Why is the summer of 2022 so extreme?

  Recently, when Tu Jianjun contacted an alumni living in Vancouver, Canada, the other party told him that this summer, because the weather was too hot, he had to install air conditioners at home, which made him deeply impressed by the impact of this year’s extreme high temperature weather around the world.
  Tu Jianjun is the President of Agora Energy Transformation Forum China and the former Director of the China Cooperation Department of the International Energy Agency. He studied and worked in Vancouver. Vancouver has a mild climate and pleasant four seasons. Public information shows that the temperature in this city on the southwestern coast of Canada is generally around 20°C in summer and above 0°C in winter. But in late July, Vancouver hit 30.4C, the hottest day on record.
  The “Nature” magazine wrote in an article in early August that the extreme heat is happening almost simultaneously in many parts of the world.
  In South Asia, India and Pakistan have been hit by high temperatures since March this year. Parts of India surpass 44 at the end of March? ? C, at least 90 people died as a result; in June, Tokyo exceeded 35 for 9 consecutive days? ? C, was the worst local heatwave since records began in the 1870s; in mid-July the UK saw its first 40? ? High temperature above C. At the same time, drought and wildfires under the heat wave spread in France, Spain, Greece, Germany and other places.
  This series of extreme events that occurred in many places in the northern hemisphere is a reflection of the drastic changes in the global climate. In the future, the meteorological community predicts that there will be more and more unexpected extreme weather. Scholars who study meteorology point out that the earth’s climate environment is changing significantly, which brings new challenges to the development of human society.
Europe suffers worst drought in 500 years

  In Spain, archaeologists have recently made an unexpected discovery, revealing a prehistoric rock group known as “Spanish Stonehenge”. Stonehenge was originally covered by the Valdecanas Reservoir in the central province of Cáceres, but the water level has dropped due to the worst drought in decades, and authorities say it has dropped to 28% of the reservoir’s capacity.
  Due to drought, the water level of the Danube, the second longest river in Europe, has dropped to one of the lowest levels in nearly a century, exposing more than 20 German warships that sank near the city of Prahovo on the Serbian stretch of the river during World War II; Italy has declared a state of emergency around the Po River. In late July, in the exposed waters of a section of the riverbed of the country’s longest river, fishermen found a submerged bomb left during World War II, weighing 450 kilograms. heavy.
  The drought has profoundly affected Europe’s food, shipping, energy and other fields. In the town of Kaub on the Middle Rhine, there is an old water level measuring station, and any captain entering the upper Rhine will refer to the water level recorded here. After August 12, the water level scale value dropped below 40 cm, which means that the water level is no longer suitable for most ships to pass.
  The Rhine, which originates from the Alps, is the largest river in Western Europe and is also known as the “lifeline” of the European economy. Commodities such as food, coal and chemicals rely on this important transportation route to reach their destinations.
  For Germany, 80% of its water transport is done on the Rhine. Due to the drop in the water level of the Rhine, Holger, vice president of the Confederation of German Industry, said in a statement in mid-August that the closure of chemical or steel plants, the inability of petroleum and other mineral oils and construction materials to reach their destinations, the large volume of transportation And heavy transport can’t go ahead, it’s just a matter of time.
  Tu Jianjun told China News Weekly that under the background of the Russian-Ukrainian conflict this year, the European energy market is already in a state of high tight balance. At present, the EU is trying to get rid of its high dependence on Russian natural gas imports as soon as possible through a multi-pronged approach, and Europe is also actively stepping up its energy reserves for winter. Now, shipping, including coal transportation, is severely affected by high temperature and dry weather, making Europe’s energy supply security facing even greater challenges.
  Andrea, a researcher at the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre in charge of collecting data for the European Drought Observatory, said on August 9 that although a comprehensive retrospective analysis is required, most of Europe is experiencing what may be the worst in 500 years. drought.
  In 2018, Europe suffered an extreme drought, but the wet conditions in southern Europe made up for the crop that year. On the contrary, much of Europe is facing a heatwave and drought at the same time this year, Andrea told the media. “Based on my experience, I think this year may be more extreme than 2018.”
  According to the European Drought Observatory on August 3 Figures released today show that 63% of the EU and the UK are now in drought “warning” or “alert” status, covering an area almost as large as India.
  In France, the precipitation in July this year was only 9.7mm, which was the least precipitation in July since 1959. On August 5, French Minister of Ecological Transformation and Territorial Coordination Besch said that there is no drinking water in the water supply pipelines of more than 100 French towns and cities, and these towns need to rely on water tankers for water supply. the possibility of distributing bottled water in regions.
  The EU’s production of maize, sunflower and soybeans will fall by 8% to 9% due to a hot and dry summer, the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre for Scientific Services said in its latest report forecast published on July 25.
  Nearly half of the world’s olive oil is produced in Spain. Olive oil prices have been pushed up on concerns that Spain’s hot, dry weather will affect this season’s olive harvest, The Wall Street Journal reported on August 17. Market prices for Spanish extra virgin olive oil have risen about 7 percent in the past month, said Kyle Holland, a market analyst at data provider Mintec. Unless Spanish weather conditions improve quickly in the coming weeks, olive oil production heading into the harvest season in October is set to drop by nearly 30 percent.
  Days of drought and scorching heat waves make 2022 the worst year for wildfires in Europe. The London Fire Service said it had dealt with 340 outdoor fires in the first week of August, more than eight times the number recorded for the same period last year. Spain is the country most affected by forest fires in Europe this year. Since the beginning of this year, dozens of wildfires have broken out in Spain, burning a total of 244,000 hectares of land, almost four times the average annual wildfire since records began in 2006.
  According to the European Forest Fire Information System (EFFIS) data, from January to mid-August this year, wildfires on the European continent burned nearly 660,000 hectares of land, 56% higher than the previous peak of 420,000 hectares recorded in the same period in 2017 , which is equivalent to one-fifth of the land area of ​​Belgium. Some analysts pointed out that according to the current trend of wildfire outbreaks, more than 1 million hectares of land will be burned in Europe this year.
  In addition, a report by the American media “Politico” in early August pointed out that the magazine conducted a preliminary analysis of data released by several European national statistical offices and found that Germany, Spain, Portugal, the Netherlands and other countries were in the extreme heat wave in July. Thousands of deaths have been recorded cumulatively.

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