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Westminster – Royal Cathedral

  More than 30 years ago, when I read Lin Shu’s translation of “A Journey to the Great Temple of England”, I once sighed at the grandeur of the British Cathedral, and I was even more impressed by Lin Shu’s concise and elegant translation. Lin Shu’s beautiful and expressive translations vividly depict the tourists’ nostalgia for the ancients and the quaint atmosphere of the Great British Temple:
  ”One day is Xiao Chen, all flowers are in abundance, and when the autumn people are few, there are only a few sentences left to relax in the Westminster Temple. Zhong. In this desolate, cold and desolate environment, it is beneficial to be in a gloomy and rainy autumn, but the clouds and rains are beautiful!
  As soon as I entered the temple gate, I felt like I was in the past, and I spoke with the ghosts of the underground. It is covered with ancient tiles, gloomy like a hole in the ground; above the repairing tower, there is a light leak through Yuanbaotong. It is a monk who is hidden in the middle, dressed in black, walking slowly and charmingly. Once the other one enters the middle, everything that he sees will be vividly remembered. The shape is not scary. The wall is old, the berry moss is mottled, and the soil is gradually peeling off; the tablet tablet on the wall is also vaguely sealed by the moss pattern, and the engraved objects have gradually collapsed edges, but vaguely retain their form. That’s it. The yellow sun is laying on the ground, and the surrounding is still quiet and moving. Gao Yongxiu is straight, looking up at the blue sky, looking at the sky straight from the bottom of a well; and the spire of this temple is straight up, half in the clouds…”
  Lin Shu, courtesy name Qinnan, nickname Weilu, Fujian Fujian County people, is a famous ancient writer in the late Qing Dynasty and early Republic of China. He was agile and eager to learn when he was young. He read a lot of books when he was young. He liked to read “Zuo Zhuan”, “Historical Records”, “Han Shu” and articles by Han Yu and Ouyang Xiu. He studied ancient texts throughout his life, and also wrote poems and paintings. He was the author of “New Yuefu in Central Fujian”, “Anthology of Weilu”, “Notes of Weilu”, “Manlu of Weilu”, “Poems of Weilu” and so on. There are more than 180 kinds of famous novels from more than ten countries, including France, Germany, Russia, Greece, Norway, Belgium, Spain, the United States, and Japan. Although he does not understand foreign languages, he cooperates with friends based on his profound knowledge of ancient Chinese characters: a person who can speak foreign languages ​​will tell him the original work in detail, and he will translate it while listening. has been terminated.” Although Lin Shu’s translation is strictly speaking a translation, but in the era of isolation and isolation more than a hundred years ago, Lin Shu’s novels were popular in the world, like a new wind, blowing away the haze and affecting an entire generation of intellectuals.
  ”The Great Temple of England” was originally written by the 19th-century American writer Washington Irving. Irving was a well-known essayist, his natural elegance was well-loved by readers, and he was the first American writer to gain international fame. He likes to roam since childhood and has lived in Europe for 20 years. He loves European history and maintains constant blood ties with European culture. He especially loves the beautiful rural scenery in England, and wrote the beautiful essay “The Countryside Life in England”. The roots of his culture are deeply buried in the soil of England. Irving is the author of A Foreign History of New York, The Alhambra, Travels on the Prairie, and Washington, among others. His collection of essays and essays, Notes on Insights, is particularly well-received, which contains many perspectives on British life. , such as this travel note originally titled “Westminster Abbey” translated by Lin Shu.
  Westminster Abbey is located on the north bank of the Thames River in London. It was built in the 10th century AD. It was originally a Benedictine monastery. It was rebuilt on a large scale in the 13th century. The style of the cathedral and Notre-Dame Cathedral in Reims was originally designed by the architect Henry from Reims, France. Several common words related to church in English are related to Latin or Greek: abbey means “great monastery, cathedral”, derived from the Latin abbatia; monastery is a monastery where monks live, and minster is an important Cathedrals, such as York Minster in central England, both words are derived from monasterium in Latin; church is derived from Greek and is a church for Christians to worship. This kind of church first appeared in the Mediterranean area, with With the development of Christianity, people need a larger church, so there is a cathedral, that is, the main church or an important cathedral of the parish. The cathedral comes from the Greek kathedra, which originally means seat (seat, seat). It has a bishop’s seat, such as the stone chair of the archbishop in Canterbury Cathedral.
  Legend has it that Westminster Abbey was originally a West Minster on an island in the Thames, and its name today may have come from it. Lin Shu translated Westminster Abbey as “Whisminster Abbey”, which may have been translated according to the pronunciation method of Webster’s phonology; the old translation of “Westminster Abbey” was a combination of free translation (West, Abbey) and transliteration (minster). Quaint Chinese charm; the commonly used translation name “Westminster Abbey” is basically transliterated, the Chinese pronunciation is close to English, and the font can also give readers rich associations: William the Conqueror was crowned here, making the towering cathedral More imperial style. The Church of England has three important archbishops: the Archbishop of Canterbury is the chief bishop of England, the Archbishop of York is the second chief bishop of England, and the Archbishop of Westminster is the head of the Roman Catholic Church in England. The history of Western cathedrals and church buildings can be traced back to the Middle Ages or earlier, and they have played a huge role in the development of civilization. However, in today’s highly technologically advanced civilized society, in the prosperous metropolis, the role of the church in people’s lives is no longer the same as its former majesty and brilliance. For many young people in particular, the cathedral may be more of a deified religious symbol, representing an otherworldly moral force. Today, people come to the solemn cathedral to recall the history, beliefs and culture of a nation in this exquisite building.
  Westminster Abbey is often referred to as the Royal Chapel of England, partly because since William the Conqueror was crowned queen here, successive British kings have held coronation ceremonies here; The Queen’s final resting place. The cathedral is designed as a typical cross-shaped structure. It passes through the north gate of the church and enters the north transept. On the walls on both sides of the transept are the memorial statues of more than a dozen British politicians: on the left is George, who was the former British foreign secretary and prime minister. · Statue of Canning, Canning graduated from Oxford University and is famous for promoting liberal policies. During his administration, Britain broke away from the Holy League of Europe; on the right there is a statue of William Pitt, Earl of Chatham. Pitt was born in a famous family and studied in Oxford. , advocating classical academics, served twice as British Prime Minister, making Britain a powerful empire after winning the Seven Years War (1756-1763). Turn left from the transept, about ten prayer rooms are arranged in sequence on the east side of the cathedral, with the sarcophagus tombs of kings and queens from the 13th to 17th centuries: Edward I and III, Henry III, V and VII, Queen Ely Shabei I, Mary I, etc. are all buried here. In the prayer room and on the passages, the stone statues of the sages of the previous generations are standing or lying down. Some of the statues have fallen off and mottled on the surface. Some of the sarcophagi have the statue of the master lying on his back. There are black marble slabs inlaid on the ground, with text or patterns engraved on them, or gilded characters protruding from the carvings, indicating the names of the deceased’s birth and death years, lives or standing statues. In the center of the prayer room is the king’s coronation throne. This wooden high-backed coronation chair was made for Edward I in 1301. There used to be a large stone under the chair for the coronation of the ancient Scottish king. Edward I ordered it in 1296. The stone was transported back to London and placed in the Westminster Coronation Chair. Now this stone has returned to Scotland, because it is the symbol of the Scottish nation. The coronation chair is made of brown wooden boards with patterns engraved on the boards. The four legs of the chair are carved with a heroic master with their heads held high. There are about 70 wooden chairs in two rows on the left and right under the front steps of the chair, which may be the seats of noble warriors. The backs of these chairs are decorated with the coat of arms of noble families printed with colorful and exquisite patterns, which can imagine the majesty of the king when he was crowned. And the grand ceremony of the ceremony. Since 1066, except for Edward V, who was deposed at the age of 13, and Edward VIII, Duke of Windsor, who voluntarily abdicated to marry Lady Simpson, all British kings have been crowned on this chair in Westminster Abbey. .
  Conner). Poet in English means poet, but in a broad sense it also refers to a person who has the talent and imagination of a poet and can express profound thoughts in beautiful language. Many great British writers and artists are buried in the Poets Corner, or erected here to be admired and worshipped by future generations, and they enjoy different treatment in Westminster Abbey according to their status or status at the time of death: or statues Stand on the wall, or just embed the name in the floor. Entering the Poet’s Corner, the first thing that catches the eye is the stone busts of the Poet Laureate Dryden and the American poet Longfellow: Dryden’s face is sad and his eyes are dull; Longfellow’s expression is solemn and contemplative. In his later years, Longfellow received honorary doctorates from Oxford and Cambridge Universities, and he was the first American poet to be neutralized in Poets Corner. Chaucer, the father of English poetry, has no statue in Poets Corner, only a fireplace-like tomb on the wall. Chaucer is buried here not because he was a poet, but because he had held important royal positions, and he Before his death, he had rented a house in the cathedral garden to live in. The monuments of Browning, Tennyson, Lawrence and the female writer Eliot are just black marble tablets embedded in the ground, or showing the location of the poet’s burial, or just erecting a tablet to commemorate it. Interestingly, the Lawrence tablet An eagle is engraved on it. The monument to the romantic poet Byron is a white slate with simple words written on it. The simple design does not match the poet’s reputation, perhaps because the powerful people of the time could not accept his wild life and independent thinking. Next is the center of the Poets’ Corner. On the west-facing wall, there is a group of poets decorated with stars and the moon: the full-length portrait of Shakespeare is in the center, and the tablets of Keats and Shelley are in the upper left and upper right; Busts of Souther, Poet Laureate, and Dr. Johnson, author and literary critic, are on the side. Johnson left his epoch-making “English Dictionary” and “Shakespeare”, “Biographies of British Poets” and other works full of wit and wit for later generations. Doctorate degrees from Oxford University and University College Dublin. On the right side of the middle level is a bust of Scottish poet Burns and a full-length portrait of Thomson. The lower left and lower right corners are inlaid with tablets of female writers Jane Austen and the Brontë sisters, respectively. The full-length portrait of the lakeside poet Wordsworth stands in the lower left corner of Shakespeare. There are also several black tablets on the ground, among which are the commemorative plaques of British actor Sir Owen. Owen is world-renowned for playing Shakespeare’s plays, and he was the first actor to be knighted in 1895 for his popularization of Shakespeare’s plays. The Poets Corner also includes Spencer, Jonsson, Milton, Dickens, Hardy, etc. Learn the tombstones and monuments of great masters. In the southwest corner, there is a full-length statue of Handel, a popular British musician. It is said that when he was buried in Westminster Abbey, 3,000 people attended a grand funeral. Handel was a famous musician in the late Baroque period. Born in Germany, he moved to London and became a British citizen. He has handed down many operas and cantatas based on the stories of the Bible. His music reflects the characteristics of the British nation and has been integrated into the culture of the British nation. Among them, the most popular oratorio “Messiah” describes the story of Jesus’ birth, crucifixion and resurrection. People often perform “Missiah” at Christmas. Isaiah, praising Christ for conquering sin, saving the world and eternal life.
  There is a large cloister in the southwest of the Poet’s Corner, which is where the medieval monks lived; in the southeast is the priest’s church, where the monks gather to listen to the ordinances of the monastery. On the west side of the cathedral is the spacious nave, facing the west gate of the cathedral, where there is the monument to the unknown soldier and the monument to Winston Churchill. In this cross-structured church, the east, west, north and south wings are surrounded by the center of St. Edward’s Shrine, the nave, the high altar and the rows of beautifully decorated chairs, which together with the coronation throne of the king constitute Westminster Abbey The center of the Royal Family, where funerals, weddings and king coronations are held. There is a monument to the victims of war outside the west gate of the cathedral. The four statues on the west wall represent truth, justice, mercy and peace respectively. Above the arched door of the cathedral are relief statues of 10 martyrs in the 20th century.
  The Westminster Cathedral depicted by Washington Irving 200 years ago may have been in the wilderness at first. Today, the Cathedral is located in the bustling downtown of London, surrounded by only a dozen green trees. It’s a far cry from what I felt when I translated the text. Westminster is not as green as Canterbury Cathedral, but it is not far from the verdant St James’s Park and the resplendent Buckingham Palace. The cathedral is adjacent to the imposing Houses of Parliament and the towering Big Ben clock tower, where the 14-ton Hong bell sends a deep chime that is broadcast around the world through television and radio. The Thames slowly flows through Westminster, nourishing the souls of the 4,000 sages buried in the cathedral in the cathedral. Every day, believers and tourists from all over the world come to visit the cathedral; on weekends and holidays, there are long queues of tourists waiting outside the door. People come here in an endless stream to look at the statues of the ancestors, watch the magnificent Royal Church, and feel the splendid history and culture of Britain.

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