Fireflies found billions of years ago in Myanmar amber

  The phenomenon of bioluminescence widely exists in all kinds of organisms. Among terrestrial animals, most of the species that can perform bioluminescence belong to the order Coleoptera (commonly known as beetles), and among them, the most species are in the superfamily (fireflies and their relatives). Most of the bioluminescent species belonging to the “lampyroid” family, including Lampyridae, Phengodidae, Rhagophthalmidae, and newly established in 2020 The Sinopyrophoridae family. In the firefly clade, except for the most basal family Huaguangjiaojia, the species of Firefly, Photofluoriaceae, and Female Firefly are all relatively soft, and the females of some groups also have the phenomenon of juvenile persistence, which is why Species in this group are difficult to preserve as fossils. Fossils of other groups have not been formally reported before, except for the fossil record of the Firefly family in Cretaceous Burmese amber and some Cenozoic strata.

  Li Yanda, Research Assistant, Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Cai Chenyang, Associate Researcher, cooperated with researchers from Palacki University in the Czech Republic, University of Bristol, and Sun Yat-Sen University in the United Kingdom, and discovered a new branch of C. —Cretophengodidae. The discovery of this new taxa is of great significance for the study of the origin and evolution of bioluminescence in C. On January 20, the relevant research results were published online in the British “Proceedings of the Royal Society B” (Proceedings of the Royal Society B).
  Researchers have discovered a relatively well-preserved male specimen of Cretophengodes azari Li, Kundrata, Tihelka & Cai, 2021 in mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber (about 100 million years ago). The 12-segmented antennae of the chalky photofluors are double comb-shaped, similar to those of living photofluors. However, the prothoracic web of the chalk photofluoresce is more developed, the elytra completely covers the abdomen, and there are 6 webs in the abdomen, which is different from the photofluoriaceae and the closely related female photofluoriaceae. Based on its morphological characteristics, the researchers speculate that chalky fluorescens may belong to the basal group of the Phytophthora + Gyophylla clade.
  Sections 1 to 3 of the chalk fluorescens have a light-colored bright area on the visible web, which can be interpreted as its light-emitting organs, located very similar to some species in the female fluorescens family. The finding suggests that the glowing firefly clade had diversified since at least the mid-Cretaceous. During the Cretaceous period, potential predators (including ants, frogs, early birds, etc.) of the soft-bodied beetle diverged rapidly, and the study speculates that the light-emitting organs in the chalk fluorescens may be involved in defending against these predators.
  The discovery of chalk photofluorescence also provides new insights into the soft body and biogeographic distribution of this group. The bodies of the Huaguang beetles were completely sclerotic, while the bodies of the rest of the firefly clade were strongly softened. The chalky fluorescein’s body is in between, in a transitional state, filling this evolutionary gap.
  The research work was funded by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China. Fang Yan, senior engineer of Nanjing Institute of Paleontology, provided technical support for laser scanning confocal microscopy, and painter Yang Dinghua drew the restoration map.

  Plato believes that reason is the highest symbol of human nature, and its material basis is the mind. Because the mind is at the highest position in the human body, it wants to control all the actions of the human body without being defiled by the human body. Memory is the recollection of ideas that are born in the mind. In other words, there is a world of ideas in the human mind, which is the sensory experience formed through memory, and these experiences allow people to build a structure or image about the real world.
  Many famous people at all times, both at home and abroad, have devoted themselves to the study of memory, leaving behind inspirations for future generations, such as Zhang Zai’s “If you don’t remember, you can’t think about it”. In modern times, more perceptions about the importance of memory are widely circulated: “The root of all wisdom lies in memory.” “The acquisition of all knowledge is memory, and memory is the basis of all intellectual activities.”
  Therefore, memory is for human beings. is very important. Memory is a kind of human mental activity, which belongs to the category of psychology or brain science. Memories represent the accumulation of impressions of a person’s past activities, feelings, and experiences. The research on memory is also getting deeper and deeper, and there are more and more ways to explore the mysteries of memory. The agency introduced “Memory Turning Up” published by DK Publishing House in the United Kingdom, which is a guide book that integrates theory, methods, training and skills to improve memory ability.

  ”Memory Turning Up” is a memory volume in the “Interesting Intellectual Training Manual” series published by Science Popularization Press. It shows young readers a lot of practical, Effective memory skills and methods. At the same time, more than 200 exercises in the book can be used to repeatedly exercise and test the memory of the brain. Practice and improve your memory skills and strategies through the book. The structure of this book is also very rigorous, the reader can choose only one topic of interest to read, or systematically read the whole book from cover to cover.
  There is also a wealth of expansion content in the book, extending more interesting and fun knowledge beyond “memory” –
  super skills: provides practical methods to enhance memory, such as three-step memory improvement method, digital connection method, song method, spiritual journey Method, brain network, etc., to quickly improve memory.
  Top Tip: Gives you relevant facts about how memory works, giving you a clearer understanding of the brain and how to use it.
  Entry test and achievement test: Through the entry test and achievement test, you can understand the improvement of your memory after practice, see your progress, and enhance your confidence.
  Haber, a German chemist and chemical engineer, said: “Memory is not wisdom; but what is wisdom without memory?” “Memory Turning” is a very practical and practical memory training book. Content, hand in hand with young readers, to find memory tricks and application tools to enhance the wisdom of the brain.
  Memory is the hub from perceptual cognition to rational cognition, and it is the basis for us to change the world from knowing the world. We say that a person’s intelligence is often inseparable from his memory. A person’s memory is good, his study and life will be broader; a person with good memory, rich in knowledge and full of mind, can better achieve innovation and creation.

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