The pain and sorrow of unrequited love

  One of Pushkin’s (1799-1837) girlfriends once commented on him: “There were only two things in his life that he liked most: poetry and his intense eroticism. In both, he achieved A great achievement.” This is the most pertinent assessment of Pushkin. In terms of poetry, Pushkin created more than 800 lyric poems, dozens of narrative poems, as well as the poetic novel “Evgeny Onegin”, which laid the foundation of Russian poetry and even national literature, and became “Russian poetry”. the sun”. In terms of eroticism, Pushkin is even more innate and passionate – his classmate Xie de Komovsky (1798-1880) said in his memoirs that Pushkin would lose control when he saw a girl : “Pushkin is a lover. When he was fifteen or sixteen years old, as long as he touched the hand of a female dancer at a ball, his eyes would shoot with lustful sparks, he would pant, and he would make a whimper…” His girlfriend Maria Laevskaya also spoke of adult Pushkin: “As a poet, he thought he should fall in love with every beautiful young woman he met.” In his short life, he pursued many Women are somewhat similar to Don Juan, a passionate knight who was very fond of women and bohemian in European medieval legends. Therefore, this article calls Pushkin’s love for women “Don Juan’s love”. In 1829, in the memorial book of his girlfriend Ushakova, Pushkin wrote his own “Don Juan List” and explained the names of 34 people; In the letter, he admitted that Natalia Goncharova, who would later become his wife, was his 113th love. However, there are only three women for whom he has left more than 10 love poems: Bakunina, Vorontsova and Olenina. Due to space limitations, this article only introduces Pushkin’s love for Bakunina in his youth and some poems about love.
  Ekaterina Pavlovna Bakunina (1795-1869), the elder sister of Bakunin, a classmate in Pushkin’s imperial village, was a palace maid, with a charming appearance, elegant demeanor, and a pair of moving Eye. She often came to see her younger brother at Huangcun School, and the whole middle school students liked her, and Pushkin was fascinated by her, especially in 1815-1816, he wrote a dozen love poems for her one after another. This may be the most intense love in Pushkin’s early years, and it lasted for a long time. From 1815 to 1819, Pushkin composed 25 poems for Bakunina, the most important ones are: “Autumn Morning”, “Sorrow”, “Elegy” “(“He is happy, that dare…”), “The Moon”, “The Singer”, “To Morpheus”, “The Lover’s Word”, “A kind of love that is the joy of indifferent life…” “, “Imitation”, “Wish”, “To a Friend”, “Lamentation” (“I thought, love has been extinguished forever”), “Bliss”, “Awakening from a Dream”, “Letter to a Letter”, etc. It is the famous “Bakunina group of poems” in the history of literature. In addition, the draft of the poem “October 19” in 1825 and the second stanza of the original copy of Chapter VIII of “Evgeny Onegin” are also dedicated to Bakunina.
  Since Bakunina is a palace maid and is 4 years older than Pushkin, it is impossible to fall in love with this sixteen or seventeen-year-old little brother, so the poet’s love for her is mainly a kind of unrequited love, however, in “Bakunin” In the “Nana Group Poems”, the young poet writes this kind of unrequited love without being monotonous and full of changes.
  First, he complimented his lover. “To Bakunina” wrote: “Although I am willing to do my best for everything, / But it is superfluous to sing your name day; / On St. Catherine’s day you are not more lovely, / Because, on St. Catherine’s Day No one is more beautiful than you at any time.” The poet believes that lovers are naturally beautiful and beautiful all the time, so the naming of St. Catherine’s Day and her own praise are almost superfluous to her. He even used the poem “To a Painter” to request Ilyichevsky, a classmate from the Imperial Village, to paint Bakunina, and described the beauty of her face and eyes in a more comprehensive way: “The Goddess of Beauty and the Child of Inspiration, The passion of the heart is on fire, /Please use your free pen of enjoyment, /Describe my sweetheart for me;//Describe the pure and charming beauty, /Describe the lovely features of the beloved, /Describe the joyful smile of the day, /Describe That incomparably beautiful look.//Take Venus’ sash,/Tie her Hebe slender waist,/Please use Alibani’s fine pen,/Come around my queen.//By her A heaving chest, / clothed with a thin wavy transparent garment, / so that she can breathe in that dress, / when she wants to sigh secretly.// Please draw the fantasies of shy love, / I have such fantasies too , / I will sign under the painting, / With the hand of this happy lover.” It can be seen that Bakunina has a pure and charming beauty, the slenderness of Hebe, the goddess of youth in Greek mythology, and the plump breasts. In the poem “The Lover’s Word”, he believes that the lover’s words are more captivating than the love song of Lila, which is more beautiful than the nightingale by the quiet lake and the harp that sings in the middle of the night.
  Secondly, he also wrote about the pain and sadness of this unrequited love, such as “Bliss”: “The flower of life has just opened, / Just withered in the depressing captivity, / Youth flies away quietly, / It leaves traces Just sadness. / From the unconscious moment of birth, / to this tender youth, / I have never tasted bliss, / There is no happiness in the letter of depression. / / Standing by the threshold of life, / I am anxious Looking into the distance, / I fantasize: ‘There is bliss over there!’ / But I am flying with the ghost. / Young love appears, / It spreads its golden wings, / It takes on tender beauty, / In my Soaring in front of my eyes.//I follow…but I can’t reach/That distant, lovely goal! …/When will the moment of happiness be given wings by joy?/The dim lamp of youth, / When will the fire be lit? / When will my girlfriend’s smile / light up my dark journey?” In poems such as “The Singer”, he even wrote about a young man whose eyes were dim and hopeless, for love And sad, singing late at night in the barren darkness behind the woods. In the real world, love cannot be satisfied. The poet tries to hide in dreams and realize his wonderful fantasy. However, when he wakes up, the dream disappears, and the pain is even worse, such as “Awakening”: “Fantasy, fantasy, / Where are you? The sweetness? / Where are you, where are you, / The joy of the night? / It’s gone, / The joyful dream, / I wake up, / In the deep darkness, / I am alone. / The bed All around, / is the night of deafness. / suddenly cools down, / suddenly flies away, / the fantasy of love, / leaves in droves. / but the heart / is still full of hope, / it is still catching / dreams /Love, love, /Listen to my prayers: /Take those dreams of you, /Let me enjoy them again, /Let me intoxicate again, /In the morning, /Let me die early, /In Before waking up.” In the dream, the poet realizes a wonderful dream, but after waking up, he is soaked in deep darkness alone, so he would rather indulge in the dream, or even die before waking up from the dream, in order to maintain happiness. In “Lamentations”, the poet was once relieved in friendship, but “gloomy love is still hidden in me”, the fire of passion is still burning, but still love and can’t get it. I went to sleep again with heavy chains, / To put sweet liberty fantasies”. Although this love is so painful and sad, the young poet is still infatuated and has a firm determination, as is the case in “Wish”: “I am crying; tears comfort me; / I am silent; my whispers do not come out Voice, / My soul is full of sorrow, / There is also pain and happiness in it. / Oh the dream of life! Fly, I do not regret, / The illusory dream, please disappear in the dark; / I cherish the pain of my love, / Even if I die, I will love to die!” Tears, deep sadness, but infatuation does not change, cherish the pain of their love, would rather love to die alone.
  Third, the poet also wrote about the short-lived joy that this love brings to him. In “The Genius Poet Pushkin”, Moroya, a famous French biographer, believes that Bakunina’s love for Pushkin has no “direct or indirect expression”, and categorically declares: “Definitely not. Because from this day, lovelorn seems to have become In fact, whether intentionally or unintentionally, Bakunina gave the poet at least a brief euphoria, and Troya cited Pushkin’s November 29, 1815 biography in his biography. Diary: “I was happy at the time! No, I was not happy. Yesterday morning, I was anxious to wait for her. With an indescribable mood, I stood by the window and quietly stared at the snowy path, but I couldn’t see it. To her. I was so disappointed when suddenly I met her on the stairs. What a beautiful moment! She is so beautiful! How the black dress matches Bakunina’s body! But I haven’t seen her for 18 hours It’s her time! Ah, what kind of situation is this, how difficult it is! But I finally enjoyed 5 minutes of happiness.” But he thought that the 5 minutes of happiness that Pushkin wrote here was just seeing Bakunina on the stairs Feeling extremely happy was not what Bakunina said to him, because he immediately dismissed the quotation and pointed out: “To further clarify his pain, Pushkin quoted two lines from Zhukovsky’s poems to describe his own suffering. Mood, these are two famous tragic poems: He is celebrating love, but in a very sad tone, / For from love all he gets is pain.” And then to illustrate with Pushkin’s poetry: “In 1816, he In the poem “Desire”, it is written: It is sad to live every day like a year, / Every minute and every second becomes distant; / The pain of lovelorn tortures me, / The trance is even more heartbreaking. Also: Love brings The short-lived happiness is indeed indescribable, / but the pain after a breakup will accompany you for the rest of your life.” But he forgot a poem that Pushkin wrote in his diary that day: “Yes, I was happy, yes, I enjoyed it. , / I was intoxicated with quiet joy and ecstasy… / Where did that joyous day go? / It flew on the wings of a dream, / The charm of enjoyment has also withered, / There is darkness all around me again Melancholy!…” In this poem, the poet clearly writes that he was happy, enjoyed, and reveled in quiet joy and ecstasy, which corresponds to “Finally enjoyed 5 minutes of happiness” in the diary. Bakunina did make the poet happy briefly. In the poem “To Her”, the poet writes that in the melancholy idleness forgetting the harp, the genius flies away with the gift of youth, the heart slowly cools and closes, the shameful laziness of the heavy-bearer, Involuntarily fell into a cold slumber, “But suddenly, like a flash of lightning, / Youth ignited in the withered heart, / The soul awoke, the soul was resurrected, / I tasted the hope and sorrow and joy of love again. / Everything opened up again. Flowers! Life makes me tremble; / Witness of nature, excited again, / I feel more alive, I breathe more freely, / I capture more tightly for virtue… / Praise love, praise the gods! / Sweet The youthful voice of the harp resounds again, / I will bring the resurgent harp that is loud and trembling / to your feet! …” (The above translated poems are all in the first volume of Pushkin’s Complete Works, translated by Liu Wenfei, published by Hebei Education Society, 1999) also wrote quite clearly that Bakunina had indeed inspired him. Chinese scholar Chen Xunming also believed in his book “Women in Pushkin’s Lyric Poems” that Moroya’s statement was too arbitrary, and further pointed out: “It is related to the ‘satisfaction’ and The meaning of words such as ecstasy is often related to the poem “Moon”, “Sleep in peace, unfortunate love! / Your quiet light / no longer penetrates the curtain of night, / with pale light / Illuminate me “The beauty of a lover’ and other verses, to say that Bakunina has ignored him from beginning to end, is unconvincing in any way.” “We also noticed that Pushkin’s closest friend Pushin and others also vigorously pursued Bakunin. Na, they do not hide from each other. From this, it can be inferred that Bakunina is a woman who is good at dealing with and has a very clear mind. She understands the virtues of this group of young people, rather than obeying them, and finally letting them abandon them at will, It is better to let them taste some sweetness first, then keep a certain distance from them, and make them endlessly circle their pomegranate skirts.”
  Chinese and foreign scholars have discussed this group of poems, and most of them have affirmed it. Russian Pushkin expert Grossman believes in his “Pushkin Biography” that this is a group of “beautiful lyrical works”, “the theme of these short poems is either love, or hope and despair.” Mr. Zhang Tiefu in his “Pushkin’s Biography” In “Life and Creation”, this group of poems is highly evaluated from the perspective of the development history of Russian lamentations, and it is pointed out that most of this group of poems describe unrequited love. However, the content of these poems describing unrequited love is not monotonous, but rich. Colorful: firstly, they praised the beauty of the sweetheart; secondly, they expressed the young poet’s memories of short-lived happiness; thirdly, and most importantly, they expressed the young poet’s endless longing for the sweetheart. In his “Born for Honor – Pushkin’s Biography”, British scholar Birney believes: “In these works, his (Pushkin’s) innocent and innocent feelings have completely disappeared without a trace, and all poems have no trace. Exceptionally expressing a love that collapsed and withered. There is no doubt that Pushkin’s pain is real and real; there is no doubt that he has experienced all the bitterness and torment of adolescent love. However, expressing this The vocabulary and methods of suffering are so clichéd and clichéd, and the extent of suffering so exaggerated, that the real emotion that comes out of it appears—as it is expressed—pretentious and superficial. The source and process of this kind of predicament and strange circle are as follows: when the lover in his heart is not by his side, sadness surges from Pushkin’s heart; and the return of his lover only makes Pushkin discover that he has a successful rival in love ; Having lost her love, the poor poet just wants to die.” We believe that this group of Pushkin’s poems does have some deficiencies that Birni said, but some of them also have new changes, such as Poems such as “Autumn Morning” blended the scenes, and instead of the previous poet’s blindly sad and sad mood, they brought youth and joy into the elegy, thus bringing something new to the Russian elegy. Because of this, Belinsky believes that in the development of Russian lamentations, since Pushkin’s appearance, such works have become a unique genre of lyric poetry.
  It is worth mentioning that in 1834 when Bakunina and Ya. Potoratsky (1792-1855) were married, Pushkin also attended their wedding.

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