give the latecomers infinite hope! His star of revelation will always shine strangely!

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