A literary factory that produces “The Mirror of the Times”

  If you don’t know Tolstoy, you can’t think you know your country, you can’t think you’re a civilized man.
  ——Gorky’s “History of Russian Literature”
  No. 26, Tolstoy Street near the Moscow River, is a beautiful garden with lush greenery. Beyond the carved wooden fence facing the street, you can see an orange-red two-story building. Wooden house. A small plaque inlaid at the entrance of the courtyard is engraved with the following Russian: “The Museum of the House of Leo Tolstoy, where the writer lived from 1882 to 1902.” The
  man was born in Tula Province on September 9, 1828 The great writer of the Boliana Manor in Lapiwen County, although he is a famous nobleman and a hereditary earl, has spent his life exploring social reforms, especially paying attention to and devoting himself to the improvement of farmers’ lives. Therefore, Tolstoy lived for a long time in the countryside 186 kilometers away from Moscow. He did not like the increasingly industrialized big cities, and only went to Moscow to find relevant historical archives during the creation of “War and Peace” from 1863 to 1869. The main purpose of Tolstoy’s family move to Moscow in September 1881 was to solve the problem of schooling for several children. 18-year-old eldest son Sergey has reached college age. The eldest daughter Tatyana was also admitted to the Moscow Art School, and Tolstoy specially asked Repin to teach her to draw (there is a portrait of Tatyana painted by Repin in 1891 in the museum). Even after settling in Moscow, he often returns to the Polyana estate every spring and summer. After 1902, because the sons and daughters all completed their studies one after another, and there was a brewery near this courtyard, which was very noisy and affected writing, the old writers who were getting older rarely lived here. After Tolstoy’s death on November 7, 1910, his second daughter Maria became the owner of the house. After the victory of the October Revolution, she donated her father’s former residence to the new Soviet state. In 1928, Maria gave up the entire courtyard to make it Officially became a museum owned by the whole people, and served as the first curator. Maria lived until after the victory of World War II before she died.
  When Toon bought the orange-red wooden house, it had only one storey, and he converted it into two storeys. It is said that this kind of wooden housing is very dry, warm and comfortable, and the earliest Kremlin is a pure wooden building. The row perpendicular to the building is also an orange-red wooden bungalow. It is a publishing house opened by Toon to print and distribute his own literary works. Now it is displaying Toon’s works in various languages ​​and versions, as well as related picture books and materials. ‘s showroom. Under the guidance of translator Ershov, our group of Chinese made a detailed tour of the 16 rooms of the former residence. Ershov, who is in his early 30s, is a graduate of the Chinese Department of Moscow University, and he looks a lot like Gogol, a great writer (especially with his deep smiling eyes, full and shiny forehead, long hair and ribbons that tuck into his cheeks). Beard with a sense of humor), I dubbed him “Little Gogol,” and he accepted it with a grin. He is not only fluent in Chinese, but also familiar with the history of literature and art in Russia and China, so we have benefited a lot.
  Stepping into the small brown door of the green door frame on the first floor, you will come to a small living room. No matter who you are, the first thing to do is to put on a pair of special rubber overshoes. Those overshoes can accommodate ordinary people of any size. Shoes are used to protect indoor floors and wooden steps of stairs. According to reports, everything in Tolstoy’s former residence is original, original and original, only the floor and stairs have been painted with a paint, and most of them are carpeted. Even so, visitors are also required to tie a pair of soft-soled rubber shoes with rubber bands, which shows how much the administrators cherish the cultural relics in the residence of the world-class great writers.
  There is a small restaurant on the first floor. A rectangular table is covered with a white tablecloth, and there are pots, dishes, knives and forks and other tableware and seasoning bottles. Toweng’s family sat around the table to eat, and the 10 neatly arranged back chairs made people imagine a happy family atmosphere. On one side of the goose-yellow wall of the restaurant is a cuckoo clock, and on the other side is a portrait of the second daughter, Maria, painted by the eldest daughter Tatyana. A hut next to the restaurant is a storage room for cupboards, cooking utensils and tableware. The various pots, pans, pots, bowls and saucers on display are made of metal, ceramics, glass and other materials. Most of them are domestic products, which are relatively rough and simple. “Little Gogol” told us that Toon’s diet is extremely simple. He himself is a complete vegetarian. Not only does he refuse meat, he does not even drink milk. His usual meals are oatmeal, potatoes and borsch.
  Following a staircase with a white guardrail on one side, we ascend to the second level. First step into a spacious hall, which is the place where Toweng’s family gathers and entertains, and where guests are received; 40 candles and kerosene lamps are installed on its clean walls, and some relatives (such as Mrs. Sophia) are hung. , daughter Tatyana, son Sergey, etc.) and friends, the most eye-catching black-and-white image is the scene of the “Grand Tea Party” entertaining the visitors, the time is one day in April 1898, the picture is : A dozen or so sitting or standing gentlemen and ladies gathered around a large oval wooden table. On the snow-white tablecloth were placed metal tea sets, beautiful candlesticks and plates full of snacks and fruits. Toweng looked peaceful and kind, and his intimate relationship with everyone came alive. As the saying goes, “The master and the guest come to work.” This gentleman’s hospitality must be consistent, because on another blue tablecloth, the signatures of the guests are densely written. Next to the hall is the bedroom of the Towon couple. Sophia erected a row of screens in the middle of the bedroom, and placed a few sofas in the outer part of the room to serve as her guest reception room. Sophia has her own humble writing desk with a foldable top.
  The Towons had a total of 13 children, 5 of whom died in infancy. Each child has his own room, and the furnishings and styles vary. For example, Sergey’s bedroom has a piano in addition to a rough wooden bed, bedside tables and bookshelves. Tatyana’s boudoir is hung on the wall and the table is full of portrait oil paintings, character sketches and other works of art. On the desks of Andrei and Mikhail, there are books, document books and globes, stationery, alarm clocks, etc. Toweng attaches great importance to the training and education of his children. In addition to his hard work, he personally teaches the children French, literature, mathematics, physics, chemistry and other courses, and even teaches them to play chess (an ancient form of chess). Chess pieces and chessboards still exist today). His wife Sophia is the German teacher at home. Sophia’s origin is Germany, and her father is a doctor in the Russian palace. Because Toweng often goes to the Kremlin to find and study ancient documents and archives, and is familiar with Sophia’s father, she has this exotic marriage, and her wedding is still in the Kremlin. Held in the church on September 23, 1862. Toweng’s leading by example, hard work and self-improvement, insisting on physical labor, and pursuing a civilian life style will inevitably require his children to develop a hard and simple style. In the former residence, we can see related objects everywhere, such as the tools used by Toon for plowing, hoeing, growing vegetables, carrying water, chopping firewood, and mowing grass, and the bicycle he used to travel (a gift from the Russian Bicycle Lovers Association, Toon learned to ride a bicycle after he was 67 years old, and he often rode it for a ride outdoors), the old leather jacket he wore when he rode his skinny horse in the ice and snow, the skates he wore when skating at home, and the There are several pairs of leather boots and production tools made by Towon himself on the woodworking table. One of the leather boots was made for his son-in-law Sukhotin. Suhojing once put these boots alongside Toon’s 12 volumes of writings in a glass cabinet in his home, and put a humorous label: “Volume 13.” He smiled and said, “This is my best volume.” From this, we can see how unique, full-bodied and charismatic this writer is.
  Of course, the one that caught our attention the most was Toon’s studio. It was the innermost and quietest room on the second floor. It was not only tall and spacious, but also had a reasonable structure. A large rectangular desk occupies the center of the interior, and it has three large glass windows on the front and left side, which provide excellent lighting. The dark brown desk is ingenious and beautiful in design. The cylindrical legs are carved with graceful lines. There are short and beautiful fences around the table. Only the sitting part is left with a gap for writing at the desk. It reminds me of a baby’s Lovely little bed. In front of the table was a reclining chair with a round seat, and to the right of the table was a heavy leather sofa. The former was simple hardwood furniture, apparently where the writer sat for a long time to write. The latter is thick, soft, and comfortable, and seems to be prepared for others who come here to sit and talk. On the table stood two candles about a foot high, and lay flat ink bottles, dip pens, blotters, and paper. A large number of Tolstoy’s later works were completed on this desk. Such as: novel “Resurrection”, “The Kingdom of Heaven in Your Heart”, novella “Kreetzer Sonata”, “Father Sergei”, “Hazer-Murat”, drama “The Forces of Darkness”, “Education” The Fruits”, “Living Corpse”, the paper “What is Art? ” and “Memoirs”, etc. In front of him, on the desk with Towon’s fingerprints and sweat, there is a manuscript page of “Resurrection” for visitors to look up to.
  The 20 years he lived in Moscow was an important period for the transformation and development of Tolstoy’s worldview, and it was also a season for his literary creation. For the Chinese, it is particularly worth mentioning that the greatest Russian writer has been deeply interested in the thoughts and writings of Confucius, Mencius and Laozi since 1884. French personally translated their “The Analects of Confucius”, “Tao Te Ching” and other works into Russian for research, and in 1909 he published the “Chinese Sage Lao Tzu Quotations” in Russian. Toon wrote in his diary: “When I read Confucius, the more I read, the more profound and wonderful I feel.” (March 29, 1884) “I am studying Confucius, and I think other theories are boring. It seems to be just right. Mainly This doctrine is strictly self-discipline, and when I am alone, he can play a good role in me. I hope this fresh feeling will always be adhered to.” Recalling Toweng’s high love and praise for our traditional culture, as well as the ancient Chinese The profound influence of his philosophical and educational thoughts on him, and at the same time thinking of the great writer’s world-famous works “War and Peace”, “Anna Karenina”, “Resurrection”, etc. are widely circulated and deeply rooted in our country, I am very impressed with Toon’s studio, who was in it, immediately added a sense of respect and intimacy.

  Like Confucius, Tolstoy was an outstanding educator, and they both cherished the advanced educational thought of “there is no difference between teaching and learning”. As early as November 1859, Toon opened a national school in his hometown of Porianne, and two years later in 1862, 21 new schools were opened, mainly educating farmers and their children. He believes that education is a lever by which the entire social structure can be changed to make it perfect, but for this it is necessary to “unite all classes to understand academia”. In August 1861 he wrote to his cousin, A. Ann Tolstoya, saying: “People like me also have a poetic and wonderful career that cannot be separated – this is the school.” On the second floor of the House Museum Li Zhen kept a tape recorder and a record. The recorder was given to Toon by the American scientist Edison. An old man in his 80s, but his voice is still clear and powerful. That mysterious and wonderful fairy-like sound that seemed to come from heaven made me deeply shocked and moved. When the whole team had walked out of the wooden building, I actually begged “Little Gogol” to accompany me to listen to Toon’s recording again, and asked him to translate the content of his speech into Chinese, “Little Gogol” happily agreed . So the two of us sang “Second Entering the Palace”, put on the overshoes again, and climbed up the second floor to find trouble with the management staff. The girl in charge of operating the tape recorder gave my wish with a smile. It turned out that Toweng’s speech to the students was recorded with Edison’s newly invented tape recorder: “…you have to cooperate with father and mother, and study hard. Please remember my words. What my old man said was To be honest…bye.” The recording of this public speech delivered by Toweng not long before his death was concise and precious, leaving a pure heart that is purer and brighter than gold to the world. On September 4, 1994, when President Jiang Zemin visited the Tolstoy House Museum, Curator Nicholas once presented him this record with Toon’s voice. President Jiang Zemin was very happy to bring this precious gift back. China.
  ”My old man tells the truth.” Yes, Tolstoy was telling the truth all his life. For the motherland, for the people, especially the Russian peasants who were strong for suffering, this venerable and sincere old man, with his voluminous masterpieces and touching behavior (including giving up the copyright of all his works after 1881, Far from the pampered aristocratic life, he even refused to make any signs on the earthen tomb where he was buried), and always insisted on telling the truth, writing the truth, expressing the truth, and seeking the truth.
  At this moment, a series of Lenin’s comments on Tolstoy popped into my mind. In the essay “Tolstoy is the Mirror of the Russian Revolution” written on the 80th birthday of Toon in 1908, Lenin pointed out incisively: “As the thoughts and emotions of millions of Russian peasants when the Russian bourgeois revolution came Tolstoy is great as the expressor of it. Tolstoy is original because the sum total of his views expresses exactly the characteristics of our revolution, the peasant-bourgeois revolution. From this point of view, the contradictions in Tolstoy’s point of view are indeed a mirror of the various contradictions in which the historical activities of the peasants in our revolution are located.” If we say that Tolstoy’s masterpiece is a reflection of real life and the There are exquisite mirrors in the spirit of the times, so his residence and study are like factories and workshops that produce these mirrors, and they are worthy of people’s cherishing and love forever.
  In the garden behind his house, Toon planted two linden trees, which are now towering century-old trees. The reason why they are still luxuriant, lush and full of life is because they are rooted in the rich Russian land, from which they draw inexhaustible nutrients. Tolstoy’s literary tree is always youthful, and it has maintained its vigorous elegance and vitality, which is also due to his infinitely rich and vivid civilian life. isn’t it?